Skip to main content

Full text of "Plutarch's Lives"

See other formats







Translated by 

Printed in Great Britain 



3 vols. Vols. I & II 






AESCHYLUS. 2 vols. 





























ST. BASIL: LETTERS. 4 vols. 









DIG CASSIUS. 9 vols. 


DIODORUS SICULUS. 12 vols. Vols I-VII, IX and X, XI 



EPICTETUS. 2 vols. 

EURIPIDES. 4 vols. 







HERODOTUS. 4 vols. 



HOMER: ILIAD. 2 vols. 

HOMER: ODYSSEY. 2 vols. 




JOSEPHUS. 9 vols. Vols. I-VII 

JULIAN. 3 vols. 


LUCIAN. 8 vols. Vols. I-VI 

255 net 




3 3333 08668 3923 




tT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 














First Printed 1921 
Reprinted 1950, 1959 

Printed in Great Britain 


As in the preceding volumes of this series, agree- 
ment between the Sintenis (Teubner, 1873-1875) 
and Bekker (Tauchnitz, 1855-1857) editions of the 
Parallel Lives has been taken as a basis for the text 
Any preference of one to the other, and any im- 
portant deviation from both, have been indicated. 
An abridged account of the manuscripts of Plutarch 
may be found in the Introduction to the first volume. 
No attempt has been made to furnish either a 
diplomatic text or a fall critical apparatus. For 
these, the reader must be referred to the major edition 
of Sintenis (Leipzig, 1839-1846) or to the new text 
of the Lives by Lindskog and Ziegler (Teubner). In 
the present edition, the reading which follows the 
colon in the brief critical notes is that of the Teubner 
Sintenis, and also, unless stated in the note, that of 
the Tauchnitz Bekker. 

In May, 1920, Professor Perrin put the finishing 
touches upon the eleventh and last volume of this 
series of the Lives of Plutarch for the " Loeb Clas- 
sical Library," a task which he had undertaken nine 
years before. On August 31, 1920, he died after a 
brief illness, having nearly completed his seventy- 
third year. During the nine years, of which he 


devoted the leisure hours to the translation of his 
favourite author, the very magnitude of the task, 
and the inspiration of the hope that he might leave 
behind him a version of the Lives that would make 
the famous men of ancient Greece and Rome, so 
wonderfully depicted by the great biographer, as 
familiar to the next generation as they were to the 
youth in his own boyhood, seemed to sustain and 
strengthen his powers. The wide and discriminating 
experience with modern men of action which the 
translator possessed, combined with the classical 
historian's special knowledge of the times which he 
was called upon to interpret after Plutarch, an 
author whom he had studied with sympathetic in- 
terest for many year?, gave Professor Perrin peculiar 
qualifications for the task ; and the English-speaking 
world already knows with what eminent success he 
achieved it. 

The American Editor, who had been called in 
constant consultation by Professor Perrin during the 
progress of the work, has by the wish of his family 
undertaken to see the present and final volume 
through the press. Volume XI, which will contain 
an extensive General Index, will, it is hoped, be 
published in 1922. 





















(1) Theseus and Romulus. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 


(4) Themistocles and 


(9) Aristides and Cato the 


(13) Cimon and Lucullus. 


(5) Pericles and Fabius Max- 

im us. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 


(6) Alcibiades and Coriola- 



(12) Lysander and Sulla. 


(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 


(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 

Dion and Brutus. 
Timoleon and Aemilius 

Paul us. 

Demosthenes and Cicero. 
(17) Alexander and Julius 



(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 


(18) Phocion and Cato the 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius. 


(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and 
Tiberius and Caius 
(10) Philopoemen and Flam- 



(24) Aratus. 
(23) Artaxerxes. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



(1) Theseus and Romulus. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 

(4) Themistocles and Camillua. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Maximus. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriolanus. 

(7) Timoleon and Aemiliua Paulus. 

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder. 

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus. 

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius. 

(12) Lysander and Sulla. 

(13) Cimon and Lucullus. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar. 

(18) Phocion and Cato the Younger. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius and Caius 


(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

(22) Dion and Brutus. 

(23) Artaxerxes. 

(24) Aratus. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



I. OVK aroTTO)? T^e? ovSe <avXo>$ avyKelcrOai 

TTyOO? TOU? <iXoSooi>? VTTOVOOVCri TOV 67TI Tft) 'l^LOVl a - 1624 > P 

, ft)? S?) \ajB6vTi rrjv V(f)e\.r)v avrl T7}? r/ Hyoa5 
KevTavpwv ovrcos ^vo^kv^v. Kal yap 
ovroi TT}? dperris wcnrep el8a)\w Tivl 
crvvovres, ovSev L\lKpiVS ov& 
aXXa voBa KOU ^LKTCL iro\\a TrpaTTOvcriv, aXXore 
aA,X,a? (fropas fyepofjievoi, /;Xo? KOL Trdtfecnv eVa- 
o-rrep ol So^o/cXeou? /9oT/}/}6? eVl 


' dvdyfcr) Kal aictiTrwvTWV K\veiv. 

2 oirep d\r}0a)<{ ol Tfyoo? 7ri0v/jiias o^XaM' Aral 

7ro\iTev6/jLvoi Trdcr^ova'L, SofXeiWre? Aral aA;o- 
\ov8ovi>T$ r (va Sq^aycoyol Kal cip^ovre^ ovofjid- 
KaOdfrep yap ol Trpcopels rd e^TTpoaOev 
TMV KV/SepvijTcov dtyopwcrL TT^O? e'/cet- 
vov<$ Kal TO TTpocrTacrcroiJievov VTT* eKeivwv Troiovaiv, 
01 7TO\LTevop.evoi Kal vrpo? &6t;av op&vres 
/nev rwv 7ro\\a>v elcnv, ova^a Be dp%6v- 
TCOV eyovviv. 



I. NOT without rhyme or reason is the supposition 
of some writers that the tale about Ixion how it 
was the cloud that he embraced instead of Hera 
and begat from thence the Centaurs has an appli- 
cation to lovers of glory. For such men, consorting 
with glory, which we may call an image of virtue, 
produce nothing that is genuine and of true lineage, 
but much that is bastard and monstrous, being swept 
now along one course and now along another in 
their attempts to satisfy desire and passion. The 
herdsmen of Sophocles say, 1 in speaking of their 

" Of these, indeed, though masters, we are yet the 


And to them we must listen even though they're 

And this, in truth, is the experience of public men 
who act in conformity with the desires and impulses 
of multitudes, making themselves attendants and 
slaves in order that they may be called popular 
leaders and rulers. For just as a ship's lookout, 
who sees what lies ahead before the ship's captain 
does, nevertheless turns to him for orders and does 
what he ordains, so the public man whose eyes are 
fixed on glory is a servant of the multitude, although 
he has the name of ruler. 

1 Probably in the lost " Poirnenes," or Shepherds (Nauck, 
Trag. Graec. Frag.\ p. 249). 



II. 'O /ue?' 'yap aTrrjKpi ftw/jievos Kal 

5 /I \ J C>> 5\ rf~i ^ ' }- $ ' -\ \ " 

ayavos ovo av oXo>? OO^T?? oeoiTO, TTM^V ocn] 
Trdpo&ov 7rl Ta? Trpdteis Sid TOV Trio-TevearQai 1 
BLSoMTi' ve(p Be CTI QVTI KOL ^Lkori^w Soreoi 1 CLTTO 
TWV KO\.WV epycov /cal 5o|77 Tt Ka\\W7rio'aa'6ai 
/cal KO/jiTrdcrai. (^vo^evai yap ev TO?? TT)~\.IXOVTOI<; 
al dpeToi Kal (3d\acrTVOVG'ai TO re Karopdovfj-evov, 
W9 (^r]ai @eo</>pacrT09, K/3e/3aiovvTai 
KOL TO \oi7rbv au^ovTai jj.era 
2 pojuevai. TO Se c^ya^ Travra^ov 

roXtTt/cat? <fci\oTifjLiai<; o\e9piov 
et? fJiavLav KOI irapa^pocrvv^v vjraiOpov 

orav j,r TO 

elvai 6k 

TO evBo^oi* elvai. orrep 2 ovv tycoKiatv Trpbs 'Avri- 

Trarpov d^iovvrd TL Trap avrov rwv /u,r) 

" Ov Bvvao~ai," eljrev, " a^ua KCLI 

^pr]<j6ai Kal KO\aK(," TOVTO \eKretv rj O/JLOIGV TL 

3 TOVTCO 7T/)0? TOU? TTO/VXoU?" " Ov $Vl>a(T0 TOP 

Kal dp^oi'ra Kal dicoXovOov" errel 
ye Kal OVTMS TO TOV BpaKovros, ov 
6 }jLV0o$ Trjv ovpav Ty Ke(fia\ij VTaa'idarao'av 

rjyelcrBai. jrapd /zepo? Kal /JL^ %ia iravTOS 796 
a,KO\ov6elv eKei-vy, \aftovcrav $e 
avT^v Te a/rw? drraXXaTTeiv dvoia 
Kal Tr/v Ke^aX^v KaTa^aiveiv, TU0Xot? Kal 
[jLepeaiv dvayKa^o/Aevrjv irapa $wfiv eTrecrOat. 

4 TOVTO TTOXXOU? TWV 77/30? X a P iV 7r ^ z/ '7" a 7T67roXiT6f- 

/j.eva)v opcojuev TrenrovOoTas' e^apT^cravTe^ yap 

1 Sta TOV TT., Coraes, Bekker, and Ziegler, after Bryan : 

& TOV IT. 

2 girep Blass and Ziegler (with Se p.m.) : &ffirtp. 



II. The man, indeed, whose goodness is complete 
and perfect will have no need at all of glory, except so 
far as glory gives him access to achievement by reason 
of the confidence men have in him ; but a man who 
is still young and is fond of honours may be allowed 
t-3 plume and exalt himself somewhat even upon 
glory, provided that glory is the outcome of noble 
deeds. For the virtues, which are incipient and 
budding in the young, are confirmed in their proper 
development, as Theophrastus says, by the praises of 
men, and complete their growth under the incentive 
of pride. But excess is everywhere harmful, and in 
the case of men who cherish political ambitions, it is 
deadly ; for it sweeps them away into manifest folly 
and madness as they grasp after great power, when 
they refuse to regard what is honourable as glorious, 
but consider that what is glorious is good. There- 
fore, what Phocion said to Antipater, who demanded 
from him some dishonourable service, " Thou canst 
not have Phocion as thy friend and at the same time 
thy flatterer," this, or something akin to this, must 
be said to the multitude : ' ' Ye cannot have the 
same man as your ruler and your slave." Since in 
this case also one certainly can apply the fable of the 
serpent whose tail rebelled against its head and 
demanded the right to lead in turn instead of always 
following ; so it took the lead, and by the folly of its 
progress got itself into mischief and lacerated the 
head, which was compelled, contrary to nature, to 
follow a part that had neither eyes nor ears. This, 
as we see, has been the experience of many of the 
men whose whole political activity is directed towards 
the winning of popular favour; they made them- 
selves dependent on the multitude, which is borne 


eltci) <^epo^evwv our' ava\a/3eiv 


TavTa $e rj/ALV eh TTJV Trapa TWV Tro\\wv Bo 
eTri}\6ev eiTrelv evvo^aacriv r)\iKrjv %ei ^vva/jnv 
e/c TCOV Tiftepiw KOI Tai'a> rot? Fpay^oi? crv/uiTre- 
GQVTWV, ou? KaXkidTa fjikv vvTas, KaXkiara Be 

\a/36vra<;, a,7rci)\ 
afjierpos, &)? (/)OyQo? aSo^ta? e/c Trpocfrdaeci)? ov/c 
5 ayevvovs Tre^u/eco?. ju.6yd\r/v yap evvoiav TrpoeiXt]- 
00T6? Trapa TMV 7ro\iTO)v yvxyvOrjcrav eyfcardXi- 
irelv axnrep ^peo?* a^i\\&iJievoi 8' ael 


/jid\\ov ej; (bv eTroKiTevovTo 
rovrov TOV rpoTTOV Ldrj <pt,\OTi{iia 7T/309 re TOV 
STJ/JLOV eavrovs Kal TOV S?]/j,ov TT/QO? eavrovs e/CKav- 
(rawres, e\a6ov a-fydfjievoi Trpayfidrcov eV ot? ov/cer' 
rjv TO eTTifieLvai Ka\6v, ala"%pov 6' rjSr) TO Trav- 

6 TavTa fjiev ovv eiritcpiveLS auro? etc T>)? 
Trapa /3d\w/j,ev Be avTols AaKcoviKov 

, *Ayiv Kal KXeo ^evr/v TOU? 
yap OVTOL TOV ^rjfjiov av^oines, axTTrep eKeivoi, 

TTO\VV ^povov ava\a/jLj3dvovTes, 

VOVTO TO?? SvvaTois fir) /3ov\o/mei>ois dtyeivai TY 

arvvijdr) TT\eove%iav. SeX0oi /j,ev ovv OVK 


about at random, and then could neither recover 
themselves nor put a stop to the progress of 

These remarks upon the glory which comes from 
the favour of the multitude I have been led to make 
because I was reminded of its great influence by the 
fortunes of Tiberius and Caius Gracchus. They 
were men of most generous natures, and had a most 
generous rearing,, and adopted most generous political 
principles ; and yet they were ruined, I will not say 
by an immoderate desire for glory, but rather by a 
fear of losing it. And this fear had no unworthy 
origin. For after they had enjoyed great kindness 
from their fellow citizens, they were ashamed to 
leave it unpaid, like a debt of money ; and so they 
were forever striving by the excellence of their 
political services to surpass the honours conferred 
upon them, and were honoured all the more in 
consequence of their grateful political services. In 
this way, after kindling an equal ardour in themselves 
towards the people and in the people towards them- 
selves, they engaged in enterprises wherein, though 
they knew it not, it was no longer honourable for 
them to persist, and already disgraceful for them 
to stop. 

As to this matter, however, my reader will judge 
for himself from my narrative ; and I shall compare 
with the Gracchi a pair of popular leaders in Sparta, 
Agis and Cleomenes the kings. For these also tried 
to exalt the people, just as the Gracchi did, and tried 
to restore an honourable and just civil polity which 
had lapsed for a long time ; and like the Gracchi they 
incurred the hatred of the nobles, who were unwilling 
to relax their wonted greed. It is true that the 


d\\)]\a)i> OL AaKwves, (rwyyevovs Be Kal a 

III. 'E-Trel Trapeio-eBu TrpwTOV e/9 TJ]V TTO\LV 
dpyvpov Kal %pv(rov V}Xo9, real (TwrjKoXovOjjcre TOV 
TT\OVTOV Trj /jiV KTijcrei, 7r\eovet;la real /Ji/cpo\oyia 
TTJ Se xpijcrei Kal cnroX^avaei T/3f</>?; KOI paXa/cia 
KoL I 7ro\vre\ia, TMV 7r\icrT(ov e^eTreaev 1} ^TrdpTY) 
Ka\wv, Kal Taireiva TrpdrTovo-a Trap 1 d^iav Stere- 

\t jiei TWV QVwv eiceivwv ev ot? 


iSa irals, e/cro? CLTTO 'Ayrja-iXdov TOV 
Sia/3dvTO$ et? rrjv 'Aaiav Kal fjieyHrrov ' 
&vvr)9evTO<$' r)V jap 'A>yr}cri\dov fie 
6 Trepl MavBvpiov rr}? 'IraXta? VTTO 
d7ro9avo)v, 'Ap%iSdjnov Be Trpeafivrtpos fJiev u/o? 
**A<yis, EuSayttt^a? Be vewrepos, 09, "A<yi8os VTTO 
'AvriTrdrpov Trepl ^AeydX^v TTO^LV dvaipeOevros 
dreKvov, rrjv ftacn\eiav e'cr^e, TOVTOV Be 'Ap^t- 
Sa^u-o?, 'ApxiBd/jiov Be ere/Jo? QvBa/jLiBas, l^vBafjiuBa 

3 Be ' Ayis, Trepl ov rdBe yeypaTTTar AecoviBa? Be 
6 KXeayi'Vfjiov T>}? jJiev erepas ot'/aa? r)V 'AyidBrjs, 
07^00? Be CLTTO YLavcraviov TOV vLK^aavio^ ev 
riXaTamt? f^d^r] MapBoviov. TIavcravias yap 
viov eo")( nXeiCTTco^a/cra, TlXeLcrrwpa^ Be nau- 
craviaVi ov (frvyovros el$ r Yeyeav eK AaKeBai/^ovos 
o re Trpeo-jSvrepos f/o? 'A 77/0-^770X^9 efiacriXevcre 
Kal TOVTOV TeXeuT?;cra ( >'TO9 aTeKvov KXeoya/9/90TO9 

4 o vea)Tpos. K Be KXeo//-/3poToi' rrdXiv aXXo9 

OVTC rjp^e TTO\VV ypovov ovre TralBas ec 
\L\eojjLevi]*; Be /3acriXeucra9 yLtera 'Ayrjo-iTro'kiv TOV 



Spartans were not brothers ; still, they adopted 
political courses which were kindred and brother to 
one another. The occasion was as follows. 

III. When once the love of silver and gold had 
crept into the city, closely followed by greed and par- 
simony in the acquisition of wealth and by luxury, 
effeminacy, and extravagance in the use and enjoy- 
ment of it, Sparta fell away from most of her noble 
traits, and continued in a low estate that was unworthy 
of her down to the times when Agis and Leonidas 
were kings. Agis was of the Eurypontid royal house, 
a son of Eudamidas, and the sixth in descent from 
the Agesilaiis who crossed into Asia and became the 
most powerful Greek of his time. For Agesilaiis had 
a son Archidamus, who was slain by the Messapians 
at Mandurium in Italy T ; Archidamus had an elder 
son Agis, and a younger son Eudamidas, who, after 
Agis was slain by Antipater at Megalopolis 2 leaving 
no issue, became king ; Eudamidas was succeeded 
by Archidamus, Archidamus by another Eudamidas, 
and Eudamidas by Agis, 3 the subject of this Life. 
Leonidas, on the other hand, the son of Cleonymus, 
was of the other royal house, the Agiad, and was 
eighth in descent from the Pausanias who defeated 
Mardonius at Plataea. For Pausanias had a son 
Pleistoanax, and Pleistoanax a son Pausanias, upon 
whose exile and flight from Sparta to Tegea 4 his 
elder son Agesipolis became king ; Agesipolis, dying 
without issue, was succeeded by a younger brother 
Cleombrotus, and Cleombrotus, in turn, had two 
sons, Agesipolis and Cleomenes, of whom Agesipolis 
reigned only a short time and left no sons, while 
Cleomenes, who became king after him, lived to 

1 In 338 B.C. 2 In 330 B.C. 8 In 244 B.C. 
4 In 395 B.C. See the Lysander, xxx. 1. 



jrpecrftvTepov rwv viwv 'A/cporarov en 
d\6, veutrepov 8e KXeoavvfjLOV Kare\i7rev, o? 
ov/c e/3a<TL\ev(T6V, aXX' "Apevs vioovbs wv KXeo- 
, 'A/cpordrov S' woV "A/jew? 8e 

aireOave Se /cat OLTO? 

7ro\iv VTTO 'AptcrToSijfjiov rov Tvpdv- 
vov, Kara\LTT(i)v eyicvfjiova rrjv yvvalrca. Tra 
Be appevo? ^evo^vov Aea)i^8a? 6 KXecovuyLtou 

ecr^ev, elra irplv ev ?}7u/aa yeveadat 
, our&)9 et? avrov 77 (BacriKela Trepi- 
rf\9ev ou irdw rot? TroXtrat? evap/jioa'TOV bvra. 
6 KaiTrep yap eyK6K\iKoro)v 77877 TT} Siafydopa TOV 
7ro\iTv^iaro<; 6yL6<xXco? cnrdvTwv, rjv rt? eV T&> 
TWV Trarpcowv eVi^a^? e/c^atTTycrt?, are 
rj\ivBrjfjL6Vti) Trokvv ev auXat? a-arpaTTi- 
/cat reOepaTrevKort. ^eXevicov, etra TOI^ etceWev 
oyrcov eh 'RXXyvi/ca TrpdyfjLara KOI 

OVK e'yUyLteXw? fjL6TCt<f)epOVTl. 

IV. 'O S'^AY^? OI;T&) 7roXi> 7r 

-^1^779 OL fjiovov TOVTOV, aXXa 
cLTTavras ocrot, per \Ay^ffi\aov TOV peyav 
ware fJLrjBeTTQ) yeyovcos eiKOcnov ero?, 
Se TrXouroi? /cal rpu^at? yvvai/cwv, 
TT}? re /jir)Tpb<i 'Ayrjo-ia'T paras Kal rfjs 

, at TrXetcrra ^p^yct 
, TTyoo? re Ta? i)&ovd<t ev&v<? 
KCU rov eTTLTTpe^rai /j,d\icrra rfj 


lose his elder son Acrotatus, but left behind him 
a younger son Cleonymus ; Cleonymus, however, did 
not come to the throne, but Areus, 1 who was a 
grandson of Cleomenes and son of Acrotatus ; Areus 
fell in battle at Corinth/ 2 and his son Acrotatus came 
to the throne ; Acrotatus also was defeated and 
slain at Megalopolis, by the tyrant Aristodemus, 
leaving his wife with child ; and after she had given 
birth to a son. Leonidas the son of Cleonymus was 
made the child's guardian. But the young king 
died before reaching manhood, and the kingship 
therefore devolved upon Leonidas, 8 who was al- 
together unacceptable to the people. For although 
the destruction of the constitution had alreadv led 


to a general decline in manners, there was in Leoni- 
das a very marked departure from the traditions of 
his country, since for a long time he had frequented 
oriental courts and had been a servile follower of 
Seleucus, and now sought to transfer the pride and 
pomp which prevailed abroad into Hellenic relations 
and a constitutional government, where they were 
out of place. 

IV. Agis, on the contrary, far surpassed in native 
excellence and in loftiness of spirit not only Leonidas, 
but almost all the kings who had followed the great 
Agesilaiis. Therefore, even before he had reached 
his twentieth year, and although he had been reared 
amid the wealth and luxury of women, namely, his 
mother Agesistrata and his grandmother Archidamia 
(who were the richest people in Sparta), he at once 
set his face against pleasures. He put away from 
his person the adornments which were thought to 

1 See the Pyrrhus, xxvi. 8 if. 

* In 265 B.C., in battle with Antigonus Gonatas. 

8 About 256 B.C. 



s wpaifffjiov BoKovvTa TrepHTTraaas TOV 
, teal Traaav eVSu? Kal Bia^vywv 7ro\vre- 
\eiav, eyKa\\a)7Ti^crdai, rco TpifScoviw, Kal Beljrva 
Kal \ovTpd Kal BiaiTas AaKcovi/ca? ^Telv, KOI 
\eyeiv &)? ovSev Securo T>)? /3acri\,ias, el 
avrrjv avd\r)"fyoiTO TOU? vop.ov<; KOI rrjv 

V. 'Ap%r)v f.iv ovv Bia<f)0opas Kal TOV vocrelv 

Ta Trpdyfjiara rwv AaKeSai/jiOViwv 
ov rrjv * KOqvai&v KaToXvcravTes 
Xpvcriov re /cal dpyvpuov KareTT^rjcrav eavrov?. 
ov (Jirjv aXXa /cal TWV O'LKWV ov o Av/covpyos wpicre 
dpi& JJLOV V rat? iaSo^at?, /cal 
TratSl TOV K\r)pov avroXetTro^TO?, a/ia)9 76 
TTCO? TI TCL^LS avTr] ital laoTr)? 8ia/j,evov(ra TTJV 
'TToX.iv /c TU>V a\\wv avefyepev ap.apTrj^dTwv. 

2 etpopevcras Be Ti? dvrjp &vvaTQ$, avQdo'rjs Se Kal 
^aXeTro? TOV TpoTTOv, EtTriTaSevs ovo/ia, TT^OO? TOV 
vlov avTU) yevo/nevtis Sia^Oyoa? piJTpav 
e^elvai TOV O!KOV avTOv Kal TOV K\rjpov 
edeXoi Kal wvTa Bovvai Kal KaTa\i7relv 

3 fjievov. OUTO? /JLCV ovv avTOv TLva Ovfjiov diro- 

iStov .lcn]ve<yK TOV VO/JLOV ol Be aXXot 
eveKa Be^d/jievoi Kal KvpwcravTes aTrco- 
Xecra/; TTJV dpLaTrjv KaTaGTacriv. HKTWVTO yap 
d(j)eiBw$ jjBr) TrapayffovvTes ol BvvaTol TOL/? Trpocrij- 
Kovras GK TWV BiaBo^wv Kal Ta%v TT}? 
et? 6\i<yovs wppveicrris irevia TIJV TTO\LV 
acr^o\iav TWV Ka\wv Kal dve\ev6epiav e 



befit the grace of his figure, laid aside and avoided 
every extravagance, prided himself on his short 
Spartan cloak, observed sedulously the Spartan 
customs in his meals and baths and general ways 
of living, and declared that he did not want the 
royal power at all unless by means of it he could 
restore the ancient laws and discipline. 

V. And here I may say that the Lacedaemonian 
state began to suffer distemper and corruption soon 
after its subversion of the Athenian supremacy filled 
it with gold and silver. However, since the number 
of families instituted by Lycurgus 1 was still pre- 
served in the transmission of estates, and father left 
to son his inheritance, to some extent the con- 
tinuance of this order and equality sustained the 
state in spite of its errors in other respects. But 
when a certain powerful man came to be ephor who 
was headstrong and of a violent temper, Epitadeus 
by name, he had a quarrel with his son, and in- 
troduced a law permitting a man during his lifetime 
to give his estate and allotment to any one he 
wished, or in his will and testament so to leave it. 
This man, then, satisfied a private grudge of his 
own in introducing the law ; but his fellow citizens 
welcomed the law out of greed, made it valid, and 
so destroyed the most excellent of institutions. For 
the men of power and influence at once began to 
acquire estates without scruple, ejecting the rightful 
heirs from their inheritances ; and speedily the 
wealth of the state streamed into the hands of a few 
men, and poverty became the general rule, bringing 
in its train lack of leisure for noble pursuits and occu- 
pations unworthy of freemen, along with envy and 

1 See the Lycurgus, viii. f. 



a <f)06vov Kal Sfcr/zeyeta? rrpos TOi/9 
4 a r rre\L<^0->'ja'av ovv eTTTaKOcriajv ov TrXetot'e? 
Tiarai, KCLI TOVTWV I'cra)^ eKaTOv i]<jav ol 

l K\r/pov 6 5' aXXo9 6'%Xo9 aTro/909 
ev rfj 7ro\i TrapeKaOrjro, TOU? fiev 
7roXe//ou? a/jyw? /cat aTrpodv/ 
, aet Se Tiz^a tcaipov eiriTtjp&v 
fj-eracn-dcrews rcov Trapovrcov. 

VI. Ata ravra Bt] KO\OV o ' \ r /i$, &cr7rep r)V, 
Tro/ou/ze^o? e^Lcrwcrai Kal dva7r\r)pa)aai rrjv Trokiv, 
eTreipdro TU>V dv6pu>7rwv. ol fJLev ovv veoi, 
Kal Trap* eXvrtSa? vm^Kovcrav avro), Kal 
cravro 7T/30? ir)v dperrjv, wcnrep la&rfra rrjv Siairav 
2 eV e\ev6epia crf/^yLtera/^aXXo^Te?. TWV Se irpe- 
Tepwv, are Brj Troppw ciacfrdopds yeyovorcov, 
rot? TrXetcrrot? axiTrep eVi Seo-Trorrjv 
dyo/j.evovs K Bpacr/jLOv BebievaL Kal rpe/j,eiv TOV 
\VKovpyov, Kai Ka9r)7rrovro TOV *Afyi$os oSvpo- 
fievov rd irapovra 7rpdy/j.aTa Kal TO 7ra\aiov 798 

e o t/i'o? Ka a^6po/c\eta9 
e Ayrja-\ao<i aTreSe^avro Kal 

3 avrov TTJV (^L\OTifjiiav> rjv Be A.vcrav$pos /j.ev ev 

TWV iroKiT&v, ^lav&oKXei&as Be 


i TO crvverov rovro Kal 8o\epbi> ToX/z?; /j,e/jiiy- 
pevov e%a*v 'Ayq<ri\aov Se 6elov ovra TOV ftacn- 



AGIS AND CLEOMENES, v. 3 -vi. 3 

hatred towards the men of property. Thus there were 
left of the old Spartan families not more than seven 
hundred, and of these there were perhaps a hundred 
who possessed land and allotment ; while the ordin- 
ary throng, without resources and without civic 
rights, lived in enforced idleness, showing no zeal or 
energy in warding off foreign wars, but ever watching 
for some opportunity to subvert and change affairs at 

VI. Agis, therefore, thinking it a noble achieve- 
ment, as it was, to equalize and restore to full 
numbers the body of citizens, began to sound the 
inclinations of people. The young men, as he found, 
quickly and beyond his expectations gave ear to 
him, and stripped themselves for the contest in 
behalf of virtue, like him casting aside their old 
ways of living as worn-out garments in order to 
attain liberty. But most of the older men, since 
they were now far gone in corruption, feared and 
shuddered at the name of Lycurgus as if they had 
run away from their master and were being led 
back to him, and they upbraided Agis for bewail- 
ing the present state of affairs and yearning after 
the ancient dignity of Sparta. Lysander, how- 
ever, the son of Libys, Mandrocleidas the son of 
Ecphanes, as well as Agesilaiis, approved of the king's 
aspirations and supported him in them. Lysander 
was in the highest repute among the citizens, and 
Mandrocleidas was the ablest Greek of his time in 
setting schemes on foot, and his sagacity and craft 
were mingled with daring ; Agesilaiis, who was the 
king's uncle on his mother's side, and a powerful 
orator, though otherwise effeminate and avaricious, 
was openly urged on and encouraged by his son 



Kal TrapeOdppvvev, evSo/ayuo? eV 
7ro\e/j.ois avrjp Kal /tie/a Si evvoiav TWV vewv 
4 8vi'd/.iei'o<s' ->} Be aX>/$&>9 avaireicraaa TOV ' 
Xaoi' atria TWV Trparrofjievcov 

/j.Ta/3ci\\a)V TTJV TroXtreiay. 009 ovv 
Trpocnjydyero TOVTOV o 'A7t?, evOvs eTri%ipei ^er 
avrov Ti]v firjrepa TreiOeiv, dBe\<pr)v ovcrav TOV 
'Ayr](Ti\dov, r rr\i f )6ei &e TreXarwv Kal (fjiXwv Kal 
Xpewarcov /j.eya Svva/jievTjv ev rfj 7ro\t Kal TroXXa 
TCOV Koivaiv SiaTrpaTTO/uievriv. 

VII. 'H Be aKovcracra TO /Jiev Trp&rov e^eTrXdyrj 
Kal Karejrave TO /jieipaKiov co? ovre SvvarMv ovre 
\vcriT\a)v e^LejJLevov eVel Be ravra IJLCV 6 
crtXao? e8L 

7T/30? oav avra) 
TOV 7r\oi>TOV, a)? xptj/^ao'i, fiev ov Bwdfjievos 7Tyoo9 
2 TOU9 aXXou9 /3ao~/Xet9 el-KrcoG'tjvai (aarpaTrwv yap 
Kal Bov\ow$ eTTLTpoTrwv 

TWV ev ^Trdprrj /3acrtXe&)i/), eay Se 
\iror7jrt Kal yueyaXox^-u^/a T9 

Tpv(f)ds laor^ra Kal Koivwv'iav Kara- 


at vvaiKes vrro 

TOV veavcrKOv, Ka ToaavTrj 
3 (T^eOtjaav olov zTmrvoia 777309 TO Ka\ov, coo~Te TO 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, vi. 3 -vn. 3 

Hippomedon, who had won fair fame in many wars, 
and had great influence because he stood in favour 
with the young men. But what really induced 
Agesilaiis to take part in the king's enterprise was 
the multitude of his debts, of which he hoped to rid 
himself by changing the constitution. As soon, then, 
as Agis had won over Agesilaiis, he straightway 
sought with the aid of his uncle to persuade his 
mother, who was a sister of Agesilaiis, and owing to 
the multitude of her retainers, friends, and debtors, 
had great influence in the state and took a large 
part in public affairs. 

VII. When she heard her son's plea, she was at 
first amazed, and tried to stop the young man from 
attempting what she thought was neither possible 
nor profitable ; but Agesilaiis tried to show her that 
the king's project would be feasible and its accom- 
plishment advantageous, and the king himself 
besought his mother to contribute her wealth for the 
advancement of his ambition and glory. For in the 
matter of property, he said, he could not equal the 
other kings (since the servants and slaves of the 
satraps and overseers of Ptolemy and Seleucus had 
larger possessions than all the kings of Sparta put 
together) ; but if in self-restraint, simplicity, and 
magnanimity he should surpass their luxury, and 
thereby establish equality and community of posses- 
sion among his citizens, he would win the name and 
fame of a really great king. The women, lifted up by 
the young man's high ambition, were so changed in 
their purposes, and possessed, as it were, by so great 
an inspiration to take the noble course, that they 
joined in urging and hastening on the projects of 


crvvet;op/nav Kal avvemra^vveiv, 

Be rou? <ptA,ou9 irapaKakelv teal rat? 
eyecrOai yvvaL^iv t are Br) rovs AaKeBai- 
s KarrjKoovs 6Wa9 del rwv 

yvvaiKwv, teal rr\elov etceivais TWV ^fjLoaiwv r\ 
ISiwv aurot? TTokvTrpayiJLOvelv BiSovra?. 

& rore T&v Aa/cwviKtov TT\OVTWV eV rat? 
l TO TrXetcrro^, Aral rovro Trjv Trpd^iv rc5 

4 "AytSi Svcrepyov Kal ^aXeTrrjv eTroiycrev. avrk- 
(TTrjcrav <yap ai <yvvaiKs ov /JLOVOV rpu^r}? KTTL- 
TTTOvcrai $1 aireipoKa~\.iav ev&aifjiovi^o/jLev'tjs, aXXa 
real Ti[j.r)v Kal Bvva/j-tv, r)v e/c TOU r 7T\ov r rli> /cap- 

7TOVVTO, 7replK07rTO/jLVT]l> CLVT&V OptoGai. KCU, TTyOO? 

rov$av rpaTro/Jievai TrapeKti\ovv ovra jrpe- 
(rfivrepov eTriXafJiBdveffOai rov "Ay^So? KOI ra 

5 TrpaTTofjieva SiarcwXiieiv. ej3ov\ro fjiev ovv 6 

rot? 7rXou<rtot? fto^Oelv, Se&ia><$ Be rov 
rT/9 /xera/3oXr}? ovStv avre- 
\d6pa Be rrjv Trpa^iv etrjrei 
/ca/covpyelv /cat Bta(f)0eLpeiv evrvy^dvwv To?9 ap- 
%ovcri Kal Bia/3d\\ayv TOV *Ayiv a>? rvpawiBo? 
piaQov TOi? Trevrjcn ra TWV TrXoi/crtcoi/ TrpOTeivovra, 
Kal 7^9 fJ.eraB6<Tecn Kal xpewv dffreaea'i TroXXoi/9 
eavro) Bopvcfropovs, ov rf) 

VIII. Ov fjirfv d\\d 

(j>opov yeveaQai TOV AvaavBpov, evdvs elcre^epe 
avrov pijrpav et9 rou9 yepovras, ^9 
Xpewv p.ev d(f)0r)vai roL/9 o^)tXo^Ta9, Trj? Be 7779 
dvaBaa~0iO'r)<$ rrjv /Jiev diro rov Kara HeXXijvrjv 
^apdBpov 7T/309 TO Tau76To^ Kal MaX.eai' Kal 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, vn. 3 -vin. i 

Agis, sent for their friends among the men and 
invited them to help, and held conference with the 
women besides, since they were well aware that the 
men of Sparta were always obedient to their wives, 
and allowed them to meddle in public affairs more 
than they themselves were allowed to meddle in 
domestic concerns. 

Now, at this time the greater part of the wealth of 
Sparta was in the hands of the women, and this made 
the work of Agis a grievous and difficult one. For 
the women were opposed to it, not only because they 
would be stripped of the luxury which, in the general 
lack of higher culture, made their lives seem happy, 
but also because they saw that the honour and in- 
fluence which they enjoyed in consequence of their 
wealth would be cut off. So they had recourse to 
Leonidas, and besought him, since he was an older 
man, to withstand Agis and hinder what he was trying 
to accomplish. Leonidas, accordingly, was desirous of 
aiding the rich, but he feared the people, who were 
eager for a revolution. He therefore made no open 
opposition to Agis, but secretly sought to damage his 
undertaking and bring it to nought by slandering 
him to the chief magistrates, declaring that he was 
purchasing a tyranny by offering to the poor the 
property of the rich, and by distribution of land and 
remission of debts was buying a large body-guard for 
himself, not many citizens for Sparta. 

VIII. However, Agis procured Lysander's election 
as ephor, and at once employed him to introduce a 
bill into the senate, 1 the chief provisions of which 
were that debtors should be relieved of their debts, 
and that the land should be divided up, that which 
lay between the water-course at Pellene and Taygetus, 

1 About 243 B.C. 



s irev- 

2 /cal ravr^v p,ev rot? oTrXa tfcepew bwa/JLevois 799 
rwv rrepioiKwv ^&pi(jQY\vai t rrjv Be eVro? avrols 
^rrapridraw ava7r\r)pw6rjvai Sc TOUTOU? CK re 
TrepioiKwv teal %evwv, OCTOL rpo(f>ij<; 
e\ev6epiov KOI 

KOL Ka riKiav aK,ovres elev 

TOVTWV ei? TrVTKaiSeKa 'yeveaOai (f)i&L7ia Kara 
TCTpaKocTLov^ teal StaKOffiovs, /cal SiaiTav rf 
ol nrpo<yovoi SiairdaOai. 

IX. Ypa$>ei(Tr)s &e T/}? pijrpas, /cal TWV 

i? TavTO rat9 ^vai^ ou 

KK\r)criav (rvvayayajv 6 AixravSpos auro? re 
TO?? TroXtra^?, /cal Ma^8/oo:XetSa? al 
e&eovro yu,?; St' oXtyou? evrpv<f)<0vra<i 
Trepu&eiv eppi/xfjievov TO d^itofia TT}? ZTrdp- 
, aXXa TCOI^ re Trporepwv %prjd JJLWV 


, KOL 

2 'le/ooz; ^e ITacr^aa? /^at {jLavrelov rjv ev aXa- 
/zat? TLjJLMfJLevov, r]V rives [Jbev io-ropovcri rwv Ar- 
\avrL$a)v fjiiav ovcrav etc Aio? TOI^ "A/jL/acova retcelv, 
Tiz/e? e ia<jdv&pav ri]V Ylpta/iov 

evravOa teal Sta TO rrdcn (fraivetv rd 
Hacri<f)dav rrpocrayopevdelcrav. 6 8e Oi^ 
'Ayu,uA:Xa Ovyarepa, &,d<$>vi~iv rovvofia, faialv VTTO- 
(frevyovdav 'ATroXXaj^a (3ov\6/ji6vov avrfj fuyfjvai,, 
/cal /jiera(3a\ovcrav i? TO (frvrov, ev rijjifi rov 6eov 

3 yevecrOai, teal ^avriKriv \aftelv &vva/jiiv. e^acrav 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, vm. i-ix. 3 

Malea, and Sellasia, into forty-five hundred lots, and 
that which lay outside this into fifteen thousand ; 
that this larger land should be apportioned among 
those of the provincials who were capable of bearing 
arms, and the smaller among the genuine Spartans : 
that the number of these Spartans should be filled 
up from the provincials and foreigners who had 
received the rearing of freemen and w^ere, besides, of 
vigorous bodies and in the prime of life ; and that these 
should be formed into fifteen public messes by four 
hundreds and two hundreds, and should practise the 
mode of life which the ancient Spartans had followed. 

IX. The "rhetra" was introduced in the senate, 
and the senators were divided in opinion. Lysander 
therefore called together a general assembly and 
discussed the matter himself with the citizens, and 
Mandrocleidas and Agesilaiis begged them not to 
suffer the insolent opposition of a few to blind them 
to the prostration of Sparta's dignity, but to call to 
mind the earlier oracles which bade them beware of 
the love of riches as a fatal thing for Sparta, as well 
as the oracles which had lately been brought to them 
from Pasiphae. 

Now there was a temple of Pasiphae at Thalamae, 
and her oracle there was held in honour. Some say 
that Pasiphae was one of the daughters of Atlas, and 
the mother of Ammon by Zeus, and some that Cas- 
sandra the daughter of Priam died at Thalamae, and 
was called Pasiphae because she declared her oracles 
to all. Phylarchus, however, says that she was a 
daughter of Amyclas, Daphne by name, and that, 
fleeing the embraces of Apollo, she was changed into 
the tree of like name, after which she was honoured 
by the god with the gift of prophetic power. Be 

VOL. X. 21 



ovv Kol ra TrapcL ravrrj^ /juavrela TrpocrrdTreiv 
TO?? J^TrapTidrais f<joi><? yevecrOat, iravra^ Kad^ ov 
o AvKovpyo<; e% ap^rjs era^e vojuov. eVl Tracri Be o 
/3aai\ev$ Ayi$ eh /Jiecrov irape\0o)v teal 

<f>rj GV[ji(Bo\a<$ SiSovai rfj 
TJV KaOicrrrjo-i,' rrjv yap avrov Trpcorov 
ovcriav et? JACCTOV riOevai,, iroXXrjv jjuev ovcrav ev 

rot? yewpyov/jLevois /cal v/j,o/jivois, avev $f. rov- 
e^afcocria rd\avra vo^icr pharos e^ovaav TO 
avrb /cal ra? ^rea? Troielv Kal rovs 

Kal ol/ceiovs, TrXofcr^wTttToi;? 6Vra? 

X. 'O IJLGV ovv S^/zo? ej;7r\dy)] rrjv fj,eya- 

TOU veavicTKOV, Kal ireiarj^ rjv a>? 

Si* erwv 6/jiov n BiaKoa-iaii' 1 7T(j)ijv6ro<; d^uov 
^TrdpTris ySacriXeo)?' o Be Aew^tSa? Tore &rj fid- 
Xicrra Trpo? Tovvavrlov e'^iXozW/^cre. Xoyt^o- 
yuet'o? lyayo 6Vt ravrd ^ev avayKacrOi'icreTai Troielv, 
ov rrjv avrrjv 8e ^dpLv e^et rrapa rot? 
aXXa TTUVTCOV o/xotco? a KeKrijvrai 
fjiova) TW dp^a/jievco TrpocrO^crovcrL 
rjpcora rov *Ayiv el Strcaiov avSpa Kal (nrovSaiov 
2 ijyeirai yeyovevai A.VKOvpyov. o/noXoyrjcravTos &* 
Kivov, " TIov Tolvvv" (f>rj, " A VKovpyos 
aTTOKOTras eBaiKev 17 %evov<$ Karera^ev eh 
iro\iTeiav, 05 ovSe oXw? evofju.^ev vyiaiveiv rrjv 

'O Be *Ayi<$ (nreKpivaTo /ULTJ @av/jid%eiv TOV 
Aewvi&av, el reOpa/jL/nevo^ ev %evy Kal 

1 6f.'.ov n $tano<rlwv Blass (Fuhr) : 6/j.ov 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, ix. 3 -x. 2 
this as it may, it was now said that the oracles 

/ * 

brought from this goddess ordained that all Spartans 
should be on an equality according to the original 
law made by Lycurgus. And finally, King Agis came 
forward and after a brief discourse said that he offered 
very large contributions to the constitutions which 
he was trying to establish ; for in the first place he 
put into the common stock his own estate, which 
included extensive tillage and pasture, and apart from 
this six hundred talents in money ; and, besides, his 
mother and his grandmother did likewise, together 
with their relatives and friends, and they were 
the wealthiest among the Spartans. 

X. The people, accordingly, were filled with 
amazement at the magnanimity of the young man, 
and were delighted, feeling that after a lapse of 
nearly two hundred years a king had appeared who was 
worthy of Sparta ; but Leonidas, now more than ever, 
strove in opposition. For he reasoned that he would 
be compelled to do as Agis had done, and that he 
would not get the same gratitude for it among the citi- 
zens, but that if all the rich alike made their property 
a part of the common fund, the honour for it would 
be given to him alone who had led the way. He 
therefore asked Agis if he thought that Lycurgus 
had shown himself a just and worthy man, and when 
Agis said that he did, " When, then," said Leonidas, 
" did Lycurgus either grant abolition of debts or 
admit foreigners into citizenship a man who held 
that the state was in no healthy way at all if it did 
not practise expulsion of foreigners ? " 

But Agis replied that he was not astonished to find 
Leonidas, who had been reared in foreign lands and 


e/c y/^fov (TaTpaTU/cwv yvoet rov 
Avfcovpyov, on TO //ei> o$ei\iv /cal 8aveietv a/xa 

3 rco vo/jLicr/j-ari <rvvej;el3a\V etc rfy TroXeo)?, rwv 8' 
ev TCU<? iroKevi %evwv TOU? rot? eTTLr^Sev/^acri KCU 
rat? Siairais acrv /Ji$v\ov<$ /j,a\\ov eSva^epaive' 
real yap eice'ivovs ^\avvev ov rots <rco/iacrt TroXe- 

, d\\a rou? y9tou? avTwv KO\ roL/9 T/DOTTOU? 

(Tvvava^pwi'vvfievoi rot? 
rpv(j)jj<f /cal yttaXa^ta? Aral TrXeoi/e^ta? e 

eVel TepTravSpov ye fcal (8)aX??Ta /cat 
rjv %evov<; ovras, OTI ra avra TO* Av- 
Kovpyta &iere\ovv aSovres /cal (f)i\oao(f)OvvTes, 

4 eV ^Trdprr) TifJurjOrji/at SiatyepovTa)?. " "2,v B 

[Jiev" etyrjaev, " eTraivels, o? eipopevcov 

rou /jLovaiKOv crKe7rdpi>(p ra? 
evvia xopScov e^ere/ie, KOL rot/? eVl 
7rd\LV TO auTO TOVTO Trpd^avras, rj/JLas Be yiteyu</>7i 800 
rjv teal 7ro\VT\tav /cal dXa^oveiav etc T/}? 

dvaipovvras, wcnrep ov%l 
TO eV jLOvaiK aojSapov fcal TrepiTTOv 

evrav6a jir 7roeX.@r (>v\aTTojLva)v t OTTOV 

(i)v Ka rpoTToov /jLerpa Ka 


XI. 'E/C TOUTOf TW fJLV "Ajl&l TO 7r\?)00$ e 

/co\ovOrja'6i> } ol oe 7r\ov(7iot rov re Aewvl&av 
7rape/cd\ovv {JLTJ cr^>a? Trpoecrdai, /cal TOU? yepovras, 
ol? TO KpaTos ?)V ev TO) TrpoftpvXeveiv, 
Kal TreiOovTes icr^ua-av, ocrov evl TrXetoi'a? 
2 crOat TOI;? a7ro"^r;04o-a/xeVoL'? r^v prfrpav. 6 
AvcravSpos eri rrjv dp%r)V %a)v ajp/^rjcre rov Aeco- 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, x. 2 -xi. * 

had children by an oriental marriage, ignorant that 
Lycurgus had banished from the state debts and 
loans along with coined money, and that foreigners 
in the cities were held by him in less displeasure 
than men to whom the Spartan practices and ways 
of living were not congenial ; these, indeed, he 
sought to drive away, not because he was hostile to 
their persons, but because he feared lest their lives 
and manners should contaminate the citizens, and 
breed in them a love of luxury, effeminacy, and 
greed ; for certainly Terpander and Thales and 
Pherecydes were foreigners, and yet, because the 
teachings of their songs and philosophy always ac- 
corded with those of Lycurgus, they were held in 
surpassing honour at Sparta. " Thou praisest 
Ecprepes," said Agis, " who, as ephor, cut out with 
an adze two of the nine lute-strings of Phrynis the 
musician, and likewise the magistrates in the time of 
Timotheus, who did the same thing in their turn, but 
thou blamest me for trying to remove luxury, extra- 
vagance, and ostentation from Sparta, as if those 
magistrates also w r ere not on the watch to prevent 
the pompous and superfluous in music from making 
such advances as our lives and manners have come to, 
whose excess and discord has made the city dissonant 
and out of tune with itself." 

XI. After this, the common people took sides with 
Agis, but the men of wealth entreated Leonidas not 
to abandon them. And by prayers and arguments 
with the senators, whose power lay in their privilege 
of presenting all measures to the people, they so far 
prevailed that by a single vote the proposed rhetra was 
rejected. Lysander, however, who was still ephor, 
set on foot an indictment of Leonidas by virtue of 


viSav SiwKeiv Kara S?; riva vo^ov rraXatov, fa 
OVK ea rbv 'HpaKXeiSijv CK yvvaifcos dX\,oSarrr)s 
7Kvovcrdai, rov & drreXOovra TT}? ^rrdprt]^ em 

JJ,TOlKl(T/jLM TTyOO? 6Te'/90U9 aTTo6vr)<J KGtV K\V6i. 

ravra Kara rov AewviSa \e*/LV erepovs SiSa^a?, 
auro? 7rape(j)v\arr per a rwv crvvap^ovrwv TO 

3 "Ecrrt Se roto^Se' St' eVcoi/ Ivvka \a(3ovre<$ ol 
e(f)Opoi vvKra Ka6apav Kal aaekyvoVy criwrrf) KaOe- 
fyvrai TT/OO? ovpavbv arrofiXerrovres. eav ovv 
K (jiepovs nvbs et? erepov yu,e/?o? acrrrjp 

KplVOVai TOVS fS(l(TL\l<$ CO? 7Tpl TO 0GLOV 

[jiaprdvovras, Kal Kararravovcrt. TT}? 

av CK AeX(/)c5i> rj 'OXf/^vrta? ^J;CT/.IO? e'X^?; Tot? 

rjXwKoai rwv ySacrtXecoj' j3orj0&v. 

4 TOUTO 5?) TO aij/jLeiov auru) yeyovevai \ja)V o 

KpLuw ry Aea>i>i$a TrpovOrjKe, Kal 
rrapel^ev w? e'/c yvvaiKos 'Acrm^r??, r}v 


Kal jjna-ovfjievo^ vrro TT)? <yvvaiKo$ errave\6oi rcapa 
'yvoo/jHjv OiKaSe, Kal BiaBo^rj^ epijpov dv6\oiro TO 
5 fta<Ji\eiov. dfjia Se ry SiKrj KXeo/ji/Bporov eireiQe 
TT}? /Sao-^Xeta? dvrnroieicrOai, yapfipov ovra rov 
AewvuSa, <yvov<$ 8e TOI) fBacri\LKov. (po^yjOel^ ovv 
6 AeamSa? Ixerrjf <yiverai Tr)? XaX/ciot/cou, Kal 
(jvviKerevev 1} dvydrrjp ra> rrarpi, rbv KXeo/z- 
fiporov drroXiTrovffa. KCL\OV fjiivov Se rrpbs rrjv 
Bi/crjv avrov Kal prj Karafiaivovros, CKGLVOV 



an ancient law which forbade any descendant of 
Heracles to beget children by a foreign woman, and 
ordained that anyone who left Sparta to settle among 
foreigners should be put to death. 1 After instructing 
others to spread these charges against Leonidas, he 
himself, with his colleagues, proceeded to observe 
the traditional sign from heaven. 

This is observed as follows. Every ninth year the 
ephors select a clear and moonless night, and in silent 
session watch the face of the heavens. If, then, a 
star shoots across the sky, they decide that their 
kings have transgressed in their dealings with the 

c5 ?5 c> 

gods, and suspend them from their office, until an 
oracle from Delphi or Olympia comes to the succour 
of the kings thus found guilty. 

This sign Lysander now declared had been given 
him, and indicted Leonidas, and produced witnesses 
showing that he was the father of two children by a 
woman of Asia who had been given him to wife by 
one of the lieutenants of Seleucus ; and that owing 
to the woman's dislike and hatred of him he had 
come back home against his own wishes, where he 
had assumed the royal dignity, to which there was 
then no direct successor. Besides bringing this 
indictment, Lysander tried to persuade Cleombrotus 
to lay claim to the royal dignity. Cleombrotus was 
a son-in-law of Leonidas, and one of the royal line. 
Leonidas, accordingly, took fright, and fled as a sup- 
pliant to the temple of Athena of the Brazen House. 
His daughter also forsook Cleombrotus and became 
a suppliant with her father. When Leonidas was 
summoned to his trial and did not appear, he was 

1 Plutarch here merges two separate laws. Cf. the Lycur- 
gus, xxvii. 3. 






rov %p6vov Bi\06vTO$. ol Be tcara- 
(j)opot, TOP fjiev AecoviBav avearr^crav 
iKerevovra, ry Be AvGavBpa) Kal ra> MavBpo- 
K\eiBa BiKrjv eirfpyov co? irapa rov VO^JLOV 
diroKOTra^ fcal ^r\v dvaBd(Tacr0ai tyrjcjiicra 

2 KivBvvevovres ovv eiceivoi Trei&ovcri TOJ)? /3a<ri\ei$ 
O/JLOV yevo/jievovs j^aipeiv edv rd TCOV ecfropcov /3ov- 
\evfjiaTa' TOVTO <ydp TO dp-^etov layysiv e/c Bia- 

crtXeo)^, TO> ra jBe\Tiova \eyovTi 
Tr)V tyrifyov, OTCLV are/30? epi^rj 
7T/30? TO (TVfjL<pepov' d/jL(f)Oiv Be TavTa {3ov\evo- 
d\VTOV elvau rr)i> e^ovcriav, Kal 
TT/OO? TOU? ftaaiX-eis, wv 
SLCLITCLV Kal ftpafteveiv avTols elvat, TrpocriJKov, 

3 ov^l 7To\v7rpay/jiOveiv ofJLofypovovvTWv. oirra) Bi) 

Kal yttera T&V 

dyopdv /cara/Sayre? dve&Trjcrav /lev 6K TWV Bi(f>po)v 
TOU? e(f)6pov<;, aXXou? 8' ai/r' avTwv aTreBet^av, 
el? YJV y A.yrj(Ti\ao<;. o7rXto*a^re? Be TO)V vewv 
Kal Xuua^re? TOU? BeBefj,evov$ eye 
rot? virevavTiois a>? TroXXou? 
4 vovvres. diTeOave Be ovBels VTT avrcov, d\\d 
t? Teyeav vTre^iovT 
TOV 'A^crtXaou, Kal 

avTov et? Tijv 6Bbv avBpas, TrvOo/jievos 6 * 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xi. 5 -xn. 4 

deposed, and Cleombrotus was made king in hia 
place. 1 

XII. At this point, Ljsander's term expired and 
he went out of office. The new board of ephors 
encouraged Leonidas to leave his suppliant's asylum, 
and brought an indictment against Lysander and 
Mandrocleidas for violating the law in proposing an 
abolition of debts and a distribution of land. Thus put 
in legal peril, Lysander and Mandrocleidas persuaded 
the two kings to act together and disregard the 
edicts of the ephors ; for that board of magistrates, 
they said, derived its power from dissension between 
the two kings, by giving their vote to the king who 
offered the better advice, whenever the other was at 
variance with the public good ; but when the two kings 
were in accord, their power was indissoluble, and it 
would be unlawful for the ephors to contend against 
them, although when the kings were in contention 
with one another it was the privilege of the ephors 
to act as arbiters between them, but not to interfere 
when they were of one mind. Persuaded by these 
arguments, both the kings went with their friends 
into the market place, removed the ephors from their 
seats, and appointed others in their stead, one of 
whom was Agesilaiis. 2 Then they armed a large 
body of young men and set free all who were in 
prison, thus striking fear into their opponents, who 
thought they would put many of them to death. No 
one, however, lost his life at their hands ; on the 
contrary, when Agis learned that Agesilaiis had 
plotted to make away with Leonidas as he was trying 
to withdraw to Tegea, and had sent men to assault 
him on the road, he sent out another company of 

1 About 242 B.C. See chapter vi. 3 f. 



erepovs aTreareiXe TTKTTOIX;, 01 TOV Ae&viBav 
7rpi(T%6vTS d<T(f)a\w$ et? Teyeav KaTe&Tijcrav. 

XIII. OVTW Be T?}? 7r/?a^6&)9 aurot? oBta fiaBi- 801 
bu<n?9 Kal /jLTjSevos evicrra/jievov /-iT/Se BtaKO)- 
\VOVTOS, el? avr}p, 'A^^crtXao?, avirpe^re iravra 
Kal Si\vp,ijvaro, Ka\\L(nov &iavorj/j.a teal A.CLKU>- 
viK(OT(iTOV alcr^io-TO) voatj/Aari Trj <f)i,\o7r\ovTLa 

2 >ia<fi0eLpa<;. 7rei8rj yap eKeKTijro JAW ev rot? 
/jLo\icrra 7ro\\r)V teal dyaOrjv ^oopav, wtfreiXe Be 

xr;re &ia\i>crai Svvd/jLevos TO, %/oea 
T)]V 'Xjoopav irpoeaOai ftovXofjievos eVeicre 
a>? d/ji<porepcov /jiev a/jLa irpaTTO^ev 
ecroiTO 7Tpl Tijv TTO\IV 6 veutTepicr/jLos, el Be rfj 
TMV %pewv dtyecrei OepaTrevOelev ol Krr)fj,art/col 
irporepov, evKO\co^ av avrayv teal icaO" ^av^iav 1 

3 varepov ev&e^o/jievMV TOV dvaSacr/j,6v. ravra Be 
/cat rot? Trepl AvaavBpov eBo/cei, crvve^aTraTa)- 
p,evoi<$ VTTO TOV 'A^o'tXaoi', Kal ia irapa rcov 
XpeoccTTwv ypafJi/JLaTela avveveyKavTes et? dyopdi', 
a K\dpia KaXovcn, Kal Trdvra avvQkwres et? ev 

apdeiar]^ Be (^Xoyo? ol ^Lev TT\OV- 
Kal Baveia-TiKol TrepiTraOovvTes dirffkOov, 6 
Be 'A7?;c7tXao9 waTrep e<pv/3pia)v OVK <prj \afji- 
TrpoTepov kwpaKevai <j5a>9 ouBe irvp eKeivov KaOa- 

4 'AgiovvTGW Be TWV 7roX\a)V Kal Trjv yriv evQv<$ 
vefjLeaQat, Kal TWV /3acri\ea)v ovra) iroielv K- 
\evovT(i)v, acr^oXta? Tii/a? /A/3d\\a)V o 

Xao? ael Kal Trpcxpdcreis \eya)v Traprjye 

d^pi ov (TTpareia avveftr) ry "AyiBi, 

1 Kal KaO* T]ffvxiav Coraes and Ziegler : icaff ^< 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xn. 4 -xm. 4 

trusted followers who took Leonidas under their 
protection and brought him safely to Tegea. 

XIII. Thus the enterprise of the kings was making 
good progress and no one tried to oppose or hinder 
them, when one man, Agesilaiis, upset and ruined 
everything. He allowed a most shameful disease of 
avarice to wreck a most noble and most truly Spartan 
plan. For since he was an exceedingly large owner 
of valuable land, but owed huge sums of money, being 
unable to pay his debts and unwilling to give up his 
lands, he persuaded Agis that if both his projects 
should be carried through at the same time the 
resulting convulsion in the state would be great; but 
that if the men of property should first be won over 
by a remission of their debts, they would afterwards 
accept the distribution of land contentedly and 
quietly. This was also the opinion of Lysander, 
who was deceived in like manner by Agesilaiis. So 
they caused the mortgages (the Spartans call them 
" klaria," or allotment pledges) to be brought into the 
market-place, heaped them altogether, and set fire to 
them. As the flames rose, the men of wealth and 
the lenders of money went away with heavy hearts; 
but Agesilaiis, as if in mockery of them, declared 
that his eyes had never seen a brighter or purer 
flame than that. 

And now the multitude demanded also that the 
land should at once be divided, and the kings 
gave orders that this should be done ; but 
Agesilaiis would always interpose some obstacle or 
make some excuse, and so consumed time until it 
became the duty of Agis to head a military expedi- 
tion, when the Achaeans, who were their allies, sent 


/c Aa/eeSatynoyo?. AlrwXol yap rjaav 
Bia TT}? MeyapLfcfjs efj,/3a\ovvTes et? Ile- 


arparrjyo^ ijdpoi^e ^vvapiv Kal rot? 

XIV. Ot 8e TOV *Ayiv v@vs e^eTre/ATrov eirrip- 
TT) <^L\OTifJiia KOI irpoOvfjiia rwv avvrpa- 
TvofjLva>v. veoi yap ovres ol 7T\elcrToi Kal 
teal TI-JV pev UTTO TMV %pewv aSetav 
&r) Kal \e\vfjievoi, TOL/? Se dypous e\,7Ti- 
, av eTraveXOwaiv IK TT}? crrpareias, 

2 Kal dea/jLa rat? iroXecriv rja-av tt/3Xa/3w9 

TTyOttft)? Kal fJLOVOV OVK a^O^rjr], &ia7TOpv6/jiVOl TTjV 

TLeXoTrovvtjcrov, ware davpd^eiv Kal &ia\oyi- 
,ea6ai TOL/? f/ E\\7;^a? oiO9 rjv cipa ^ocr/io? 
AaKoiviKov o-Tpareu/jLaros 'AyrjcriXaov e^o^TO? 7} 
Aixrav&pov Keivoi> rj AewvL^av TOV irakaiov 

11<yOVp,VOV, O7TOV 7T/90? (JLClpCLKLOV O\LyOV &61V 

veayrarov airdvTwv aiSoos Tocravrr) Kal <o/3o? earl 

3 TWV o-varpareuofiei>a)i'. 1 Kal ^kvroL Kal atro? 
o veavlcrKQS evreXetq Kal (f>i>\oiroviq Kal rw /j/)jSei> 
tSicorou \afjiTTpoTepov rujL^ieaOai Kal a)7r\i(T0ai 
a/jivvi>o/jLvo$ a^LoOecLTOs rjv Kal 97X0)1*09 VTTO 
rwv 7ro\\(t)i>' eirel rot? ye TrXoucrtoi? OVK 7Jp(7K6i> 
o vea)T6pi(T/jLo<> avrov, &&i6cri yu-?/ KivrjfjLa Kal 

eiy/jLa rot? Tra^Ta^ocre Sry/zot? yevrjrai. 
XV. SfyLt/xt^a? &e ra> 'Aparw Trepl K.6ptv0ov 6 
6T (3ov\evofjiei>w Trepl yua^? /cat irapaTa- 
7T/3O? TOI/<? TToXe/itou?, eVeSet^aro Acal TT/JO- 
dvfuav TToXkrjv Kal ToX^iav ov fj.avixrjv ov&e 

1 ffvffTpaTevo/j.fvuiv Blass : 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xin. 4 -xv. i 

for aid from Sparta. For the Aetolians were expected 
to invade Peloponnesus by way of Megara ; and 
Aratus, the general of the Achaeans, in an effort to 
prevent this, was assembling a force and wrote a 
letter to the ephors. 

XIV. These at once sent out Agis, who was exalted 
in spirit by the ambition and ardour of the soldiers 
under him. For being young men for the most part 
and poor, and having now immunity from their debts 
and absolution, and expecting that they would receive 
allotments of land if they returned from the expedi- 
tion, their devotion to Agis was astonishing. And 
they were a spectacle to the cities as they marched 
through the Peloponnesus without doing any injury, 
without rudeness, and almost without noise, so that 
the other Greeks were amazed and asked themselves 
what must have been the discipline of a Spartan army 
under the command of the great Agesilaiis, or the 
famous Lysander, or Leonidas of old, since towards a 
stripling who was almost the youngest of the whole 
army so great reverence and fear were felt by his 
soldiers. And indeed the young man himself, owing 
to his simplicity, his love of hardships, and the pride 
he took in clothing and arming himself with no 
more splendour than a common soldier, won the 
admiration and devotion of the multitudes ; for to 
the rich, certainly, his innovating ways were not 
pleasing, owing to a fear that they might prove a 
disturbing force and set a bad example among the 
common people everywhere. 

XV. Aratus, when Agis joined him near Corinth, 
was still deliberating whether or not to meet the 
enemy in open battle. Here Agis displayed great 
ardour, and courage which was sane and calculating. 



d\6yi(TTOV. ^>rj yap avrq> fiev Sofceiv 

Kal fJLrj irapievai, TOV iro\e[jLOv etrjw, ra? 
T/}<? Yle^OTTOwrjcrov Trpoejuevovs, iroi^aeiv 
Be TO SOKOVV 'Apdry KOI yap Trpecr/BvTepov re 
Kal tjT parity e Iv 'A^atw^, ol? ov^t, irpocr- 

avrbv OVK 

TJKOI, /cal /3oi]0ij<rcov. 
2 f O &e ^ivtoTrevs 

L <f)rjcn TOV *A<yiv 'Apdrov K\VOVTOS, OVK 
co<; ol? "A/3aro9 yeypatye irepl TOVTWV, 
s on fie\Tiov rjyeiro, TOU? Kap- 

, 7rape\6elv rov? TroXe/uou? rj pd^r) 
Kiv&vvevcrat, Trepl TWV o\wv. 

3 'ETret 8* ouz> "A/oaro? aTreyvco fJid^jeaOaL KOI 
TOVS crv/A/jsd'Xovs eiraiveaa^ &ia(f)f}Ke, OavfiaaOels 
o T A7i9 dve^evyvvev, ijSr] TWV evbov ev ^Trdprrj 802 
66pv/3ov TTO\VV G^OVTWV Kal [JLeTaj3o\r)v. 

XVI. O yap 'Ayr)(Ti\ao$ <popeva)v } d7rij\\ay- 
fjievos 049 TaTreivos rjv irpoTepov, ovSevos e^ei 
<f>epovro<; dpyvpiov dSiKrj/naro^, d\\d ^ 

, OVK ajraiTovari^ rore rr)s TrepioSov, 


TOt9 reXecrt Kal irapeirpaTre. SeSiax; Be TOU? 
Kal fjnaov^evo^ VTTO Trdvrwv erpecfre 

Kal ^v\arTOfjLVo^ VITO TOVTWV 
2 Kareftaivev et9 TO dp^elov. Kal TWV fBacri\wv 
TOV fj.ev 6Xa>5 KaTafypovelv, TOV Se 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xv. i-xvi. 2 

For he declared that in his opinion it was best to 
fight a decisive battle and not to abandon the gate of 
the Peloponnesus and suffer the enemy to pass inside : 
"However/' he said, " 1 will do as seems best to Aratus, 
for Aratus is an older man, and is general of the 
Achaeans ; I did not come hither to be their leader or 
to give them orders, but to give them aid and share 
their expedition." 

Baton of Sinope, however, says that Agis himself 
was unwilling to give battle although Aratus urged 
it ; but Baton has not read what Aratus wrote about 
this matter, 1 urging in self-defence that he thought it 
better, now that the husbandmen had gathered in 
almost all their crops, to suffer the enemy to pass by, 
instead of risking everything in battle. 

When, therefore, Aratus decided not to give battle, 
and dismissed his allies with praises for their proffered 
aid, Agis, who had won universal admiration, led his 
forces back to Sparta, where there was already much 
commotion and a revolution. 

XVI. For Agesilaiis, who was one of the ephors, 
being now freed from what had kept him in restraint 
before, shrank from no injustice that brought him 
money, nay, contrary to the customary arrangement 
of the calendar, and when the time for it had not yet 
come, he inserted a thirteenth month 2 and exacted 
the taxes for it. Moreover, in fear of the victims of 
his injustice and hated by all men, he kept an armed 
bodyguard, and would go down to his magistracy 
under their protection. And as for the kings, he 
wished men to think that he utterly despised the one, 

1 In his "Commentaries." See the Aratus, iii. 2. 

9 This was regularly done thrice during a period of nine 
years, but in distinctly specified years. The object was to 
equalize the lunar and solar years. 



Sia rrjv (rvyyeviav fia\\ov rj Sia rrjv 
j3ao~i\iav ev nvu ripy riOecrdat. SteSayfce 8e 
\6yov ft>? KOI avOis etyopevcrwv. 

Aio /col Qaacrov aTroKiv$vvevcravT<$ ol 6%0pol 
Kal avo-rdvres etc Te7ea? avafyavbov rov A.eo)vi8av 
apyj)V Karrjyayoi', 77860)? /cal TMV 

a)pyi%ovTo yap TrefavaKicr/AevoL 

fjurj vefirjOeLcrYi^. TOV /JLCV ovv 

6 f/o? 'ITTTT o^i^wv, Seoytte^o? TWV TroKirwv real 
iracri 7rpocr<f)L\r)<? wv Si avSpayaQiav, vjrefyjyaye 
Kal Sieacocre' TWV Se ftaaiX-ewv 6 /JLCV 'A^? eVl 
Trjv Xa\KioiKOv Karefyvyev, 6 Be KXeo/i/3/9oro? et? 
TO rov IlocreiSw^o? lepbv \0a)i> itce-reve' KOI yap 
e&o/cei TOVTW fjia\\ov o AewviSas ^aXevro? eivai, 
Kal 7ra/36t9 TOV *Ayiv eVl TOVTOV avefiri (7rparta)- 
ra? e^oiv Kal Karrjyopei /zer' opyijs on ya/j,/3pb<> 
&v e7ref3ovX6V(TV avrw fcal 
Xero /cal avve%[3a\e Trjs T 

XVII. 'O fjiev ovv K\eo/zy5/ooT09 ovbev 
eiTrelv, aXX* rjTroprf/jievos eKaBrjro Kal CTIWTTWV' r) 
Be XtXwy/9, 77 rov AecoviSov Ovydrrjp, rrporepov 

\>r\ / \ p. \^N 

/j,ev aoiKOV/jLevy ray rrarpi avvrjOiKeiTO, KOI rov 
KXeo y a/3poroL' TTJV /3a(Ti\iav r rrapa\a^ovro^ arco- 
aracra rrjv rov rrarpos crvf-Kpopav eOepdireve, Kal 
irapovrt, fJLV avviKereve, favyovros Be nrevOovcra 
7ra)9 e%ovcra 77/309 rov KXeo^fiporov 
rore 5e av rrd\iv rat9 ru^at9 crva/j.era- 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xvi. a-xvu. i 

and held Agis in some slight honour more because of 
his near relationship than because he was king. He 
also spread reports that he was going to be ephor 

For this reason his enemies lost no time in taking 
the great hazard, and banding together, openly 
brought home Leonidas from Tegea to exercise the 
royal power. Even the common people were glad to 
see this done, for they were incensed at their decep- 
tion in the promised division of the land. Agesilaiis, 
accordingly, was taken out of the country and saved 
by his son Hippomedon, who entreated his fellow- 
citizens, and was beloved of all because of his valour; 
and as for the kings, Agis fled for refuge to the temple 
of Athena of the Brazen House, while Cleombrotus 
went as a suppliant to the sanctuary of Poseidon; 1 for 
Leonidas was thought to be more bitter against him, 
and in fact he left Agis unmolested and went up 
against Cleombrotus with soldiers. And when he 
arrived he denounced Cleombrotus angrily because, 
though a son-in-law, he had plotted against him, 
robbed him of the royal power, and helped in driving 
him from the country. 

XVII. Cleombrotus, on his part, had naught to say 
for himself, but sat perplexed and speechless; Chilonis, 
however, the daughter of Leonidas, who before this 
had felt herself wronged in the wrongs done to her 
father, and when Cleombrotus was made king had left 
him and ministered to her father in his misfortunes, 
sharing his suppliant life while he was in the city, 
and in his exile continually grieving for him and 
cherishing bitter thoughts of Cleombrotus at this 

1 On the promontory of Taenarum. See the Cleomenes, 
xxii. 5. 



ftd\\ovcra fjiera TOV dvSpb? IKCTIS a>cf)0r) rcaOe- 
%0/JLevr], TrepL^e^KrjKvla rav ^elpa^ eKeivq* Kal TWV 

5>/ v \ "/] s ' " /3 ' j ' f v 

Traioiwv TO [Jiev evttev, TO o evuev v<p avrrjv 

2 e^ovcra. 0avf.ia6vTcoi> Be TCCLVTWV KOI SaKpvovrcov 
7rl Trj xpyaTOTrjTi, fcal <$>i\ocrTop<yiq TT}? <yvvaiKo<s, 

TWV TrerrXwv KOL TT}? royu^? ar?;yueXw5 

ffrp^Jl? tt'* ' 'N v 

Lovro, eirrev, co Trarep, eyuot TO 
Kal Ti]v o^riv ov% 6 KXeo/x/Sporou Trep^re- 
eXeo?, aXX' airo TWV awv /catcwv Kal TT}? 
yf)s /j,6/j,evrjK6 /AOL avinpofyov KOI GVVOIKOV 
TO nrevOos. TroTepov ovv Bel yu,e crov f3aGi\evowro<$ 
ev ^TrdpTrj /col VIKWVTOS ejKaTafitwvai raurat? 
rat? av/j,(popaLS, rj \aftetv ecrOffTa Xa^rrpav Kal 
/3acri\iKrjv, eiriBovcrav VTTO crov TOV irapOeviov 

3 avSpa <porv6fj,evov; o? el /j,rj TrapaiTeiTau ere 
TreiOei TZKVWV Kal yvvaiKos SaKpuai, 

Tepav rj crv ftoii\ei BLKIJV v(f)ej;i T7/9 KaKoftov\ias 
toV e/jie Ti]V <f)L\TaTrjv avTip TCpoaTroOavovcrav. 
yap e'/ze Bel ,r)v irappr^ffla rrpbs r9 aXXa? 
y /urjTe Trap 1 dvBpbs Beo/j.evrj iirjre rrapa 
eXeo? eo-Tiv; d\\a Kal yvvrj Kal OvyaTrjp 
Kal avvaTi/jLa^eaOai rot? efjLavTijs 

4 eyevo/jtyv. TOVTW /AW ovv el Kal ri? fjv \6yos 

eyco TOVTOV d(})ei\6jJLr)v TOTG crol avv- 
Kal Kara/uapTVprfcracra TWV VTTO 
TOVTOV yevofjievwv crv Be avTfo TO a$[fcrjfia Troiels 
evaTro\6<yi]Tov, OVTCO j^eya Kal TrepLfjid^r)TOV drro- 
cfiaivcov TO (Bacrikeveiv wcrre Bi avTo Kal 
fyoveveiv Kal TeKvcov\elv elvai BiKaiov 
XVIII. 'H fjitv XiXcoi'l? ToiavTa 

TO T6 TTpOCrCOTTOV Trl T1JV K(f)a\r)V eTTe0r)K6 TOV 

K\eojj,/3poTov, Kal TO /SXeyuyua $Lecf>Oapfjivov 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xvn. i-xvm. i 

time changed back again with the changed fortunes 
of the men, and was seen sitting as a suppliant with 
her husband, her arms thrown about him, and a little 
child clinging to her on either side. All beholders 
were moved to wonder and tears at the fidelity and 
devotion of the woman, who, touching her robes and 
her hair, alike unkempt, said: "This garb, my father, 
and this appearance, are not due to my pity for 
Cleombrotus ; nay, ever since thy sorrows and thine 
exile grief has been my steadfast mate and companion. 
Must I, then, now that thou art king in Sparta and 
victorious over thine enemies, continue to live in this 
sad state, or put on the splendid attire of royalty, 
after seeing the husband of my youth slain at thy 
hands ? That husband, unless he persuades and wins 
thee over by the tears of his wife and children, will 
pay a more grievous penalty for his evil designs than 
thou desirest, for he shall see me, his most beloved 
one, dead before he is. For with what assurance could 
I live and face the other women, I, whose prayers 
awakened no pity in either husband or father ? Nay, 
both as wife and as daughter I was born to share only 
the misfortune and dishonour of the men nearest and 
dearest to me. As for my husband, even if he had 
some plausible excuse for his course, I robbed him of 
it at that time by taking thy part and testifying to 
what he had done ; but thou makest his crime an easy 
one to defend by showing men that royal power is a 
thing so great and so worth fighting for that for its 
sake it is right to slay a son-in-law and ignore a 

XVIII. Uttering such supplications Chilonis rested 
her face upon the head of Cleombrotus and turned 



VTTO Au-Tn?? rrepn}veyKev els rou9 

Trapovras. 6 Se AewviSas SidXe^del^ rot? 
rov fJLev KXeou/3/ooToy CKeXzvaev dvaardvra (fiev- 
yeiv, rr)S Se TratSo? fievetv eSelro teal IJLTJ fcara- 
\nrelv eawrov ovrco $>I\OVVTCL KOL BeBcoKora 
2 TT]V TOV dvbpbs avrfi crwrripiav. ov p,rjv e 

aXV dviara/JLevu) TW dvSpl OciTepov T&V 7rai&LO)V 
yxeipi(ra(Ta, Odrepov S' dvaXa/Sovaa KCU Trpoa-fcv- 
vr](Jcnua TOV /3a)[j,bv rov ] Oeov avve^XOev, ware 

el ytt?; TTUVV &i(f)0ap/Aiios i]v VTTO /cevijs So?/9 o 

av ijjijcraro rrjv 

TT}? /SacriXeta? nelt^ov elvat, Sia rrjv yvvaifca. 
TacrT^^cra^e^o? Se rov K.\o/j,/3porov 6 Aewvi- 
KOL TOU? TT/OCOTOU? e^o/Jou? Kj3a\wv TT}? 

3 TO> "AyiSi. KOI Trpwrov fiev eireidev avrbv dva- 


rwv TToXircov crvve^rjTrarTJa- Qai yap VTTO rov 
' 'PvyriG i\dov veov ovra KOI fyikorifjiov. e/ceivov 
8e v<pop(t){ivov KOL Kara %(*)pav /j,evovros auro? 

eTravaaro (j>evaici^cav xal Karetpa)vev6/Ji>o$, 

/cat aLtoa)? /cat 

dvafiaivovres elajOecrav avrw &ta\eycr0ai' /cai 
Trore /cal TrapaXafiovres eVl \ovrpov dirb rov 
iepov Kar/f/ayov /cal \ovcrdfjievov rrd\iv et? ib 
4 icpbv Karear^aav. Kal fj&av rrdvres /JLCV avru> 
6 & 

6fov Coraes, Bekker, and Ziegler, after Bryan ; TT)S 
6tov. * Kal /cxP 7 JA t ' J/OJ Coraes and Bekker delete KOL(. 



her eyes, all melted and marred with grief, upon the 
bystanders. Then Leonidas, after conference with 
his friends, bade Cleombrotus leave his asylum and 
go into exile, but begged his daughter to remain, 
and not to abandon him, since he loved her so much, 
and had made her a free gift of her husband's life. 
He could not persuade her, however, but when her 
husband rose to go she put one of her children in his 
arms, took up the other one herself, and went forth 
in his company after an obeisance to the altar of the 
god; so that if Cleombrotus had not been wholly 
corrupted by vain ambition, he would have con- 
sidered that exile was a greater blessing for him than 
the kingdom, because it restored to him his wife. 

After removing Cleombrotus from his asylum, 
Leonidas expelled the officiating ephors from their 
office, appointed others in their place, and at once 
began to lay plots against the life of Agis. To begin 
with, he tried to persuade Agis to leave his asylum 
and share the royal power with him, assuring Agis 
that the citizens had pardoned him, because, being 
a young man and ambitious, he had been one of 
those whom Agesilaiis had completely deceived. 
But Agis continued to be suspicious and would not 
leave his asylum. So Leonidas himself stopped 
trying to cheat and play tricks upon him, but 
Amphares, Damochares, and Arcesilaiis did not. 
They were wont to go up to the temple and con- 
verse with Agis ; and once they actually took him 
in charge and brought him down from the temple 
for a bath, and after he had bathed, restored him 
again to the temple. They were all comrades of 
his, but Amphares had also borrowed recently some 


l/ndna /col Trortfpia TWV f jro\VTe\wv Trap& rfjs 
'Ayijo'KTTpdTas eTrefiovXeve Bia ravra TW ftaori\ei 
real TOU9 yvvai^lv w? airoa'Tepi'ifJwv. Kal /jLoXtard 
ye at>T09 i>TraKovcrai TO> AewviBa \eyeTai teal 
Trapo^vvai TOVS efyopovs, &v /cat auro? et? r)v. 

XIX. 'ETrel Se o *A<yi$ TOP pev ciXXov ev r& 
lepw Sierpifte ^povov, elwOeu Be KcnaftalveLV ore 


eyvwcrav, QTCLV ew TOV lepov <yevr)rai. /ecu irapa- 
^)uAa^ayre? \\ov pevov a r JTi]vrr](Tav KCU r}<77ra- 
cravTo, KOL crvfjLrrpOTJyov a/j.a SiaXeyo/Jievoi, Kal 
2 irai^ovTes &)? vrpo? avvrjOrj Kal veov. eKrpojrrjv 
Be Tiva TT}? oSoO TrXayiav TT^O? TO 

eyevovro KCIT* avrrjv f3aBioVTS, 6 

Bia TO ap^iv a^lrd/jievo^TOv 

> ? ft * \ ^ ' J ' ^ 

ere, eiTrev, em TOU? e^opou?, a> 
\6yov i>(f)ej;ovTa ro^v TreTroXireujuievcov " 6 

evpwaros wv KOI /jLeyas, TO IfidnoV 

3 7Tpt(3a\wv irepl TOV Tpd^rj\ov elXfcev. a\\wv Be 
eTTwOovvTwv OTTicrOev etc TrapaaKevrjs, ovBevbs 
fioiiOovvTOS, aXV eprjfua? ovo"r)$, e/jiftaXXovcriv 
avTov et9 TO Bea'/JLtoT'ijpiov. evOvs Be rrapfjv 6 jj,ev 


ej"O)0ev, ol Be e<j>opot, 737)09 TO 
*A<yiv elaijXOov, KOI TWV yepovTwv et? TO 

TOL/9 TavTa /3ov\o/jLevov$, ft)9 

avTy <ytvojjivr)s, e/ceXevov vTrep TWV ire- 
4 7rpay/j.vcov d7ro\oyelaOaL. <ye\da-avTO<s Be TOV 
veaviaKov 777)09 T?;Z^ elpwvetav avTWv,o f^ev Ajj,<f>a- 

etcaXei KCU BLKTJV v<f>eovTa T?}? 

, olov 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xvm. 4 -xix. 4 

costly vestures and beakers from Agesistrata, and 
therefore plotted to destroy the king and the 
women, that he might not have to return what he 
had borrowed. And he, certainly, more than any- 
one else, as we are told, followed the counsels of 
Leonidas and embittered the ephors, of whom he 
was one, against Agis. 

XIX. Now Agis spent most of his time in the 
sanctuary, but was wont to go down from time to 
time to his bath. There, then, they determined to 
seize him, when he was outside the sanctuary. So 
they waited till he had finished his bath, and then 
came to meet him with friendly greetings, and 
walked along with him, conversing and jesting with 
him after the manner of youthful comrades. But at 
a certain point the road branched off towards the 
prison, and when they were come to that place, 
Amphares, by virtue of his office, laid hands on Agis 
and said : " I shall lead thee, Agis, to the ephors, to 
answer for thy measures of state " ; and Damochares, 
who was tall and robust, threw his cloak about the 
king's neck and dragged him along. Others pushed 
him along from behind, as had been agreed, and 
since he had no helper but was without a friend, 
they thrust him into the prison. At once Leonidas 
was at hand with a large band of mercenaries and 
surrounded the prison, while the ephors went in to 
Agis. After sending for those of the senators who 
were of the same mind as themselves, as though the 
king were to have a trial, the ephors ordered Agis 
to defend his conduct of affairs. The young king 
laughed at their dissimulation, whereupon Amphares 
threatened that he would rue the day and be 
punished for his temerity; but another ephor, as 



TO) "Ayioi KOI SeiKVvwv aTrofivyrjV 7779 alrias, 

ilpaiTijo'ev el ravra eirpa^ev VTTO Avo-avSpov /cal 

5 *Ayi]cri~\,dov ftiaaOeis. airoKpiva/jievov Se TOV 

TOV Av/covpyov eTrl Trjv 
e\6oi 7ro\iTiav, Trd\iv 6 auTO? r/pcoT^crev el 
/jieTavoet Tot? TreTTpay/jievcis. <j>ijaavTOS $6 TOV 
veavLcrtcov /jirj /neTavoelv e-rrl TO?? Ka\\io~Ta fteftov- 
\V/jLvoi$, KCLV TO, ea^aTa TreiaofJievov avTov iSrj, 
OdvaTOv avTov KaTe-^n^Lo-avTO, Kal TOU? uTT^era? 
6 e/ce\vov dye iv els TIJV /ca\ov/j,evrjv Ae^aSa. TOVTO 
Se IGTIV o'tKrifxa TT}? eipKTTJs ev w OavaTOVcn TOU? 
/ca~aoiKovs (iTTO7rviyovTG<$. opoiv Be TOL<? VTTrjpeTCis 
o Aa/uo^apr;? ov TO\jjLO)VTas dtyacrOat TOv"AyiSo$, 
Be Ka\ TWV fjii(r0o(f)6pct>v TOU? Tra/aeo-TWTa? 
Kai (foeuyovTas TO epyov, oo? ov 
@jj,iTov ovBe vevop,io~iJiivov /3a(Ti\ea>$ a(t)ju,aTi Ta? 804 

>, oia7ri\r)o~(ifjLi>o<} avTots K,CL(, 
ei\tcev atTo? et? TO ol'/cijfj,a TOV ' Ayiv. 
yap yaurivTO TroXXot Ttjv (rv\\ r r)~^riv, /cal 
*jv evrl Tat? Ovpais Kal (^wra TroXXa, KOL 

1] T jJLTjTrip TOV ' AyiBo$ KCLl T! fJ.djA/jL1} 

teal oe6/j,evai TOV /SacriXea Twv^TrapTiaTwv 
\oyov /cal Arpicrea)? Tv^elv eV Tot? TroXtVa^?. 8/0 
Kal /xaXto-ra KaTtjTrei^av T^i' dvaipeo~iv, &)? < 
Trayr)(To/jLevov VVKTOS av TrXe/o^e? Tre\0a)o~iv. 

~V~V ( f~\ ^ * * A ' v v 

AA. ij yu-ei^ ofz^ A^yt? eTTt T^I^ 
Tropevofjievos, cu? ei^e Tii/a Taif VTnipeT&v Ba/cpv- 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xix. 4 -xx. i 

though plainly offering Agis a way ot escape from 
the charges against him, asked him if he had done 
what he did under compulsion from Lysander and 
Agesilaiis. And when Agis answered that he had 
suffered compulsion from no one, but that in admira- 
tion and imitation of Lycurgus he had adopted the 
same public policy as his, the same ephor asked again 
if he repented of what he had done. But the young 
king declared that he had no repentance for what he 
had most excellently planned, and would not have, 
even if he saw that he was to suffer the extremest 
penalty. So they condemned him to death, and 
ordered the officers to lead him into the " Dechas," 
as it was called. This is a chamber of the prison in 
which they strangle those who are under sentence of 
death. But Damochares, when he saw that the 
officers did not dare to lay hands on Agis, and like- 
wise that even the mercenaries who were there 
shrank from the deed and were loth to do it, feelin<r 

y o 

as they did that it was contrary to the laws of God 
and man to lay hands upon the person of a king, 
heaped threats and abuse upon them and himself 
dragged Agis into the chamber of death. For 
already many people were aware of the arrest, and 
there was a noisy throng at the door and many 
torches, and the mother and grandmother of Agis 
were there, with cries and prayers that the king of 
the Spartans should have a hearing and a trial before 
the citizens. For this reason especially the ephors 
hastened on the king's execution, believing that he 
would be taken out of their hands in the night if 
the concourse should increase. 

XX. Agis, then, on his way to the halter, saw one 
of the officers shedding tears of sympathy for him. 



r>v-ra Kal rrepiTraOovvra, " ilavcrai //," eljTer, 
ai'OpwTre, K\aiwv' Kal yap OVTWS Trapavofiws 
dBiKcos a7ro\\v/nvos KpeiTTwv elfJU TWV avaipovv- 
TCOV ' Koi 70,1)7' elrrcbv TrapeBwK r5> /5/jo^o) 701 

2 -1\0l' KOV<TLCdS. 6 

eirl ra? Ovpas, Kal TIJV '^yijcricrTpaTav jrpocr- 
irecrovcrav avra) Bia crvvi]@eiav KCU { (>I\LCLV ava- 
cr7?;'(7a?, ov&ev e<prf Trepl TOV \\yiv ecrecrdai ftiaiov 
ov8e avi]KG"rov eieeXeve Be Ka/ceivrjv, el /3ov\oiTO, 
Trpos roi> viov el<re\6elv. etceiinjs Be teal rr t v 
H&T' airrfft wapeivai $eofJLvi)s ovSev 
3 o \ 


TTporepav p.ev rrjv ' A.p%i8a/juav Tr 

<T(f)6^pa TrpecrftuTiv ovcrav Kal KarayeyijpaKvlai' 
ev a^KOfiari p.yi(n(i) rcov 7ro\iTiB(0v, drroOavov- 
(TJjs Be efceLvrf; eKe\evcre TIJV ' A^y^aLcrrpdrav ecrco 

4 /3a$ieiv. 0)9 Be lae\6ov(ja TOV Te vibv eOedcraTo 
\aaal Keifievov Kal 7/;z' fj.i-jTepa veKpav eK TOV 
fipo^ov KpepafJLevrjv, exeivrjv fiev au7?; 70?? vrrrfpe- 
7af? crvyKaOelXe Kal TrapeKTeii-acra ra5 *A.yi8i TO 

7repie<TT6i\e Kal KaTeKaXv^e" T) Be vlu> 
Kal (j)i\i'/<racra TO TrpocrcoTrov, " C H 
7ro\\?;' cr," elrrev, " w rral, ev\d/3eia Kal TO Trpaov 

5 Kal i\dv9u)7rov a~'j}\e<je xeO" 7twi'." o Be 

CITTO 7>}? GvpcLS opwv TO, yivo/j.ei>a Kal 

e, Ka 
/X67' opyffc eiTTev " Et Tolwv? ec/)?;, 

eSoiei/JLa^e^ TW viw, TavTa Kal freury." 

) ' Xyrjcna-TpaTa TT/PO? TOV 


"My man/' said he, "cease weeping; for even 
though I am put to death in this lawless and unjust 
manner, I have the better of my murderers." And 
saying these words, he offered his neck to the noose 
without hesitation. But Amphares went to the door 
of the prison, where Agesistrata fell at his feet in an 
appeal to his friendship and intimacy. Amphares 
lifted her up and assured her that Agis was not to 
suffer violence or death ; and he bade her, if she 
wished, go in to her son. And when Agesistrata 
begged that her mother might go in with her, 
Amphares said there was nothing to prevent. So 
he admitted both the women, and after ordering 
the door of the prison to be locked again, delivered 
Archidamia first to the executioners. She was now 
a very aged woman, and had lived all her days in 
very high repute among her countrywomen. After 
she had been put to death, Amphares ordered 
Agesistrata to enter the chamber of execution. So 
she went in, and when she saw her son lying dead 
upon the ground, and her mother's dead body still 
hanging in the noose, with her own hands she helped 
the officers to take her down, laid her body out by 
the side of Agis, and composed and covered it. 
Then, embracing her son and kissing his face, she 
said : " My son, it was thy too great regard for 
others, and thy gentleness and humanity, which has 
brought thee to ruin, and us as well." Then 
Amphares, who stood at the door and saw and heard 
what she did and said, came in and said angrily to 
her : " If, then, thou hast been of the same mind as 
thy son, thou shalt also suffer the same fate." And 
Agesistrata, as she rose to present her neck to the 



Movov," <>;, " crvveveyKai Tavra rfj 

XXI. ToO Be TrdOovs et? rr/f TTO\LV e 
Oivros Kol TWV rpiwv o~wjj,drcov eKKOfJU^o^evdnv ovtc 

o >oySo9 OVTO) fjieyas, ware fJLrf KaTatyaveis elvat 

TOI;? TroXtra? dXyovvras fiV eVt rot? 
Be TOV AewviBav teal TOV ' 
ev Beivorepov /jirjBe dvcKTiayrepov e^ ov 
TIe\07r6vvr]crov olfcovaiv olofievovs ev ^Trdprrj TTC- 

2 irpa^OaL. j3d(Ti\el yap, w? eoLK, AaKeBatfj,oviwv 
ovBe ol 7ro\efuot pa&iws eVrat? yiia^ 
irpoaefyepov ra? %lpa$, aXV direrperrovro 

KOI oreftoiJtevoi, TO aj~LwjjLa. Bio KOI TTO\\MV ye<yo- 
VOTCDV AatceBai/jLovLOis ay^vwv jrpos r/ Ei\\rjva<s el? 
/uoz/09 dvypedr) Trpb rwv <&i\i7nritc&v Bopari, TT\r)- 
7619 7re/ot AevKrpa KXeo/z/9/30TO?. ^Lecrcrrjvitov Be 


3 ou <^)acri Aa/ceBai/jiovioi, irKTjyijvat Be p,6vov. d\~\a 
ravra p.ev e^et Tivas d/jL^iXoyias. ev Be Aa/ceBai- 
IJLOVI TT/JCUTO? *A7*9 fiacriXevwv VTTO TO)V e(f>6pcov 

, /ca\d fjiev epya real Trpeirovra rfj ^irdpjy 
e yeyovcbs ev y dp.aprd- 
vovres av0pa)7roio-v<yyva>fj,'r]<; Tvy%dvovo~i, /zeya^^ek 


KOI AewvLBav Trepieo-wo-e teal rot? a'XXoi? eVt- 

KCU TrpaoraTos 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xx. 5 -xxi. 3 

noose, said : " My only prayer is that this may bring 
good to Sparta." 

XXI. YVhen tidings of the sad event had been 
carried to the city and the three bodies were carried 
forth for burial, the fear felt by the citizens was not 
so strong as to prevent them from manifesting sorrow 
over what had been done, and hatred for Leonidas 
and Amphares. It was thought that nothing more 
dreadful or heinous had been done in Sparta since 
the Dorians had dwelt in Peloponnesus. For against 
a king of the Lacedaemonians, as it seems, not 
even their enemies would willingly raise their hands 
if they met him in battle, but they would spare 
him, out of fear and reverence for his dignity. 
And for this reason, although there had been 
many conflicts between Lacedaemonians and other 
Greeks, only one Spartan king had been slain up 
to the time of Philip of Macedon, namely, Cleom- 
brotus, who was smitten by a spear at Leuctra. 1 
The Messenians, however, say that Theopompus also 
fell in battle, at the hands of Aristomenes ; but the 
Lacedaemonians deny this, and say that their king 
was only wounded. This matter may be disputed : 
but Agis was certainly the first king of Sparta to be 
put to death by the ephors. And yet he had chosen 
a line of conduct that was noble and worthy of Sparta, 
and was of an age in which men are usually pardoned 
for their errors, and his friends could with more 
justice blame him than his enemies, because he 
spared the life of Leonidas, and, most mild and 
gentle man that he was, put faith in his other foes. 

1 See the Pelopldas, xxiii. 




I. 'KnoOavovTos Be avrov TOV /uev dBe\<bbv 805 
'Ap%iBa/jiov OVK e<f)0-r) (rv\\a/3eiv 6 
e/cffrvybma, TTJV Be yvraiKa TrcuSbOV 
veoyvbv etc r?}? olfcias drrayaycDV /3ta 


TIJV Be avOpa)7Tov a\\(p SoOr/vai 
r)V jap overlap re /j.eyaXri^ 7TiK\i)po$ TJ ' 
Tv\L7nrov rov Trarpos, copa re KOL Ka\\ei TTO\V 
TWV 'E'XXrjviSwv SiCKpepovaa teal TOV Tpojrov 
CTTieiKifc. Sib TroAAa fjiev erroL^o'ev, co? (fiadi, /Arj 
ftiaa9r)va(, Seo/jLevrj, avi><ik6ovo-a Se tt? ravrb TCO 
KXeo/jieveL TOV fjiev AewviSav e/jiiaeL, Trepl Be avrbv 
TOV veav'iCTKov r^v ayadrj yvvr] KOL (f)i\6crTOpyos, 

iKws afia TU> \aftelv TT/JO? 
i TLva Tponov av/j.TraOovi'Ta TTJ TT/OO? TOV 

evvoia Kal jLVr T>9 vvaiKos, wcrre /cal rrvv- 

7roXXa/ci? nepl TWV yeyovoTwv 
eTrf/u-eXw? Sn^OL'/zeVr;? efceivr)? T)V b 
e Bidvoiav Kal Trpoaipecnv. 
Be /cal (friXorifjios fjiev Kal ^eya\6(f)pa)i' 6 
Kal TT/QO? ey/cpdreiav /cal dtyeXetav ov% 
TOV "AyiBos ev TretyvKws, TO ^e ev\a/3es 
ayav e/ceivo /cal irpaov OVK ei^ei 1 , d\\a Kevrpov TI 
dvfjiov TT) (frvaei Trpoae/ceiTo /cal //-era ff<poBp6ryj- 
TO? opfjbr) 7T/309 TO (^aivbfjLevov del Ka\bv. e^alve-TO 
Be /cd\\L(TTov fjiev avru) /cpareiv e/covTwv, /ca\6v 
Be /cal fjLr] Tf&iQo^vwv Trepielvai TT/JO? TO fte\Tiov 



I. Upon the death of Agis l his brother Archidamus 
at once took to flight, and thus escaped arrest at the 
hands of Leonidas ; but his wife, who had an infant 
son, was taken from her home by Leonidas and com- 
pelled to marry his son Cleomenes. Cleomenes was 
too young for marriage, but Leonidas was unwilling 
to have Agiatis marry anyone else. For she was heir 
to the great estate of her father Gylippus, in youthful 
beauty she far surpassed the other women of Greece, 
and she had an excellent disposition. Therefore she 
begged most earnestly, we are told, that she should 
not be forced into this marriage, but after she 
was united to Cleomenes, though she hated Leonidas, 
to the young man himself she was a good and affec- 
tionate wife. And he, as soon as Agiatis was his, 
became passionately fond of her, and in a way sym- 
pathized with her devotion to the memory of Agis, 
so that he would often ask her about the career of 
Agis, and listen attentively as she told of the plans 
and purposes which Agis had formed. 

And, besides, Cleomenes was aspiring and magna- 
nimous, and no less prone by nature than Agis to 
self-restraint and simplicity. He had not, however, 
the scrupulous and gentle nature for which Agis was 
remarkable, and his natural courage was always 
goading him on, as it were, and fiercely impelling him 
towards that which in any case appeared to be the 
honourable course. He thought it a most excellent 
thing to rule over willing subjects, but a good thing 
also to subdue such subjects as were disobedient, and 
force them towards the better goal. 

1 About 241 B.a 


II. OvK Jjpe&Ke /JLeV OVV dVTO) TO, Kara T1]V 

7r6\iv, CLTrpay/jiOcrvvrj real rjBovf) KaTaKeKi-jXrjfjLei'wv 
T0)v 7ro\iTwv Kal TOV (3a<Ti\ew<$ TrdvTa TO, irpdy- 
fjiara %aipeiv ecoiro?, el /nr/Bels avTOv vo%\oir) 
cryoXa^eii; ev afyOovoLS tcai rpv(>dv /3ov\6/nvov, 
du\ov/j.ev(0v Se TWV KOIV&V, rear olrciav kKciarov 
Trpo? avrbv eXtcovros TO Kep$a\eov dcrK^aew^ 
Be Kal (jwfypcxTvvris rewv Kal Kaprepias teal icro- 
TT;TO? ov$e acr^aXe? rjv TOVTWV rwv Trepl *A.yi,v 

Be Kal \oywv <$>i\ocr6(f)c0v rov K.\eo- 
'xeiv en fxeipctKiov ovra, ^(fraipov TOV 
BopvcrOeviTov Trapa(3a\6vTo<; eh TTJV AaKeBai/jiova 
Kal Trepl TOVS veovs Kal TOV$ <f>i]/3ovs OVK ayiteXw? 
SiaTpijBovTos. o Be 2</>ai/oo? ev rot? TrpcoTois eye- 
TWV Ziijvwvos TOV KtTiew? fj,ad^T(t)i>, Kal TOV 
eoiKe TT}? ^ucrew? TO dvBpwBes dya- 

T Kal TrpocreKKavaai Trjv 
3 AewviBav /j,ev yap TOV Tra\aibv \eyovo-iv, eirepw- 
7To?o? Ti? avTw (fraiveTai, 7ron)Trjs ye- 

Tu/3rat09> elirelv "'Aya^o? veu>v 

/jL7rnr~\.d/jLevoi yap viro TMV 
evOova'iaa'iJLOv Trapd ra? /ita^a? rj<peiBovv 
o Be ^TCOIKOS Xoyo? e^ei TL TTpos ra? 
(frvcreis Kal oaa? eVfcr^aXe? Kal irapd- 
fio\ov, (Badel Be Kal irpam Kepavvv^evos jjOei, 
udXiaTa et? TO olxelov dyaOov eTTiBiBcocriv. 
III. 'Evret Be TeXeuT^^crayTO? TOU AewviBov rrjv 
?ra/)eXa/9e Kal TOU? TroXtTa? TOTC Bij 
eVXeXu/zeVou? ewpa, TWV /.iev TT\OV- 
criwv Ka@* rjBoi'd? ISia? Kal vrXeoi'e^ta? Trapo- 


II. Of course, then, the condition of the city was 
not pleasing to him. The citizens had been lulled to 
sleep by idleness and pleasure ; the king was willing 
to let all public business go, provided that no one 
thwarted his desire for luxurious living in the midst 
of his wealth ; the public interests were neglected, 
while every man was eagerly intent upon his own 
private gain; and as for practice in arms, self-restraint 
in the young, hardiness, and equality, it was even 
dangerous to speak of these now that Agis was dead 
and gone. 

It is said also that Cleomenes studied philosophy 
when he was still a stripling, after Sphaerus of 
Borysthenis had made a voyage to Sparta and busied 
himself sedulously there with the youth and young 
men. Sphaerus had become one of the leading 
disciples of Zeno of Citium, and it would appear that 
he admired the manly nature of Cleomenes and in- 
creased the fires of his high ambition. For Leonidas 
of old, as we are told, when asked what manner of 
poet he thought Tyrtaeus to be, replied; "A good 
one to inflame the souls of young men." And indeed 
they were filled with divine inspiration by his poems, 
and in battle were prodigal of their lives. However, 
for great and impetuous natures the Stoic doctrines 
are somewhat misleading and dangerous, although 
when they permeate a deep and gentle character, 
they redound most to its proper good. 

III. But at the death of Leonidas 1 Cleomenes 
came to the throne, and saw that the citizens 
were by that time altogether degenerate. The rich 
neglected the common interests for their own private 

1 In 235 B.C. Cleomenes was then about twenty -four years 
of age. 

TOL. T. 53 


pcf)VT(0v TO, Kotvd, TWV Be TroXXooi/ Bid rb 
Trepl TCL ol/ceia KCU irpb^ TOV 
teal 7T/9O? TTjV ajwjrjv 
avTOv Be ovo^a {BaaiXevovTOs 

2 fjibvov, TI Be dp\i] Trdcra TGOV e<$bpu>v, evOvs 

et? vovv e0TO TCL TrctpovTct pzQ iGTcuvai real Kivelv, 
6Wo? Be avTM <f)i\ov Izevdpovs, epaarov <yeyovbro<$ 
(TOVTO Be efJurvelaOai Aa/ceBai/jiovLOi 

rovrov Biairvv6avop.ei>os TOV * 
ryevoiro fiaai\evs KOI T'IVI Tpbirw KOI 
ejrl TUVT^V e\9oi Tr/v 6B6v. b Be 
TO fjiev TrpwTov OVK drjBws e/me/^i>r)TO TWV irpay- 
p,aT<t)v erceivfov, <W9 eTrpd^Or] tcaff efcaaTa fMv0o\o- 806 

3 <ywv KOL Bir/yov/jievos' co? Be rjv KaTafyavr) 1 ? b 

efjiTraOecrTepou Trpoae^wv KCU KLVOV- 
77730? TYJV KaivoTo^iav TOV "AyiBo? 

KOI Tavra TroXXa/ff? dicoveiv 

W 7T/309 bpyr)V b 

i re'Xo? direaTrj TOV Bia\<yea'0ai KOI <$>OLTCLV 
avTov, ovBevl ^kvTOi TTJV aiTiav efipaae T?}? 
Bia(f)0pa$, aA,X' CLVTOV efii] yivwcr/ceiv eitelvov. 
4 Oi/rft) ^e TOV tlevdpovs dvTiKpovcravTOS b KXeo- 
teal TOL/? aXXou? o^ota)? e^eiv 
ev eavTro <rvveTi0ei TTJV Trpafyv. 
8* av ev TToXe/xw p,a\\ov r) /car' elpijwrjv 
aai TCL Trapbvra, crvveKpovcre TT/JOV rou? 

Trjv Trb\tv, avTovs BiBbi'Tas e<yK\r)/jidTQ)v Trpo- 
(f)d(rei<t. b yap "A/oaro? Icr^ycov ^L^KJTOV ev rot? 
*A^aiot? efBovkeTO /JLCV e dp%rjs et? /j,iav avvTa^iv 
dyayeiv T\.e\OTrovvria-iov<;, Kal TOVTO TWV 7ro~\Xwv 
CLVT& KUL TT}? p.aKpd^ TroXtreta? t]v 



pleasure and aggrandizement; the common people, 
because of their wretched state at home, had lost all 
readiness for war and all ambition to maintain the 
ancient Spartan discipline; and he himself, Cleomenes, 
was king only in name, while the whole power was 
in the hands of the ephors. He therefore at once 
determined to stir up and change the existing order 
of things, and as he had a friend, Xenares, who had 
been his lover (or inspirer, as the Spartans say), he 
would make trial of his sentiments by inquiring in 
detail what sort of a king Agis had been, and in what 
way and with what assistants he had entered upon 
the course of action so fatal to him. At first Xenares 
was quite glad to recall those matters, and rehearsed 
the events at length and in detail ; but when it was 
apparent that Cleomenes took an unusual interest in 
the story, and was profoundly stirred by the innova- 
tions of Agis, and wished to hear about him over and 
over again, Xenares rebuked him angrily, calling him 
unsound in mind, and finally stopped visiting and 
conversing with him. To no one, however, did he 
tell the reason of their variance, but merely said that 
Cleomenes understood it. 

And so Cleomenes, finding Xenares averse, and 
thinking that everybody else was of like mind with 
him, began to arrange his project all by himself. 
And because he thought that he could better bring 
about his reforms in time of war than in the midst of 
peace, he embroiled the state with the Achaeans, 
who were themselves giving grounds for complaint. 
For Aratus, the most powerful man among the 
Achaeans, was from the outset desirous of bringing 
all the Peloponnesians into one confederation, and 
this was the end pursued by him during his many 



av oi/Tft>9 

6 ZcreaOai TO?? eVro? iroKefjiio^. eVet 3e T&V d\\wv 
(r%toov drrdvTwv avTU) TTpocryeyovoTwv ttTreXet- 
TTOVTO AaKeBai/Liovioi Kal 'HXetot teal ooroi Aarce- 
^ai/JiovioL^ 'Ap/cdSwv Trpoael^ov, ajJLO, rw rov 
Aewvi&av cnroOaveiv 7raprfvu>-^\et, rot? 'Ap/cdcri Kal 
TrepietcoTrrev avT&v jjidXiara TOU? rot? 

/cal rov KXeo/jievovs co? veov Kal direipov Kara* 

IV. 'E/c TOVTOV KXeofMevrj Trpwrov ol e 

ara\ri^rop.evov TO irepl rrjv Be\/3ivav 
. e/x/SoXr/ Be TT}? AaKwviKrjs TO 
eVrt, Kal Tore vrpo? TOI;? MeyaXoTroXt'ra? 
&LKOV. KaTa\afBovTOs Be TOVTO Kal 
TOU KXeo/zeVou? o "A/jaro? ovdev e'-y/caXeVa?, aXXa 
VVKTOS eKGrparevcras eTre^eiprjae Teyedrai^ Kal 
2 J Op%o/uieviot<$. TWV Be irpo^orwv dTroBeiKLacrdvTwv 
6 /iei/ "A/oaro? dve^jcap^cfe \e\rjdevai VOJJLL^WV, o 
Se KXeoyLteVr;? elpwvela %pc0[j,evos eypatye 

y a)? 8^ irapa <^L\ov TrvvOavo/JLevos trov 
OS e%e\0oi. rov Be avriypatyavros w? e 

/JLe\\etv Tei^i^eiv aKovcra? Kara/Bail] 
TOVTO K(D\V<J(I)V, ird\iv 6 

Kal Ta? /cXt/^a/tac," etjrev, " el /JLTJ TL aoi 

Bia(j)epei t rypdtyov f)iMV, em Tt crof irapr]KO\ov- 
3 QovvT TOV Be ' ApaTov vrpo? TO cr/cw^a <ye\d- 
Kal TTvvOavofievov TTOIO? Tt? o veavitr/eos 
o AaKeBai/novLOS (frvyds, " Et 

" TT/OO? aKeaijjLovovs, wpa 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, in. 4 -iv. 3 

generalships and his long political activity, since he 
was of the opinion that in this way alone would they 
be safe from the attacks of their enemies without. 
Nearly all the other Peloponnesians adopted his views, 
but the Lacedaemonians, the Eleians, and the Arca- 
dians who sided with the Lacedaemonians, held aloof. 
Therefore, as soon as Leonidas was dead, Aratus be- 
gan to harass the Arcadians, and ravaged the terri- 
tories of those especially who were adjacent to Achaea. 
His object was to put the Lacedaemonians to the 
test, and he despised Cleomenes as a young and in- 
experienced man. 

IV. Upon this, the ephors began operations by 
sending Cleomenes to occupy the precinct of Athena 
at Belbina. This commands an entrance into Laconia, 
and was at that time a subject of litigation with the 
Megalopolitans. After Cleomenes had occupied and 
fortified this place, Aratus made no public protest, 
but led out his forces one night and tried to surprise 
Tegea and Orchomenus. Those who were to betray 
the places to him, however, played the coward, and 
Aratus withdrew, thinking that his attempt had 
escaped notice. But Cleomenes wrote him an ironical 
letter, inquiring, as from a friend, whither he had 
marched out in the night. Aratus wrote back that 
hearing of Cleomenes' intention to fortify Belbina he 
had gone down there to prevent it. Whereupon 
Cleomenes sent back word again that he believed 
this story to be true; "but those torches and ladders," 
said he, "if it is all one to thee, tell me for what 
purpose thou hadst them with thee." Aratus burst 
out laughing at the jest, and inquired what manner 
of youth this was. Whereupon Damocrates, the 
Lacedaemonian exile, replied : " If thou hast designs 



aoi Ta^vveiv Trpb TOV KevTpa (pvcrai TOVTOV TOV 



'E/e TOVTOV KXeo/teVet yuero. iTnriwv oXiycov Kal 
TpLaKoaiwv ev 'Ap/oiSia crTpaTOTreSevo/jLevw 
irpocreTa^av dva^wpelv ol e^opoi, (>o(3ov/j,voi TOV 
4 TcoKefiov. eirel 8e dvaj(wpri(TavTO^ avTov Kac^ua? 
\a/3ev 6 "ApaTO?, av0i<? e^eire/jiTrov TOV KXeo- 
/nevrj. Xa/Soi'To? Se avTov MeOvSpiov Kal TTJV 
KaTaSpa/novTOS, e^e&TpdTevcrav ol 
$(crp,vpiois Tre^ot? Kal p^tXtot? r; 

KXeo/xei'OL'? /cat fiovXo/jievov 
, (f)o/3?jdels TTJV To\fiav 6 "Aparo? OVK 
eiacre BiaKivSwevcrat. TOV aTpaTiyyov, aXX' a7rrj\0e 
\oi&o povfjievos p,ev VTTo TWV 'Axaiwv, y^keva^o- 
Se Kal KaTa^povov/jLevo^ VTTO TMV AaxeSai- 
ovoe TrevTaKKT^iXiwv TO 7r\f}@os OVTWV. 

ovv TU> <oviiaTi <e<ova)<; 6 

TT/PO? TOU? TroXtra?, Kal TWV 
aurou? dve/jLi/jLvrjcTKe (BaaiKewv GITTOVTOS ov 
QTI l AaKeSaifjiovioi TcvvOdvovTai Trepl TWV 

iwV t OV TTOCTOi 61CTLV, d\\a 7TOV 6L(riV. 

V. Evret 8e rot? 'HXe/ot? TroXe/xou^te^oi? VTTO 
TWV ^A^aia)v (SoyO rfGras t Kal Trepl TO AvKaiov 

jBrj rot? 'A^ctfOi? 7TL^a\(t)v, airav /nev 807 
Kal SieTTTOijcrev avTwv TO 

dveiXe Kal ^covTas eXa/Bev, cocrre 
Trepl 'Aparof (p'rjfjirjv exTreaeiv et? roi'9 
a)? TedvrjKOTOS, o fjiev "Aparo? apiaia TW Kaipy 
K TT}? T/JOTT?}? eKeiv^ evOvs eVl 

ou /uarrjy 6Vi Sinteuis (com.) and Blass, after 
Stephanus : tlirAvros on \ta.Ti\v (MSS.). 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, iv. 3 -v. i 

upon the Lacedaemonians, see that thou hastenest, 
before this young cock grows his spurs." 

After this, when Cleomenes with a few horsemen 
and three hundred foot-soldiers was making an expe- 
dition in Arcadia, the ephors, fearing the issue of the 
war, ordered him to come back home. After he had 
returned, however, Aratus seized Caphyae, and the 
ephors sent Cleomenes forth again. He seized Me- 
thydrium and overran the territory of Argolis, where- 
upon the Achaeans marched out with twenty thousand 
foot-soldiers and a thousand horsemen under Aristo- 
machus as general. Cleomenes met them at Pallan- 
tium and offered battle, but Aratus, in fear of this 
boldness, would not suffer his general to hazard the 
issue, and retired. For this he was reproached by 
the Achaeans, and jeered at and despised by the 
Lacedaemonians, who were less than five thousand 
strong. Cleomenes was therefore greatly lifted up 
in spirit and began to show a bold front to the citizens ; 
and he would often remind them of one of their 
ancient kings 1 who said, and not idly either, " The 
Lacedaemonians are wont to ask, not how many, but 
where, their enemies are." 

V. After this, he went to the aid of the Eleians, 
upon whom the Achaeans were making war, and 
falling upon the Achaeans near Mt. Lycaeum, as they 
were withdrawing, he put their entire army to panic 
flight, slew great numbers of them, and took many 
prisoners, so that even Aratus was widely reported 
among the Greeks to be dead. But Aratus, making 
the best use of his opportunity, immediately after 

1 Agis II. (427-398 B.C.); cf. the Morals, pp. 190 c; 
215 d. 



Mavriveiav ?)\9e KOI /z^Sez/o? dv TrpocrBoKijcravros 
2 el\e rr]v rro\iv KOI Karea%e, rcov Be 

rravrdrracri rat? va)/Aai<; dvarreaovrwv KOI TO> 

K\eo/jLvei vrpo? ra? arpareias e 

fjirjcre /neraTTe/^Treadat rov "A^ytSo? d$e\(f)ov ' 

SdfJLOV /C M.(T(7rjVT]<;, <j> /3a<Tl\VeiV CLTTO T 

olrcia? TJV Trpocrfjfcov, olo/nevos afjL^\vrepav TTJV rcov 

3 A^al o\oK\rjpov <yevofjLevri<$. ol Be avr)pr)Ko r res irpo- 
repov TOV* k<yiv alaQo^voi TOVTO, fcal (f)o/3r)6ei'TS 
fir) BLKIJV BW<TI rov *Ap%i$dfj,ov /caTe\06i>Tos, eSe- 
%CLVTO fjiev avrov ei? TVJV TTQ\,IV irapa'yevo^Levov 
vfya KOL o-wyKaTrjyov, ev9vs Be aTrktcizivav, etre 

a/covros TOU KXcoyLteVou?, &)? oterat 
elre Treicrflei'Tos iiiro TWV $i\wv real 7rpoe/j,evov rbv 
avOpwrrov avrols. rfjs yap dina? TO rr\el(Trov eV 
etceivovs rfkOe fteftidaOai rov KXeoyLteV^ Borcovvras. 
VI. Ou priv d\\a Kivelv evOus eyvwfecos ra Kara 
rrjv rro\iv, eVetcre TOU? e'^opoi;? xptfpatnv OTTO)? 
avrw tyijcfiia'wvrai crrpareiav. eOepaTrevcre e ical 
rwv d\\o)i> cru^ou? Bid TT}? 

<p6iBo)s crvy%opr)'yov(Tr) / $ Kal 
, r) ye Kal yd/Jiov /JLTJ Beo/j.ei'rj \eyerai, Bid 
rov vlov dvBpa \aftelv rrpwrevovra Bo^rj Kal 
2 Bvvd/Jiei rwv rro\ira)v. effayayobv Be rrjv arpa- 
reiav Kara^\.a/jt,{3dvei, T?}? MeyaXoTroXtVtSo? %wpiov 
AevKrpa' Kal yevo/JLevij? vryoo? avrov o^eta? rwv 


AG1S AND CLEOMENES, v. i-vi. 2 

this defeat marched to Mantineia, and to everybody's 
surprise captured and held the city. At this the 
Lacedaemonians were altogether disheartened and 
opposed any further expedition on the part of Cleo- 
menes. He therefore determined to summon from 
Messene the brother of Agis, Archidamus, 1 who was 
the rightful king from the other royal house, thinking 
that the power of the ephors would be diminished 
if the royal power were restored to its full strength so 
as to counterbalance it. But those who had formerly 
murdered Agis comprehended this design, and fear- 
ing that they would pay the penalty for their crime 
if Arcliidamus was restored, thev did indeed receive 

+ / 

him when he came secretly into the city, and 
assisted in his restoration, but immediately put 
him to death. Cleomenes may have been opposed 
to this, as Phylarchus thinks, or perhaps he was 
persuaded by his friends to abandon the hapless man 
to his murderers. For the greater part of the blame 
attached itself to them, since they were thought to 
have constrained Cleomenes. 

VI. However, having determined to attempt at 
once his reforms in the state, Cleomenes bribed the 
ephors to send him on an expedition. He also won 
the favour of large numbers of the citizens with the 
help of his mother Cratesicleia, who assisted him 
liberally in providing ways and means, and shared 
his ambitions. It is even said that although she had 
no desire to marry again, for the sake of her son she 
took a husband who was foremost among the citizens 
in reputation and influence. So Cleomenes led forth 
his forces and occupied Leuctra, a stronghold of 
Megalopolis. The Achaeans, under the command of 

1 See chapter i. 1. 



(SorjOelas 'Apdrov err parity ovvro<$, VTTO 
rrjv TroXiv avrrjv Trapara^dfjievos i]rri'-j9ri fiepei 
Tivl rov arparev/jiaros. errel Se %apd8pav nvd 

OVK el'aae ^iajBrvai TOU? 'Amou? 6 

3 "Aparos, aXX' eVecrr^cre TI^V &l 
Se AvSidSas 6 


KOI rd<f)p(i)v KOL iziyJMV fiearbv eVo-etcra? 

8iacnraa'0els irepl ravra 

$a)v 6 K.\fOfjLevrj<? dvrjfce Tovs'Ydpavrivovs teal TOL>? 

K^^ra? eV avrov, v(f>* a)v 6 Av&idSas d^vvop.ei>o^ 

up(t)O"rco$ eVecre. TT/JO? rovro Oappijo-avres ol 
/nerd /Soi)? eve/3a\ov roZ? ' 
\ov rov crrparv/j,aro^ 

4 diroOavovrwv Se avyy&v TOU? /uei' aXXoi;? UTTO- 
CTTTO^SOU? 6 KXeo^te^? aTre'&rotfe, TOZ^ 8e 

vetcpov d^Orfvai TT/OO? avrov KeKevcras, 

iSi, teal crrefyavov emOeis, 77/309 ra9 

. ouro? 

6 Kara&e/uevos rr)i> rvpavviSa Kal rot? 
aTToSot'9 T^I/ 6\,ev0epiav Kal rrjv 7ro\iv 

VII. 'E/e rovrov KXeo/jievris /jLeya (ppovwv rj^rj, 



7TLKparr)(jeiv, eSiSacrKe rov r/}9 yLt^T/309 dvSpa 

009 %/3^ TCOI^ etyopwv drra\\a<yev'Ta / s 
6elvai rd Krrf/^ara rot? 7ro\i~aL<^ Kal 
rr/v 2<7rdprr)v larjv yei'Ofievrjv eyeipeiv Kal Trpodyeiv 
eVt r^f T7}9 'EXXaSo9 rjyefjLoviav. rfeKrOkvro^ 8' 
Kivov Svo rwv d\\wv (f)i\Q)v rj rpeis Trpocre- 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, vi. 2-vn. i 

Aratus, came swiftly to the aid of their allies against 
him, and Cleomenes, after drawing up his forces under 
the very walls of the city, was worsted at one point. 
But Aratus would not permit the Achaeans to cross 
a certain deep ravine, and brought his pursuit to a 
stop. Lydiadas the Megalopolitan, however, chafing 
at this, dashed on with the horsemen under his com- 
mand, and pursuing the enemy into a place full of 
vines, ditches, and walls, had his ranks broken and 
thrown into disorder thereby, and bes;an to fall into 

* * o 

difficulties. Cleomeiies, observing this, sent against 
him his Tarentines and Cretans, at whose hands 
Lydiadas, defending himself sturdily, fell. At this 
the Lacedaemonians took courage and with a shout 
fell upon the Achaeans and routed their entire army. 
Great numbers of them were slain, and their bodies 
Cleomenes restored at the enemy's request; but the 
body of Lydiadas he asked to have brought to him, 
arrayed it in a purple robe and put a crown upon 
the head, and then sent it back to the gates of 
Megalopolis. This was the Lydiadas who renounced 
the tyranny, gave back to the citizens their freedom, 
and attached the city to the Achaean league. 

VII. After this, Cleomenes, being now greatly 
elated, and persuaded that if he could keep the 
control of things entirely in his own hands during 
the war with the Achaeans, he would easily obtain 
the mastery, began to instruct his mother's husband, 
Megistonoiis, that they must needs get rid of the 
ephors, put the property of the citizens into a 
common stock, and rouse and incite the Spartans, 
thus put upon their old footing of equality, to 
assume the supremacy in Greece. Megistonoiis was 
convinced, and enlisted in the cause two or three of 
his friends besides. 



2 ^vveftrj Be rrepi ra? rjuepas etceivas /cal rcov 
efyopwv eva /coi/j,a)/ji6vov ev Tlacr/^aa? ovap IBeiv 
OavfJLacrrov eB6/cei <ydp ev w TOTTM rot? efyopois 
$09 ecrrl /cafle^o/uLevots j^prffiaTi^eiv eva 8i(f>pov 
tcelcr@ai, TOU? 8e rerrapa? avijprj(r&ai, KOL 
&VTOS avrov $(t)i'r)v e/c rov tepov 

3 ^ovaav <w? TOVTO rfj ^Trdprrj \u>ov eari. ravrrjv 
rrjv o^riv Sirjyov/jievov rov efiopov Trpbs TOV KXeo- 808 
fjLi), TO fjiev TrpwTov Sierapd^drj /cad' V 

Tivd TTGipd^ecrO ai SOKWV, &>? Se eTreicrOr) 
&<T0ai rov >ir]>yov/Avov, eddpprjo-e. KOI \a/3u>v 
oVou? vrrooTTTeve /jidkicrra TWV 7ro\ira)v evavrio)- 
<T(T0ai 7T/309 rifv Trpd^iV, 'Hpaiav xal ^ A\aaiav 
ra? vroXet? rarro/^eva^ VTTO rot? 'A^atot? el\e, 
Ka\ crliov eiGijyayev 'Op^o/^e/a'oi?, /cal Mavnveia 

4 TrapecrrparoTreBevae, Kal 6'Xw? di'w /cal Karco 

Tro/oeuu? diroTpvaa^ TOU? 

direXnrev avrwv SerjOevrcov TOU? TroXXou? ev 
TOU? 8e jJiicrOofyopovs e^cov atro? eVl 
e^wpei. Ka\ /caQ' 68ov ol? eTTLcrreve 

TT/JO? avrbv e%eiv dve/coivouro 

KOL Trpor/ei (j-^eB^v, ct>? Trepl TO BeiTrvov 
overt, rot? ecfropois eViTrecroi. 

VIII. Tcvo/jievof Be TT}? TroXeco? eyyvs, Rvpv- 
K\eiSav /J,ev et? TO rcov e^opwv trvaaLnov djre- 
aTei\ev co? riva Trap' avrou \6jov diro arpanct? 
KO/j.iovTa, r)pv/CLQ)v Be /cal ^oi/^i? /cal Buo TWV 
(rvvrpofywv rov K.\eo/jLvovs, 01)9 {jboOatcas /caXov- 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, vn. 2-vin. i 

Now, it came to pass about that time that one of 
the ephors, who was sleeping in the precinct of 
Pasiphae, had an astonishing dream. He dreamed 
that in the place where the ephors were wont to sit 
for the prosecution of business, one chair only stood, 
but the other four had been taken away ; and that 
in his amazement at this a voice came to him from 
the temple saying that this was better for Sparta. 
This dream the ephor related to Cleomenes, who at 
first was much disturbed, and thought that the other 
had some suspicion of his design and was making trial 
of him ; but when he was convinced that the relater 
spoke the truth, his courage revived. So taking all 
the citizens who, as he suspected, would be most 
opposed to his designs, he seized Heraea and Alsaea, 
two cities belonging to the Achaean league, intro- 
duced supplies of food into Orchomenus, and en- 
camped by Mantineia, from whence he made long 
marches up and down the land, and utterly wore out 
the Lacedaemonians, so that it was at their own 
request that he left most of them in Arcadia, while 
with his mercenaries he himself set out for Sparta. 
On the march he imparted his design to those whom 
he believed to be most favourably disposed to him, 
and went forward slowly, that he might fall upon the 
ephors while they were at supper. 

VIII. When the city was close at hand, he sent 
Eurycleidas to the mess-table of the ephors, osten- 
sibly to carry some message of the king from the army; 
but Therycion, Phoebis, and two of the Helots, who 
had been bred up along with Cleomenes l (they call 
them " mothakes "), followed after with a few 

1 Such Helot companions afterwards became freemen, and 
sometimes even citizens in Sparta. 



en Be TOV T&vpVK\6iBa Bia'keyo/jievov rot? e<fiopoi<> 
emSpafiiovTes ecriracr/mevai^ Tat9 //a^atpat? eTreuov 
2 avTovs. 6 fjuev ovv 7r/90)T09 *A.yv\aios, &>? e f n-\rjyr) t 
7TO~a)i> Kal TeOvdvat B6as arpe^a crvvayayajv 
7rape\Kwv eavrov etc TOV olKijfjiaros e\aOev ei'? 
SwjAaTiov elcrepTTvcras /bUKpov, o <p6/3ou fiev 
iepov, aXXw9 Se KK\ei(7/jievov aei, Tore e'/e 
avewyfjievov eTvy^avev. et? TOVTO <jvveicrev r yKU)V 
eavrbv a7T6K\Lcre TO Bvpiov. ol Be Tea-crapes 
avrjpe0^crai>, KOI T&V eTTijBoriOovvTwv auroi? ov 
TrXetoi^e? 77 Be/ca. TOU? (y^/ 3 t]crv")(iav ayovras ovtc 
eKTeivav, ovBe TOU? aTTto^ra? eV T/}? TroXew? e 

ecfreicravTo Be Kal TOV 'Ayv\aiov 

e/c TOV Iepov Trpoe\9ovTOS. 

JX. "EcrTt Be AaKeBai/AovLois ov (f)6j3ov JJLOVOV, 
aXXa Kal OavaTOV Kal 7eXa)TO? Kal TOIOVTCOV 
a\\a)V TraO^fJLCiTwv tepd. TifJiuxri Be TOV 


{3\a/3ep6v, d\\a TYJV TroXiTeiav /zaXicrra avve- 
2 'xecrOai fyoftw VOJJLI^OVTGS. Bio Kal TrpoeKrjpvTTov 

o e<)opOL roi9 Trotrai? et? rrjv upx*l 


Trpoae^eLV rot9 VO^JLOL^, i'va fir) ^aXeTrol &CTIV 
aurot9* TO TOU fjLvaTaKos, ol/jiai, 

07TC09 ATal 7T6/)l TCL [JilKpOTaTa TOl/9 

Kal T7]v dvBpeiav Be \JLOI BOKOVCTIV OVK 
a$o(Biav, aXXa fyojSov -^rojov Kal Beos dBo^ias ol 
7i~a\aiol vo/jiL^eiv. ol <yap ^etXoTarot Trpos TOVS 
v6/j,ov<; 6appa\<t)TaTOt, irpos TO 1/9 TroXeyutoi'9 eld* 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, vm. i-ix. 3 

soldiers. These men, while Eurycleidas was still 
making his report to the ephors, ran in upon them 
with drawn swords and smote them. The first of 
them, Agylaeus, on receiving the blow, fell and lay 
still as though dead ; but afterwards he quietly pulled 
himself together, dragged himself out of the room, 
and crept unobserved into a little building which 
was a temple of Fear. Usually it was closed, but 
at this time it chanced to be open. Into this build- 
ino; he betook himself and locked the door. But 


the other four were slain, and also about ten of 
those who came to their aid. For the people who 
kept quiet were not killed, nor were those who 
wished to leave the city prevented. And even 
Agylaeus was spared when he came out of the 
temple next day. 

IX. Now, the Lacedaemonians have temples of 
Death, Laughter, and that sort of thing, as well as of 
Fear. And they pay honours to Fear, not as they do 
to the powers which they try to avert because they 
think them baleful, but because they believe that fear 
is the chief support of their civil polity. For this 
reason, too, when the ephors enter upon their office, 
as Aristotle says, they issue a proclamation command- 
ing all men to shave their moustaches, and to obey 
the laws, that these may not be severe upon them. 
They insist upon the shaving of the moustache, I 
think, in order that they may accustom the young 
men to obedience in the most trifling matters. And 
the men of old, in my opinion, did not regard 
bravery as a lack of fear, but as fear of reproach 
and dread of disgrace. For the men who feel 
most dread of the laws have most courage in 


Kal TO Tradelv V\KIGTCL Seoiacnv ol pokier TO- <f>o/3ov 
4 pevoi TO KCIKWS oKovaai. Sib /cal /ca\a)<$ o elircov 

v \ ^ / "/i \ '^' 
. . . iva yap 6eo9, ei^c/a /tat atooo?. 

? T /^ot eaai, <f>i\e etcvpe, Set^o? re 

TO <yap ala")(yvea9ai //.aXicrra avfjiftaivei irpo^ of;? 
t TO SeSoitcevai Tot9 TroXXot?. 3to /cat ?ra/?a TO 
<p6pa>v crvaffiTLOv TOV fyojBov iSpuvTai Aaxe- 
iJ,ovap%ia<$ eyyuTciTco 


X. 'O S* ovv K.\eo/jLvr)s T^yue 

oy^o^Kovra TWV 7ro\t,TO)v 01)9 e 
i, /cal TOU? &L(j)povs avel\e TMV efiopwv 
evos, ev c5 KadtjfAevos e/jL\\V CLVTOS xpij- 
iv. KK\rja-iav Se 7rot>;Va? direXoyeiTo irepl 
TreTrpay/jievwv. ex/; yap VTTO TOV Av/covpyou 
Tot? /3acn\V(TL (rv^/jLix&ijvai TOI)? yepovTas, Kal 


2 eTe/ja? aycr^r}? $eo[ivr)v, vaTepov ^e ToO TT/JO? 
TTO\/JLOV fjiaicpov yevo/Aevov TOV<$ fia- 

7T/J09 TO KpiveiVy aipetadai Tivas etc T&V <f)i\a)i> 
KOI a7ro\L7reiv Tot9 7roXtTat9 ai^^' eauT&v, (f)6povs 809 

Kal &taTe\elv ye Toi/roi/9 TO 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, ix. 3 -x. 2 

facing their enemies; and those shun death least 
who most fear ill fame. Therefore it has been well 
said 1 : 

"... for where dread is, there also is reverence." 
And Homer says 2 : 

" Revered art thou by me, dear father-in-law, and 

dreaded too ; ' 

" Without a word, in dread of their leaders. 3 " 

For by the multitude reverence is most apt to be felt 
towards those whom they also fear. For this reason, 
too, the Lacedaemonians erected a temple to Fear 
alongside the mess-hall of the ephors, after they had 
endowed this magistracy with almost absolute powers. 
X. And now to resume ; Cleomenes, when day came, 
published a list of eighty citizens who must go into 
exile, and removed all the ephoral chairs except one; 
in this he purposed to sit himself for the transaction 
of public business. Then he called a general assembly 
and made a defence of his proceedings. He said that 
Lycurgus had blended the powers of senate and 
kings, and that for a long time the state was admin- 
istered in this way and had no need of other officials. 
But later, when the Messenian war proved to be 
long, the kings, since their campaigns abroad left 
them no time to administer justice themselves, chose 
out some of their friends and left them behind to 
serve the citizens in their stead. These were called 
ephors, or guardians, and as a matter of fact they 

1 By Stasinua of Cyprus. Of. Plato, Euthyphro, 12 a ; 
Kinkel, Ep. Graec. Frag. i. p. 30. 

2 Iliad, iii. 172, Helen to Priam. 

8 Iliad, iv. 431, of the Achaeaus marshalled for battle. 

6 9 


v vTTvjperas TWV /3acri\ea)i> ovras, elra Kara 
fjbi/cpov fit'? eavrovs TTJV e^ovcriav e7ricrTp(f)Oi>Ta<; 
OUTGO? \ci6elv tSiov dp%eiov 

3 arj,Lov e rovrov TO 

TOV ftacriXea TWV e<f)opa)v TO irpwrov a 
/cal TO Bevrepov, TO $e rpiTOV Ka\ovvra)V ava- 

777509 avrovs' /cal TOV Trp&TOV 
T^V ap^rjv KCU avaTeivd^evov 
vaTepov TroXXa?? (f)0pov 
fi67 pia'Cpvi as p-tv ovv CLVTOVS, 6<j)ij, 

KaTa\vovTa<$ ap")(rjv, wcrTe T&V /BacriXetov 
TOU? fikv e%\avveiv, TOVS $e aTTOKTivvveiv dtcp[- 
aTceL\elv ^e TO?? TroOovcriv CLV&IS ejriSelv 

al 0eiOTa.Trjv ev ^TrdpTr 
4 OVK aveterov. el [JLZV ovv SWCLTOV r)V avev 

Ta? eireiad/eTovs 

s KOA, TroXuTeXeta? KOI %/oea Kal 
/cal TO, Trpeaftinepa TOVTCOV /ca/cd, 
Tcevlav Kal TT\OVTOV, evTv^eaTaTov av 
aikewv eavTov wairep laTpov 
TTJV iraTpuBa' vvv Be TT}? dvdy/cqs eyje.iv 
TOV Av/covpyov, o? OUT6 /3acri\.ev<> a)v 
t'cUooTr;? 8e ^aan\evei.v eiri^etp&v ev 
Tot? OTrXot? rrporfkOev et? dyopdv, axTTe 
TOV /SaatXea \dpi\\ov eirl ficouov 
5 aXX' e/celvov fxev ovTa %pi]<TTov Kal (j)i\o7raTpti' 
Ta^v TO) Av/covpyw T&V irpaTToaevcov 


continued at first to be assistants of the kings, but 
then gradually diverted the power into their own 
hands, and so, ere men were aware, established a 
magistracy of their own. As proof of this, Cleomenes 
cited the fact that down to that day, when the ephors 
summoned a king to appear before them, he refused 
to go at the first summons, and at the second, but at 
the third rose up and went to them ; and he said 
that the one who first added weight to the office, and 
extended its powers, Asteropus, was ephor many 
generations later. As long, then, he said, as the ephors 
kept within bounds, it had been better to bear with 
them ; but when with their assumed power they 
subverted the ancient form of government to such an 
extent as to drive away some kings, put others to 
death without trial, and threaten such as desired to 
behold again in Sparta her fairest and most divinely 
appointed constitution, it was not to be endured. If, 
then, it had been possible without bloodshed to rid 
Sparta of her imported curses, namely luxury and 
extravagance, and debts and usury, and those elder 
evils than these, namely, poverty and wealth, he 
would have thought himself the most fortunate king 
in the world to have cured the disease of his country 
like a wise physician, without pain ; but as it was, he 
said, in support of the necessity that had been laid 
upon him, he could cite Lycurgus, who, though he 
was neither king nor magistrate, but a private person 
attempting to act as king, proceeded with an armed 
retinue into the market-place, so that Charillus the 
king took fright and fled for refuge to an altar. That 
king, however, Cleomenes said, since he was an 
excellent man and a lover of his country, speedily 
concurred in the measures of Lycurgus and accepted 


tca\ TTJV fJLGTa^oX^v Se^acrOaL T/}? TroXtreia?, epyw 
Be fiapTvprjcrai TOV AvKovpyov ori Tro\neiav /uera- 
(BaXelv avev /3ia9 fcal (o/3ou ^aXerrov GGTIV, ol? 
avrov e'(?7 /jLerpLcorara Ke^p^vQai, rou^ eVicrra- 
fjievovs Tr) crwr^pia ri}^ Aa/ce^at/xoi^o? eK7ro&a)v 
6 Troirjcrd/jLevov. TO!? ^6 a\\oi<? (j)rj TTCLGI TTJV re 
<yr)v airaaav et? fiecov TiQkvai, KOL %pewv rou? 
o(f>L\oi>Ta$ a7ra\\drTeiv t KOI rwv %evwv Kpiaiv 
fcal BoKi/jLaaiav, OTTW? oi fcpaTicrroi, yevo- 
TrapTidrai crai^aMTt TTJV 7ro\iv Tot? O7rXo9, 
Kal 7ravcra)/jL0a rrjv Aarccovi/crjv AtVwXw^ tca\ 
\eiav ovaav e 

XI. 'Er TOI^TOU Trp&Tov fjiev auro? et? 

ovcriav 0rjK KOI MeyicrTOvovs 6 
CLVTOV Kal TWV d\\cov fyiXwv e/cacrro?, eVetra Aral 

Ot \Ol7Tol TToXiTtti TTaf T6?, ?; &6 X(*>P& 

K\yjpov Se /cat TWI' UTT' avrov yeyovorw 
direveifJiev efcdaTW, Kal Kard^eiv airavra^ a>yLto- 
\6yrjcr6 rwv Trpay/jLarcov ev ri<rv% 
2 ai'aTT\ripu)aas Se TO TroXtreu/ia rot? 


Kal Si&d^as avrovs dvrl &6paTO$ 

&L d/jL(f)OTpa)V Kal rrjv acrTrtSa (fropeiv Bi 

TTopTraKOS, 7rl TTJV Trai&eiav ra)v vewv 
Kal rrjv \eyo/jLvr)v dytoytjv, 77? ra TrXeFcrTa 
o ^^atpo? avTfp avyKadiarrj, Ta%v TOV 
TrpocnjKovra TWV re yv/^vaaicov Kal TWV (rva- 



AGIS AND CLEOMENES, x. 5 -xi. 2 

the change of constitution ; still, as a matter of fact 
Lycurgus by his own acts bore witness to the difficulty 
of changing a constitution without violence and fear. 
To these, Cleomenes said, he had himself resorted 
with the greatest moderation, for he had but put out 
of the way the men who were opposed to the salva- 
tion of Sparta. For all the rest, he said, the whole 
land should be common property, debtors should be 
set free from their debts, and foreigners should be 
examined and rated, in order that the strongest of 
them might be made Spartan citizens and help to 
preserve the state by their arms. e< In this way," he 
said, " we shall cease to behold Sparta the booty of 
Aetolians and Illyrians through lack of men to 
defend her." 

XI. After this, to begin with, Cleomenes himself 
placed his property in the common stock, as did 
Megistonoiis his step-father and every one of his 
friends besides ; next, all the rest of the citizens did 
the same, and the land was parcelled out. Cleomenes 
also assigned a portion of land to each man who had 
been exiled by him, and promised to bring them all 
home after matters had become quiet. Then he filled 
up the body of citizens with the most promising of 
the free provincials, and thus raised a body of four 
thousand men-at-arms, whom he taught to use a long 
pike, held in both hands, instead of a short spear, 
and to carry their shields by a strap instead of by a 
fixed handle. Next he devoted himself to the 
training of the young men and to the " agoge," or 
ancient discipline, most of the details of which 
Sphaerus, who was then in Sparta, helped him in 
arranging. And quickly was the proper system of 
bodily training and public messes resumed, a few out 



ciXiywv pev vrf dvdyKris, eKovalws &e rwv 
Tr\e'icrra>v et? rrjv evreXfj Kal AaKcoviKrjv eKeivrjV 
3 Statrav. o/xw? e TO rr)<$ /jLovap^ias b'vo/j,a rrapa- 
fjiv6ovp.vos aTreBet^e /ueO* eavrov /3acri~\.ea rov 
d&e\(j)bv RvK'XeiSav. KOI Tore JJLOVOV 
K fJLLa^ oi/cfca? crvvefBr) Svo a^elv 

XII. Alcr06/jLevos Be TOU? \\%aiovs Kal rbv 
"Aparov, a>? eV/o-^aXw? avrw TWV 
e^ovTcov bid rbv ve^TepLarfJibv, OVK av olofie 
nrpoeXOelv ea) TT}? AaKeSai/jLOvos ov&e d7ro\L7relv 

/jL6TC0pOV eV KlVr'jfjiaTl Tr)\lKOVT(p Tf}V TTOX.IV, OVK 

dyevves ov$e a%pr)(TTov r/jijuaro 

2 rov o-rparev/jiaros eirtBel^at roT? 

ovv et? TTJV ^/Ieya\o7ro\iri/cr)v w^eXetas- re 
-t'jOpoicre Kal <f)0opdi> TTO\\TJV diret-pyd- 
craro TT}? %oypas. reXo? Se TOL? rrepl rbv ktovvcrov 810 
Te^tra? ex Mecr<T?;'w;9 SiaTr opevop.evovs \a/3a>v, 
KOL 7rr)dfAvos dearpov ev rfj 7ro\euia, /cal rrpo- 
6e\s drrb rerrapaKovra fivcov dywva, fiiav ^fjuepav 
eOearo KaOrfiuei'os, ov Se6/J.ei>os 6eas, aXV olov 
vrpv<f)oov Tot9 TroXe/xtof? Kal rcepiovcriav rivd rov 
Kparelv TroXu rw Karatypoveiv em&eiKvviJLevos. 

3 evrel aXXco? ye rwv e Ei\\r)viK(i)v Kal (Bacn\iK&v 
arparev/jidrcov eKelvo fjibvov ov /JLLJAOVS rrapaKO- 
\ov6ovvras el^ev, ov 0av/naro7roiovs, OVK o 
arpiSas, ov -^ra\rpias, aXXa 

Kal /9ft)/xoXo^/a? Kal rravr^yvpKTfJLOv KaOapbv ijv, 
rd fj.ev TroXXa fjLe\er(vrwv rwv vewv Kal TWV 
TTpecrfivrepcov SiSao-KcvrMv, T? $e TraiSm?, brrbre 
a"xo\doiev, Tat? (rvvr)9e<TLV 6vrpaire\iais Kal rro 
\eyeiv rt, %dpiev Kal AaKcoviKov TT^O? a 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xi. a-xn. 3 

of necessity, but most with a willing spirit, subjecting 
themselves to the old Spartan regime with all its 
simplicity. And yet, desiring to give the name of 
absolute power a less offensive sound, he associated 
with himself in royal power his brother Eucleidas. 
And this was the only time when the Spartans had 
two kings from the same house. 

XII. Learning that Aratus and the Achaeans 
believed that this revolution had jeopardized his 
position, and therefore did not think that he would 
venture forth outside of Sparta, or leave the city 
while it was still in the suspense of so great an 
agitation, he thought it a fine and helpful thing to 
make a display of the ready zeal of his army to his 
enemies. Accordingly, he invaded the territory of 
Megalopolis, collected large booty, and devastated the 
country far and wide. And finally arresting a 
company of actors who were passing through the 
country from Messene, he built a theatre in the 
enemy's territory, instituted a contest for a prize of 
forty minae, and sat spectator for a whole day; not 
that he felt the need of a spectacle, but in exultant 
mockery, as it were, of his enemies, and to show to the 
world by his contempt for them that he held com- 
plete control of affairs, with something, as it were, 
to spare. For at other times, the Spartan alone 
of Greek or Macedonian armies had no players 
in attendance, no jugglers, no dancing-girls, no 
harpists, but was free from every kind of licence, 
scurrility, and general festivity ; while for the most 
part the young men practised themselves and the 
elder men taught them, and for amusement, when 
their work was over, they had recourse to their 
wonted pleasantries and the interchange of Spartan 



. i}v Be e^ei TO TOIOVTOV r??? 

', ev TW Av/covpyov /3iw yeypaTTTai. 
XIII. HdvTMV B' ai)ro? eyuyveTO BiBd(TKa\o$, 
evreXrj Kal d</>eX?} KCU (froprifcov ovBev ovBe vrrep 
TOU? TToXXou? e~%ovra TOV eavrov (Biov 

ev j,ecr(a eevo^' o KCU 

7T/30? ra? f EX\r;;^/ca? TTpd^ei^ pOTrrjv Tiva Trape- 
aura), rot? /lev yap aXXot? e 

o avw-TTOL aa-ievcnv ov ovrco 

rovs TrXourou? ical ra? TroXureXeta?, co? e386\vr- 
TOVTO TTJV virepo^rlav avrwv fcal TOV oyxov 
eVa^;(9a)? KOU T/^a^eco? Trpoo-fapo/jLevw rot? eV- 

2 Tvy^dvovcrL' irpos 8e KXeo/^evr] fiaBi^omes, OVTCL 
re $rj (Sacri\ecL KOI Ka\ou/Aevov, elra o/3w^re? ov 
7rop(})vpa<; TLVCLS ov ^XatVa? ire pi avrov ovoe K\L- 
viBicov fcal (popeLwv KaTaa/cevas, ouS' VTT 

o%\ov teal tfvpaypwv r) Sia ypa^/jLareicoif 
ovra ^aXeTrw? KOL /xoXt?, aXX' O.VTOV ev I 


ov Kai a")(o\d^ovTa rot? '%pr]ov(ri,v 
/col (f)i\avdpos)7rco<>, KT]\OVVTO Kal /care- 
yovvTO, Kal [JLOVOV aft '\eovs eiceivov 

3 Tw^ Be SeiTTvcov avTOV TO /JLCV /caOtj pep LVOV 
ev TpiK\ivw (i(j)6Bpa avveo~Ta\p,evov Ka 
VLKOV, el Be 7r/3ecr/3et5 rj %evov$ Se^oiro, Bvo 
aXXat TrpoaTrapeftdXXovTo K\ivai, JJLLKP& Be fjid\- 
\ov oi VTrrjpeTai T)]V Tpdrre^av eireXdf^Trpvi'ov, ov 

~ vBe Trejiiiacriv, aXX' 

Tio~v ove Tre/ji/iiacriv, a w<jre 

elvai ra9 irapaOecreL'S Kal <^L\av9pa)- 
TTOTepov TOV olvov. Kal yap 7reTtyu?;cre Tiva TMV 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xn. 3-xm. 3 

witticisms. Of what great advantage this sort of 
amusement is, I have told in my Life of Lycurgus. 1 

XIII. In all these matters Cleomenes was himself 
a teacher. His own manner of life was simple, plain, 
and no more pretentious than that of the common man, 
and it was a pattern of self-restraint for all. This 
gave him a great advantage in his dealings with the 
other Greeks. For when men had to do with the 
other kings, they were not so much awed by their 
wealth and extravagance as they were filled with 
loathing for their haughtiness and pomp as they gave 
offensive and harsh answers to their auditors ; but 
when men came to Cleomenes, who was a real as well 
as a titled king, and then saw no profusion of purple 
robes or shawls about him, and no array of couches 
and litters ; when they saw, too, that he did not make 
the work of his petitioners grievous and slow by 
employing a throng of messengers and door-keepers 
or by requiring written memorials, but came in 
person, just as he happened to be dressed, to answer 
the salutations of his visitors, conversing at length 
with those who needed his services and devoting 
time cheerfully and kindly to them, they were 
charmed and completely won over, and declared 
that he alone was a descendant of Heracles. 

His usual supper was held in a room which had 
only three couches, and was very circumscribed and 
Spartan ; but if he was entertaining ambassadors or 
guest-friends, two more couches would be brought 
in, and the servants would make the table a trifle 
more brilliant, not with sauces or sweetmeats, but 
with more generous dishes and a kindlier wine. And 
indeed he censured one of his friends, when he heard 

1 Chapter xii. 



<>i\(ov aKovGas on eyoi/9 ecrTiwv ^WJJLOV avTols 
fjieXava /cal fid^av, wcnrep $09 TJV ev rot? <>L$L- 
rto9, irapeOrj/cew ov yap e<pij Beiv ev TOVTOLS ovSe 

7Ty009 TOU9 eVOVS \ldV aKpl/3a)S \CLKWV l,W* 

4 airapOeicrr]^ $e rr}? rpavre^? elcreKO/n-i^eTO Tpijrovs 
Kparrfpa ^dXKOVv e%G)v oivov /UL<TTOV KOI (j)id\as 
dpyvpas $IKOTV\OV<; Svo Kal TTortfpia rwv dpyv- 
pwv o\ija TravTCLTracriv, e^ wv e-nivev 6 /3ov\6- 

Koi'Ti & ouSet? iroTi^piov 7rpo<je$>epev. 
Se OVT v]V our' eVe^reiro' 7rai$aya)>yei 
yap auro? ofjiikia TOV TTOTOV, ra ^lv epwiMV, ia 
Be ^Lrj'yovp.evo^, ovre Tyv a7rov$r]V drj^rj TWV 
\6ya>v Tt'iv re TraiSiav eiri^apiv teal dao\otKov 

5 e^ovrwv, a? fJitv yap ol \oi7rol TMV /3acri\(ov eirl 
TOU? dvOptoTTovs drjpas eirotovvTO, ^p^aai KOI 
$a> peals ^eXea^o^re? avrovs /cal 

drexyovs /cal dSlrcovs evofu&v elvat' TO oe o 
teal \6yrn yjdpiv e^ovTi /cal TTIO-TLV OLKeio 
real TrpoadyeaPai TOU? evrvy^dvovra^ e<paivero 
Ka\\i<jTOV avrw /cal fiaaiX-i/cc 

(f)epovTa JJLKI 6 WTOV r) ro3 TOV 

l \6yqy, TOV Be VTTO ^prj/jaTwv d\i<TKeadai. 

XIV. TIptoTOV p,ev ovv oi MavTtvels avTov 
ydyovTO, /cal vv/CTWp t9 rrjv 7ro\n> TrapetcrTreGovTi 
Tr]V (ppovpdv T^V 'A%aiwv avveK(3d\ovTe<; ei>%ei- 
picrav auTOvs. 6 oe /cal TOL/9 vo/u.ov$ avTols /cal 
Tr)v 7ro\LTeiav aTro&ovs avBrj/j,epbv dTcri\Oei> et9 
Teyeav. okiyw S' vcrrepov CK7repie\6a)v Bi 'A/9- 
fcaoias /caTeflaivev eirl ra9 ' 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xm. 3 -xiv. i 

that in entertaining guest-friends he had set before 
them the black soup and barley-bread of the public 
mess-tables; " for," said he, "in these matters and 
before foreigners we must not be too strictly Spartan." 
After the table had been removed, a tripod would be 
brought in on which were a bronze mixer full of 
wine, two silver boAvls holding a pint apiece, and 
drinking cups of silver, few all told, from which he 
who wished might drink ; but no one had a cup 
forced upon him. Music there was none, nor was 
any such addition desired ; for Cleomenes entertained 
the company hinself by his conversation, now asking 
questions, now telling stories, and his discourse was 
not unpleasantly serious, but had a sportiveness that 
charmed and was free from rudeness. For the hunt 
which all the other kings made for men, ensnaring 
them with gifts and bribes and corrupting them, 
Cleomenes considered unskilful and unjust. In his 
eyes it was the noblest method, and one most fit for 
a king, to win over his visitors and attach them to 
himself by an intercourse and conversation which 
awakened pleasure and confidence. For he felt that 
a hireling differed from a friend in nothing except 
that the one \vas captured by a man's character and 
conversation, the other by a man's money. 

XIV. To begin with, then, the Mantineians invited 
him to help them, and after he had made his way into 
the city by night, they expelled the Achaean garrison 
and put themselves in his hands. Cleomenes restored 
to them their laws and constitution, and on the same 
day marched away to Tegea. Then, shortly after- 
wards, he fetched a compass through Arcadia and 
marched down upon the Achaean city of Pherae. His 



/3ov\6fjievos rj f^d^rjv OecrOcn Trpos TOU? ' 
rf Bia/3d\\eiv rov'" A par ov a>9 djroBiBpda-Kovra KCLI 
Trpole/jLevov avrw rr/v ^wpav. ecrrpar^yei p,ev yap 
"TTTepftaras rare, rov Be 'Apdrov TO TTO.V rjv 
2 A-/9aro? ev rot? 'A^mot?. e%e\06vT 

rcot' 'A^atfoi^ Kal <TTpaTOTTeSeva-a/JiV(i)v ev 
vrepl TO 'Ej/caTO/jifiaiov, e7re\0coi> 6 
fiev ov /ca\ws eV yttecrw r/}? re 
, 7TO\e/JLLas ovcrrj^, fcal rov 

e TrporcaXov- 

viKi]cra<; Kara Kpdros /cal rpe^dfjievos TTJV <pd- 

\ajya TTO\\OV$ f^ev ev rfj fJid^rj bie^Qeipev CIVTWV, 
7ro\\(ov $e KOL favTcov eKVpLevaev. eire\6(t)v Se 
Adyycovi Kal TWV ^A^aicov TOU? (ppovpovvTas 
e'^eXacra? djreScoKev 'HXetoi? rrjv 7ro\tv. 

XV. OvTCO Be (TVVTTpifJL^eVOl^ TOt? 'A^GUOt? 6 

"Ayoaro?, ela)6a)$ Trap' eviavrov del crrpanj- 

yev, TreiTraro rrjv dp^rjv Kal Traprjrrjcraro 

\OVVTWV Kal Beo/jLevcov ov /caXw?, olov ev 
irpajfjLdTWV fie'i^ovi, fietfels erepriy rov oaica, 
Kal Trpoe/nevos rrjv e^ovcrLav. 6 Be KXeo/AeV?/ 1 ? 
Trpwrov [lev /jberpia rot? 'A^atoi? eBoxei Trpecrfiecriv 
eTrtrdrreiv, erepov^ Be TT e [JLTT wv eKekevev avra> 
TrapaBiBovai TTJV rjyefjLOviav, &>? rd\\a p.rj Bioicro- 
fjievos 7rpo9 avroi;?, d\\a Kal rovs al^fj,a\a)Tov<? 
2 evOvs aTToBcoawv Kal ra ^wpia. /3ov\o^eva}v Be 
rwv 'A^atwi/ eVl rovroi? Be%cr0at, ra? BiaXvaeis 
Kal TOV K.\eo/j,ew)j KaXovvrcov et? Aepvav, OTTOV 


AC7IS AND CLEOMENES, xiv. i-xv. 2 

desire was either to fight a battle with the Achaeans, 
or to bring Aratus into disrepute for running away 
and abandoning the country to him. For although 
Hyperbatas was general at that time, Aratus had the 
entire power in the Achaean league. Moreover, after 
the Achaeans had marched out with all their forces 
and pitched their camp at Dymae, near the Hecatom- 
baeum, Cleomenes came up against them. He did not 
think it well, however, to pitch his own camp between 
the city of Dyinae, which was hostile, and the army 
of the Achaeans, and therefore boldly challenged the 
Achaeans and forced them to engage. He was 
completely victorious, routed their phalanx, slew 
many of them in the battle, and took many prisoners 
also. Then he went up against Langon, drove out 
the Achaean garrison, and restored the city to the 

XV. The Achaeans having been thus utterly over- 
whelmed, Aratus, who was wont to be their general 
every other year, refused the office and declined to 
listen to their invitations and prayers ; thus unwisely, 
when the ship of state was in a heavy storm, handing 
over the helm to another and abandoning the post 
of authority. Cleomenes, on the other hand, at the 
first was thought to impose moderate terms upon the 
Achaean embassy, but afterwards he sent other en- 
voys and bade them hand over to him the leadership 
among the Greeks, assuring them that on other points 
he would not quarrel with them, but would at once 
restore to them their captives and their strongholds. 1 
The Achaeans were willing to settle matters on these 
terms, and invited Cleomenes to come to Lerna, 

1 Cf. the Aralus, xxxviii. 5 f. 




o^evaai'Ta Kal 'xpr/crdftevov rrapa Kaipov 
iq atyLtaro? ir\ffdo^ aveveyfcelv Kal 
cficovrjv dTTOKOTrfjvai. Bio TWV fjiev a 
aTreVe/Li^e rot? 'A^a^oi? TOV<$ eVf<^a 
TOV Be crv\\oyov vTrepOe/jievos ave^wp^crev 

XVI. Tovro ^LekvjJH]vaTo ra TrpdyfjLara 
'EXXaSo?, ayaco? 76 TTW? e/c TO>Z> irapovruiv ava\a- 
(Belv CLVTTJV en KOI Siafivyeiv TI~JV Ma/ce&oi'tov 
vfipiv KOI irXeove^iav &vvap.V)]s. 6 'yap "Aparos, 
elre airiaTia Kal (/>o/3ro TOV KXeo/ze^ou?, etre 
(frQovwv evTv^ovvTL Trap 1 eXiriSa Kal vo^i^wv errj 
Tpia Kal rpiaKovra TTpwrevovTOS avrov Seivov 
elvai Tj]v &6j;av a/j.a Kal T^V ovvapiv zirifyvvTa 
2 veov tiv&pa KaOe\elv, Kal 7rapa\a^elv 7Tpa r yp,d r rwv 

VTT avrov Kal 

TOGOVTOV apyi)v, Trpwrov [lev efreipdro rows 
'A^afou? Trapaftid^ecrOai Kal SiaKco\viv co? ^e 
ov TTpoael^ov avra) TOV KXeo/^ei'OL'? eKTren^jy- 
fjievoi TO Opdaos, a\\a Kal Si/eatav enoiovvro 
Trjv d^icocriv TWV AaKeSaifj-ovicov, et9 TO 
3 ayji^a Koarp.oiJVTwv TTJV TLe\07r6vv)iaov, 
7T/909 epyov ov$evl fjiev TMV 'EXX^Va)^ 
aicr\ia7ov 8' eiceLvut Kal TMV 7re7rpay/J.6va)v VTT 
avrov Kal 7T7ro\iTv/jiV(DV dva^iwrarov, 'Avri- 
*/ovov eVl rrjv 'EXXaSa Ka\eiv Kal MaKeBovwv 
rrjv IleXoTro^^cro^, ou? auTO? etc 

cra? TOV ' KKpOKopiv6ov, Kal Traai /lev TO?? /3a- 

U7TO77T05 Kal Old(f)OpOS 76^0yU6^0?, TOl'TOl't 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xv. 2 -xvi. 3 

where they were about to hold their assembly. 
But it fell out that Cleomenes, who had made a 
strenuous march and then too soon had drunk water, 
brought up a great quantity of blood and lost his 
speech. For this reason he sent back to the 
Achaeans the most prominent men among their 
captives, but postponed the conference and went back 
home to Sparta. 

XVI. This ruined the cause of Greece, at a time 
when she was still able in some way or other to 
recover from her grievous plight and escape Macedo- 
nian greed and insolence. For Aratus (whether it 
was through distrust and fear of Cleomenes, or because 
he envied the king his unlocked for success, and 
thought it a terrible thing after three and thirty years 
of leadership to have his own fame and power stripped 
from him by an upstart of a young man, and the 
authority taken over in a cause which he himself had 
built up and controlled for so long a time),, in the first 
place tried to force the Achaeans aside and hinder 
their purpose ; but when they paid no heed to him in 
their consternation at the daring spirit of Cleomenes, 
but actually saw justice in the demands of the 
Lacedaemonians, who were seeking to restore the 
Peloponnesus to its ancient status, Aratus took a step 
which would have been unmeet for any Greek to 
take, but was most shameful for him and most 
unworthy of his career as soldier and statesman. For 
he invited Antigonus into Greece and filled the 
Peloponnesus with Macedonians, whom he himself 
had driven out of Peloponnesus when, as a young 
man, he delivered Acrocorinthus from their power 1 
he who had incurred the suspicion and hostility of 
all the reigning kings, and of this very Antigonus had 
1 See the Aratus, xvi. ff. 


Se avTov ' AvTiyovov elprjKax; Ka/ca yuvpia 6t' wv 

4 d7ro\e\.oi7rv vTro/jLvn/uLaTdyv. KCLITOL vroXXa 
Kal 7rapa/3a\eo-0ai (j)^crlv auro? virep 

OTTO)? /; vroXi? aTraXXayeir) (bpovpas KalM.aKeB6vcov 
eLTa TOVTOUS eVl T/)r^ irarpiSa KCU rrjv kaTiav TTJV 
eavrov yue^' 07T\wv elcnjyayev a^pi r?}? ^vvaiKwvl- 
TiSo?* TOZ^ 5e a<' 'H/oa/tXeou? yeyovora KOL /3aai- 812 
\evovra ^irapriarwv, KOI rrjv Trdrpiov TroXireiav, 
wGTrep dp/jLOviav drcXeXvfjLevrjv, dvatcpovoiJLevovavOis 
eVl TOV crotxfrpova teal Acopiov erceivov rov Av/covp- 
yov vo/Jiov teal ftiov, OVK rjtfiov ^IKVWVIWV r)y/ji6va 

5 KOL Tpiratewv ypd(j)cr6ai, <^ev<ywv Se Tr]v yu,aay 
/cal TOV Tplftwva, /cal TO Seivorarov wv Kcnrjyopei 
KXeoyuei^ou?, dvaip0ii' TT\OVTOV KCU Tfevias 7rav- 
6p0(i)<riv, SiaSrfpari real iropfyvpa, /cal Ma/ee- 
SoviKOi? Kal (TarpaTUKols TT poa"r dy fjiaa iv v 

/jLerd TT}? 'A^am? aurov, i'va /j,rj K\O/y,vei, 
&OKTJ TO Trpoararro/jLevov, 'Avriyoveia 6vwv 



'AXXa Tavra /nev OVK 'ApaTOU /3ov\6/jievoi, 
riyyopeiv <ypd(^OfjLv (ev TroXXot? yap 6 dvrjp 
e Ei\Xr]viKo$ yeyove Kal yiieya?), oiKTelpovres 
&e T/}? dv6pwirivr)<$ ^wo-eco? rrjv dadeveiav, el /jirjBe 
ev ijOeaiv OI/TW? dio\6yoi$ Kal Sia<popois TT/JO? 
dperr/v eK^epeiv Bvvarat, TO Ka\ov dve/jLecrijTov. 

XVII. 'Ei\06vT(i)v Be 'A%aia)v et? "Apyos av6i<; 
eirl TOV crv\\oyov Kal TOV KXeo/^ei'oi;? eic Teyeas 
KaTafteftrjKOTOS e'X7rt9 r)v TroXX?; TWV dvdpWTrwv 
eaeaQai TTJV 8td\variv. 6 Be "ApaTO?, 778?; BIW/JLO- 
\oyijfjLeva)V avTa> Trpo? TOJ^ 'AvTiyovov TCOV /te- 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xvi. 3 -xvn. i 

said countless evil things in the commentaries which 
he left behind him. Arid still, though he had 
incurred many hardships and dangers in behalf of 
Athens, as he says himself, in order that the city 
might be set free from its garrison of Macedonians, 
he afterwards brought these Macedonians, under 
arms, into his own country and into his own home ; 
aye, even into the apartments of his women; 1 but 
he would not consent that the man who was a descen- 
dant of Heracles and king of Sparta, and was seeking 
to bring its ancient polity., now like a decadent melody, 
back again to that restrained and Dorian law and life 


which Lycurgus had instituted, should be entitled 
leader of Sicyon and Tritaea. Instead of this, to 
avoid the Spartan barley-bread and short-cloak, and 
the most dreadful of the evils for which he denounced 
Cleomenes, namely, abolition of wealth and restora- 
tion of poverty, he cast himself and all Achaea down 
before a diadem, a purple robe, Macedonians, and 
oriental behests. And that he might not be thought 
to obey Cleomenes, he offered sacrifices to Antigonus 
and sang paeans himself, with a garland on his head, 
in praise of a man who was far gone with consumption. 

1 write this, however, not with any desire to 
denounce Aratus, for in many ways he was a true 
Greek and a great one, but out of pity for the weak- 
ness of human nature, which, even in characters so 
notably disposed towards excellence, cannot produce 
a nobility that is free from blame. 

XVII. When the Achaeans came to Argos again 
for the conference, and Cleomenes had come down 
from Tegea, everyone had a strong hope that they 
would come to an agreement. But Aratus, since the 
most important questions between him and Antigonus 

1 See the Aratus, xlix. 1. 

VOL. X. 85 


TOP eojLevr j,r irdvra 

Ka@ojj,i\rjcra<; rb 77X77^09 T) 

\aftovra Tpiarcocriovs ojjiij 
fjibvov elcnevai rrpos avrovs, rj Kara 
e^codev TO Kv\\apd(3iov rrpoa-e\96i'ra //.era 
2 Swd/nect)? Sia\eyea0ai. raDr' aKovcras 6 KXeo- 
aSirca Trda")(iv (f>acrfC6' Beiv yap ev0v<? 
Tore Trpoenrelv, ov vvv, ij/covTOs eVt ra? 
0vpas ra? eiceivwv, dirtarelv Kol drr\avveiv. 
Be rrepl rovrwv 7rtaro\r)V TT/OO? TOU? 
u?, 775 fjv rb 7r\elcrTOV 'Apdrov /earrjyopia, 
a Be Kal rov 'Apdrov ^oiSop/icravTos avrbv 
7T/30? TO 7r\rj6os t ave%V% Bia Ta^ewv KOL tcijpv/ca 
Trpoepovvra roi? 'A^atot? eire^-^rev, OVK 

O7T&)9 (^9 day T7]V TrapacrKevrjv avrv. 

3 'Eijeyovei Be Kivrjfia rwv ' A^aiwv, teal irpbs 
aTrocrracriv w^aav al 7ToXet9, 

TO)V Be rrpoLtrwv TroXXa^oO fBapwo/Jievtov rbv "Apa- 
TOV, eviwv Be Kal St' 0^77)9 e^ovTwv a>9 eirdyovTd 
Trj TLe\oTTovvtj(T(i) Ma/ceSo^a9. Bib TOVTOIS errap- 
6 el<$ 6 KXeo/ 
Trpwrov pev el\e 
Kal TOL/? <>poupo 
fjterd Be ravra Qevebv Trpocnjydyero real Tievre- 
4 \eiov. eVet Be (poftrjOevres ol *A%aiol TTpoBoviav 
TLVCL TrpaTTO/Jiei'rjv ev Kopivdw Kal ^IKVWVI, rou9 

1 TU>V > Ax a '<^ J/ with 131 ass : /xera TOJV 



had already been settled, and because he was afraid 
that Cleomenes would carry all his points by either 
winning over or constraining the multitude, demanded 
that Cleomenes, after receiving three hundred 
hostages, should come into the city alone for his 
conference with them, or else should come with his 
army as far as the gymnasium outside the city called 
Cyllarabium, and treat with them there. When 
Cleomenes heard this, he declared that he had been 
wronged ; for he ought to have been told of this when 

o y o 

the conference was first proposed, and not be dis- 
trusted and driven away now, when he had come to 
their very doors. Then, after writing a letter to the 
Achaeans on the matter, most of which was denun- 
ciation of Aratus, and after Aratus on his part had 
abused him at great length to the multitude, 
Cleomenes broke camp with all speed and sent a 
herald to declare war upon the Achaeans, not to 
Argos, but to Aegium, in order, as Aratus says, 
that he might anticipate their preparations for 
defence. 1 

Now, there had been agitation among the Achaeans, 
and their cities were eager for revolt, the common 
people expecting division of land and abolition of 
debts, and the leading men in many cases being 
dissatisfied with Aratus, and some of them also 
enraged at him for bringing Macedonians into Pelop- 
onnesus. Therefore Cleomenes, encouraged by these 
conditions, invaded Achaea. First, he took Pellene 
by a sudden assault, and drove out the Achaean 
garrison ; next, he brought over to his cause Pheneus 
and Penteleium. Presently the Achaeans, who were 
afraid that some treachery was afoot in Corinth and 

1 Cf. the Aratus, xxxix. 



irrrrels KCL\ TOVS t;evovs aTrecrreiXav e' "Apyov? 
Trapa(f)V\do2'Tas, avrol ce ra Xe'/ie^a Ka~a- 
es eis "Apyos rjyov, e'XvriVa?, orrep TJV, 6 
f???, cr^Xou TravrjyvpiKov Kal Oearwv TTJV 

VVKTOS 7;ye TT/^O? ra ^1 TO arp- 
5 ~ev/j.a, KCLI rbv Trepi TTJV 'AcrTrt'ca rorrov Ka~a- 
\a3uv v'ep TOV Oedrpov %CL\TTOV OVTOL KCL\ 
Bvcnrpocrodov ourco? TOL/? di'dpooov? e^eTrXrjPev 
TpaTrea'Oai TT/JO? d\Ki]v, d\\a /cat 
lv, KCLI &OVVO.L rwv TTO\ITOJV 6/juypow$ 
eitcocri, Kal yevevOai crv/jLfjLd^ov<; \a.K6baip.oviwv, 


aura) Kal cvvafj.iv vTrrjO-^ev. ov~e yap oi ird\ai 
8acri\l? \aKecai [JLOTIMV 7ro\\d Trpay/jLa-reua-d- 
fjievot Trpo&ayayecrQai TO v Apyo? f$/3aia>s ijcvvij- 
Qrjcrav, o re deivora-os TWV GTpa-rjywv IIvppo? 
ei>7e\0a)V Kal /SiacrdiJLei'OS ov KaTecr^e TIIV TTO\IV, 
aXX* drreOave Kai TTO\V crvvtie$6dpri /JLEOOS avrw 
2 TT}? tvvdfjia)S. 66ev edavp.a'Zov TTJV o^vrfjra Kal 813 
cidro'ar ~ov KXeo//eVou^' Kal oi Trporepov avrov 
rbv ^oXwi'a Kal TOV \vKovpyov a7ro/zf ; a 
<^d(TKovT^ tv TT) TWV -)(pojv d&e&ei Kai TTJ T 
KTiffiMTtov etidciJcreL /cara'/eXw^re?, Tore Tra^T 

-Tl@OVTO TOVTO a^TLOV je'/OVEVai Tr/S 776/31 TOL/? 

3 77aprma? /^era-or,?. OUTV yap errpaTTOV TO 

Trp v raireiva Kal Sor/Oelv avTol? dcvvdTws el)(ov, 
OXTT Trei'Te pvpiaSas dvcoaTTotwv e/i-SaXoz/Ta? e/5 
rrjv \aKwvLK-nv AiVwXot? array ay dv, ore 
TLva T'JIV rrp<T/3vTepayv ^. 
oi iro\fuoi TTV AaKwviKr/v a 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xvn. 4 -xvm. 3 

Sicyon, sent their horsemen and their mercenaries out 
of Argos to keep watch over those cities, while they 
themselves went down to Argos and began celebrating 
the Nemean games. So Cleomenes, expecting, as was 
the case, that while the throng was holding festival 
and the city was full of spectators, his unexpected 
approach would be more apt to cause confusion, led 
his army by night up to the walls, occupied the 
region about the Aspis overlooking the theatre, a 
region which was rugged and hard to come at, and so 
terrified the inhabitants that not a man of them 
thought of defence, but they accepted a garrison and 
gave twenty citizens as hostages, agreeing to become 
allies of the Lacedaemonians, and to give Cleomenes 
the chief command. 

XVII I. This greatly increased the reputation and 
power of Cleomenes. For the ancient kings of Sparta, 
in spite of numerous efforts, were not able to secure 
the abiding allegiance of Argos ; and the most form- 
idable of generals, Pyrrhus, although he fought his 
way into the city, could not hold it, but was slain 
there, and a great part of his army perished with him. 1 
Therefore men admired the swiftness and intelligence 
of Cleomenes ; and those who before this had mocked 
at him for imitating, as they said, Solon and 
Lycurgus in the abolition of debts and the equaliza- 
tion of property, were now altogether convinced that 
this imitation was the cause of the change in the 
Spartans. For these were formerly in so low a state 
and so unable to help themselves, that Aetolians 
invaded Laconia and took away fifty thousand slaves. 
It was at this time, we are told, that one of the elder 
Spartans remarked that the enemy had helped Sparta 

1 See the Pyrrhus, xxxii. ff. 



4 (ravres. o\Ljov Be j^povov Bie\@6vTO<$ d 

TWV TraTpiwv eO&v real KaTao-Tavres 
6KiV7)? T?}? dywyijs, axrTrep irapovTi Kal 

dvBpeias CTTOIOVVTO Kal ireiQapxias, rt]v rr/s 
ava\a/jL/3dvovT6s ^e^Lovlav rfj Aa/ce- 
ifjiovi teal avaKT(i)fjLvoi rrjv He^Trovvrjcrov. 
XIX. 'EaXco/coTo? Se "Apyovs KOI KaToiriv evOvs 
v ra> KXeo/ieVet KXew^w^ Kal OXt- 
, Tv<y%ave jjuev 6 "A/oaro? eV HLoplv6a> TTOLOV- 
os TLva TWV Xeyo/jievcov XaKtovi^eiv e^eraaiv 

Se Trepl TOVTWV TrpocrTrea'ova'rjs 
t? Kal TTJV TTO\IV aTTOKXivovaav aldOo 

KXeo/zeVr; Kal rwv ^ Kyaiwv d 
f3ov\o/jivrjv, Ka\ei fjiev et? TO f3ov\VTr)piov TOI/? 
TroXtra?, e\a6e Se &io\L<r@(t)v a^pi T% TruXt;?. 
Kel Be TOV LTTTTOV 7T pocra')(6evTOS dvaftas e(f)vy6v 
2 ei? ^iKvwva. TWV Be Kopivfliwv d^i\ 
et? "Apyo? TTyOO? TOV KXeo/^evr] (fcrjcrlv 6 
TOU? WTTOVS Trdvras payfjvat, TOV Be 
/ji[jL(f)eo~0ai TOJ)? \\opiv0iovs yu-?; 
avrov, aXX' edcravras biafyvyelv ov ^i]V aXXa 
/cat TT^O? avTov e\6elv ^leyLaroTovv Trapa TOV 
KXeoyLterof 9 Beopevov 7rapa\a(Belv TOV 'AKpoKopiv- 
6ov (el^e yap (ppovpav 'A^afco^) /cat TroXXa, %/o?7- 
BiBovTO?" diroKplvaaOaL Be avTov &>? ou/c 

aura? e^erai* Taura /xei^ o "Aparos ye 
3 'O Se KXeoxe^?? eV Tov^Aovs 7re\@(i)V Kal 

r/Kev ei? Ko/ofz^^o^' :at T?)Z> /xe^ aKpav 

rrepie^apuKcocre, ra)v %aia)v ov 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xvin. 4 xix. 3 

by lightening her burden. But now only a little time 
had elapsed, and they had as yet barely resumed 
their native customs and re-entered the track of their 
famous discipline, when, as if before the very eyes of 
Lycurgus and with his co-operation, they gave abun- 
dant proof of valour and obedience to authority, by 
recovering the leadership of Hellas for Sparta and 
making all Peloponnesus their own again. 

XIX. Thus Argos was taken by Cleomenes, and 
immediately afterwards Cleonae and Phlius came 
over to him. When this happened, Aratus was at 
Corinth, holding a judicial examination of those who 
were reputed to favour the Spartan cause. The 
unexpected tidings threw him into consternation, 
and perceiving that the city was leaning towards 
Cleomenes and wished to be rid of the Achaeans, he 
summoned the citizens into the council-hall, and 
then slipped away unnoticed to the city gate. There 
his horse was brought to him, and mounting it he 
fled to Sicyon. The Corinthians were so eager to 
get to Cleomenes at Argos that, as Aratus says, all 
their horses were ruined. Aratus says also that 
Cleomenes upbraided the Corinthians for not seizing 
him, but letting him escape ; however, Megistonoiis 
came to him, he says, bringing from Cleomenes a 
request for the surrender of Acrocorinthus (which 
was held by an Achaean garrison) and an offer of a 
large sum of money for it ; to which he replied that 
he did not control affairs, but rather affairs controlled 
him. This is what Aratus writes. 

But Cleomenes, marching up from Argos and 
taking over Troezen, Epidaurus, and Hermione, came 
to Corinth. Its citadel he blockaded, since the 
Achaeans would not abandon it, and after summon- 

9 1 


K\i7T6iv, rov Be 'Apdrov TOVS <tXou9 /cat TOV? 

eTTiTpoiTovs fjL6Ta7r/jL~^fdfjLvo^ e'/eeXeucre TIJV oltclav 

Kal TO, %pi]{jiaTa \a(36vTas (f)V\aTT6iv KOI Siouceiv. 

4 r FpiTVfMO\\ov Se iraKiv TOV Mecrcn;i>oz> aTreVreiXe 

7T/50? aVTOV, d^iWV V7TO TWV ' A%aLWV KOL TO)V 

AaKe8ai[jLOVLc0i> O/JLOV (^vKdrrecrOai TOV 'AtcpoKO- 
piv9ov, ISia Se TO) 'Aparw Bt,7T\rjv eTTayyeXkojjievo^ 
T^V GVVTO%LV ^9 e\dfjil3ave Trapa Tlro\/J,aiov rov 
ftacrL\eu)<;. eVel Be 6 "Aparos ov% vTri'-jKovcrev, 
d\\a TOV re vibv eire/ji^e TT/OO? TOV 'Avrtyovov 
a TWV a\\a)v ojmrfpwv KOL 'fyrifyivaaQai TOU? 
ou? TTi(7V 'AvTiyovq) irapaBtSovat, TOV 

'AKpOKOpl,V00V, OVTO)? K\O/jL6VV)S TIjV T ^IKU- 

coviav fifta\G)v 7r6p0^o~6, Kal ra ^ptj/iiaTa TOV 


Swpeav e 

XX. To) ^e 'AvTiyovov /jieTa 7roXX7}9 
T?]V Yepdveiav vTrep(3d\\oi'Tos OVK aero Seiv rbv 
']o-6/ji6v, d\\a TCL "Oveia 
$>v\dTTiv, Kal TOTTo^a^MV diroTpifiecrOat 

Ka TOVTOLS xpo/jbevos rot? Xoyjcr- 

2 /Ltot? et? uTTOpuav KadiaTTj TOV 'AvTiyovov. OVTG 
yap alrov ei%ev K Tra/oacr/ceu/}? iKavov, OUTC 
ftidcraaOai Ttjv TrdpoSov, Ka8>]/-Levov TOV 
aevovs, rjv pao'iov eTTi^eipija-a^ Se Tr 

Sid TOV Ae%aiovvvKTbs e^eireo-e Kai Tivas 
TWV o-TpaTicdTcov, wcrT6 TravTaTraG i Oappijcrat, TOV 
K\,Ojjievr) Kal row? Trepl avrbv eTnjpfievov^ TJJ 814 
viKy TparreaOaL TT^O? TO belrrvov, dOvfjielv Se TOV 
'AvTLyovov elf OVK evTTopovs KaTaK\eio/jievov UTTO 

3 T>}9 dvdjKtfi "koyHTfjiovs. e/3ov\veTo yap eVi 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xix. 3-xx. 3 

ing the friends and stewards of Aratus, ordered them 
to take the house and property of Aratus into their 
charge and management. Then he sent Tritymallus 
the Messenian once more to Aratus, proposing that 
Acrocorinthus should be garrisoned by Achaeans 
and Lacedaemonians together, and promising Aratus 
personally double the stipend which he was receiving 
from King Ptolemy. 1 Aratus, however, would not 
listen to the proposition, but sent his son to Anti- 
gonus along with the other hostages, and persuaded 
the Achaeans to vote the surrender of Acrocorinthus 
to Antigonus. Therefore Cleomenes invaded the 
territory of Sicyon and ravaged it, and accepted the 
property of Aratus when the Corinthians voted it to 
him as a gift. 

XX. When Antigonus with a large force was 
crossing the mountain-range of Geraneia, Cleomenes 
thought it more advisable to fortify thoroughly, not 
the Isthmus, but the Oneian range of hills, and to 
wear out the Macedonians by a war of posts and 
positions, rather than to engage in formal battle with 
their disciplined phalanx. He carried out this plan, 
and thereby threw Antigonus into straits. For he 
had not a sufficient store of provisions, and it was no 
easy matter to force his passage while Cleomenes sat 
entrenched. Moreover, when he attempted to slip 
past his enemy in the night by way of Lechaeum, he 
was driven out and lost some of his soldiers. There- 
fore Cleomenes was altogether encouraged, and his 
men, elated by their victory, betook themselves to 
supper ; but Antigonus was dejected, since he was 
shut up by necessity to difficult plans. For he was 

1 Ptolemy III. , surnamed Euergetes, king of Egypt 247- 
222 B.C. See the Aratus, xli. 3. 



aKpav dva^evyvvvai TO 'tipalov /cdfceWev 

TT\OLOI<> TrcpaiwcraL T/;I> &vvauiv o real 
TToXXoO KOI Trapaa Kevr)<$ rjv ov rfjs TW^OV- 
0-779. 77877 Be 7rpo9 ecrrrepav r)/cov e "Apyou? Kara 
OaKaTrav av&pes 'Apdrov <f)i\oi, Ka\ovvT6<; avrov 
&)? d(>tcrTa/jLva)v T&V *Kp<yelwv TOV 
o 5e TrpaTToov i]V TTJV airocrTacrLV ' 
/col TO TrX^^o? ov ^aXeTrw? eTceicrev, dyavavTOvv 
OTI %pea)V dTroKorras OVK e7roir)(Tv aurot? o KXeo- 
4 /zeV?79 e\Tri(Ta<jt. Aa/3&V ovv o "Aparo? Trap 
'AvTiyovov (TTpaTicoTas ^tXtoi'9 /cal 

et? ' 'ETTL&av pov . 6 5e ' 
ov Trepiefjievev, d\\a rou? TroXtra? rrapa- 

TTO\LV fcal Trapijv avTy Tfyu-o^ez^o? yu-era 
'A^afwz^ K ^iKVWvos fiorjQwv. 

XXI. TavTa rrepl Sevrepav (f>v\aKi-jv TT)? 
dfcovaas 6 KXeo/zer77? yuereTreyu-^aTO 
teal TTyOo? 6py)]v eice\vaev evOvs etV'Apyo? 
o yap vTrep TMV 'Apyei&v ad\i(TTa 
rrpbs avTOv e/ceti'O? rjv, /cal 
TOU? UTTOTTTOI;?. aTroXi/cra? ovv TOV 
/JLCTO, Btcr^iXiayv (TTpaTitoT&v atro? 

TW 'AvTiyora), /cal TOL/? 

rrapeOdppvvev 009 ovoevos fieyd\ov rrepl TO "Apyos, 
tiXXa Tapa%fjs TWOS air* dvOpooTrwv 6\iycov 
2 /ueVr7?. eVet Se o MeytcrToi'ou? re 

TO ?O? vre7 uaoLte^o? /cat uiois O.VT- 

ot ' typovpol /cal oierreuTrovTO av^vovs 
TOV KXeo/xej^, <po/3rj6el<? urj TOV "Apyovs ol vroXe- 
/cpaTijaavTes Kal ra? Trapoo'ovs d7ro/c\icravT$ 


AGLS AND CLEOMENES, xx. 3 -xxi. 2 

planning to march off to the promontory of the 
Heraeum, and from there to put his army across to 
Sicyon in transports an undertaking requiring much 
time and extraordinary preparations. But when it 
was already towards evening, there came to him 
from Argos by sea some friends of Aratus, who sum- 
moned him to the city, on the ground that the 
Argives were ready to revolt from Cleomenes. The 
author of the revolt was Aristotle ; and the multitude 
were easy to persuade, being incensed because 
Cleomenes had not brought about the abolition of 
debts which they expected. Accordingly, Aratus 
took fifteen hundred soldiers from Antigonus and 
sailed to Epidaurus. Aristotle, however, did not 
await his coming, but at the head of the citizens 
made an attack upon the garrison of the citadel ; 
and Timoxenus came to his aid from Sicyon with 
the Achaean army. 

XXI. It was about midnight when Cleomenes 
heard of these things, and summoning Megistonoiis, 
he angrily ordered him to go at once to Argos with 
assistance ; for it was Megistonoiis who had given 
him most assurances of the fidelity of the Argives, 
and had thereby prevented him from expelling the 
suspected citizens. After sending off Megistonoiis, 
then, with two thousand soldiers, he himself kept 
watch upon Antigonus and tried to encourage the 
Corinthians, telling them that there was no great 
trouble at Argos, but only a slight disturbance made 
by a few men. However, when Megistonoiis, who 
had made his way into Argos, was slain in battle, 
and the garrison held out with difficulty and kept 
sending frequent messengers to Cleomenes, he was 
afraid that if the enemy made themselves masters of 



avTol TTOpOwcrLv aSeco? rrjv AatcwviKrjiJ Kal iro\iop- 
KO)(Ti TTJV ^Trdpr^v 6p?jfj,ov ovcrav, aTrrjyev K Koplv- 
3 dov rb (rrpdrevfJLa. teal ravT^s fJLev evOv? ea-rep^ro 
7roXea>9 icre\06vTos * AvTiyovov KOI t^povpav 

Se ra> "Apyei Kara TO 



Trjv 'AcrTrtSa T/raXt^a? ave^y teal (rvvefjue ro? 

ei'SoV Tl 7T/30? TOV? 'A^aiOU? aVTGXpVffl, Kal T(t)V 

eVro? eVta fc\i/j,a/ca<; Trpo<j6e\<; /tareXa^e, Aral 
GTevwTToi><$ eprf/Jbovs r n-o\6/jiLwv eVo^ue, rot? 
4 xprfcracrdai Tr^ocrra^a? TOW? Kpryra?. &>? 5e /car- 
et<5e rov ' AvTiyovov CLTTO TWV atcpcov et? TO T 
TCL yuera T/)? t^aXayyo?, TOL/? Se /T 
pvSrjv e\avvovTas els TIJV iro\iv, arre 

Kal crvvayaytov airavTas irpos aviov 
KaTejBrj Kal irapa TO ret^o? dTnjXXaT- 
TTO, /jLeyL(TTCi)V fjiev ev eXa^tcrTft) %/oo^fo Trpay- 
/jLaTMv eTTLKpaT^cra^, Kal fiera {iiKpov 6'X?;? o/j,ov 
TL jjiia jrepioSo) TleXoTrovvtjcrov Kvpios 
Sijcras, Tay^v 8' avOis K7reaa)v airdvrcov. ol 
yap evOvs uTre^wprja-av avTov TWV aTpaTevo/jie 
ol ^e oXlyov vGTepov TW ' AvTiyovw ra9 -770X^9 

XXII. OVTCO S' auTO) ireTrpa^OTt Kara TTJV 
arpaTeiav Kal aTrayayoi'Ti, T^V Svvauiv, e&rrepas 
ij&ij Trepl Teyeav afyiKov-ro Tives GK Aa/<:e8 alcoves 
OVK eXdiTova 77)9 eV X^pcrl SvaTV%iav dTrayye\- 
Xoi/re9, -reOvdvai T^V yvvaifca, Si i]V ovBe 

irvv KaTopov/jievais ercevos evexapTepei a~Tpa- 
re/at9, aXXa 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxi. 2 -xxii. i 

Argos and shut up the passes, they might ravage at 
will the Laconian territory and lay siege to Sparta, 
which he had left without defenders. He therefore 
led his army away from Corinth. This city was at 
once lost to him, for Antigonus entered it and set a 
garrison there ; but Cleomenes, on reaching Argos, 
made an attempt to scale the walls, and with this in 
view drew his forces together from their march, and 
cutting his way through the tunnels running under 
the Aspis, or citadel, he made the ascent and effected 
a junction with his garrison inside, which was still 
holding out against the Achaeans. He actually got 
possession of some portions of the city by using 
scaling-ladders, and cleared the streets of the enemy 
by bringing his Cretan archers into action. But 
when he saw Antigonus with his phalanx descending 
from the heights into the plain, and his horsemen 
already streaming into the city, he gave up trying to 
master it; and gathering all his troops about him he 
made his way safely down from the citadel and with- 
drew along past the city wall. He had made the 
greatest possible conquests in the briefest possible 
time, and had come within a little of making himself 
master of all Peloponnesus by a single march through 
it, but had quickly lost everything again. For some 
of his allies left him at once, and others after a little 
while handed their cities over to Antigonus. 

XXII. Such was the result of his expedition, and 
he was leading his army home, when, as it was 
already evening and he was near Tegea, messengers 
from Sparta came with tidings of a fresh and even 
greater calamity, the death of his wife. It was 
because of her that even in his most successful 
campaigns he could not endure to the end, but would 



epayv rfjs 'AyidnSos real Trepl rr\eicrrov TTOIOV- 

2 /zei>o9 eKCiwyv. eTrXijyr) fj.ev ovv KOI ijXyrjo-ev, a>9 
eiKos TIV veov av&pa Ka\\icrrr)s ical (rcofypove- 
crrdrrjs d^yprj/jievov yvvaiKo?' ov fj,rjv Karr}o"%vvev 
ovBe Trpo^Karo ra) Trddei TO (ftpovrj/jia /cat TO 

rr}? ^v^i}^, d\\a KCU fywv^v teal cr^rj/jia 
ev (j) Trporepov el^ev rjdei Sia(f)v\dr- 
rd re TrpocrrdyfjiaTa roi? r)ye/J,6criv e$i8ov Kal 815 
TT)? acr^aXeta? TMV Teyearwv efypovri^ev. 

3 ajjia Be fjfjbepa icaTefSaivev et? Aa/ceSat/zoz/a, teal 
yu-era r?}? yu^ryoo? oi/coi Kal TWV TraLScov aTraXyrj- 
cra? TO 7rev0o$ evOvs rjv ev Tot? Trepl TWV o\wv 

l Be DToXe/iato? o T>}? hlyvTrrov /3acrtXei'9 
Trayye\\6/j,evo<; avry /SoijOeiav TJ^LOV \a/3eiv 
ofjirfpa TOU? TratSa? Afal r/)z/ /uujrepa, %povov /nev 
vvyyov ya^vvero fypdaai rfj ^rjTpi, Kal TroXXa/ft? 
elcre\6a)v Kal nrpos CLVTW yevoj^Gvos TW \6ya) 
Kare<Tiu>Trricrev t ware KaKelvrjv vTrovoelv Kal Trapd 
TWV (f)L\a)v avrov BiaTrvvOdveaOai yit?; n KaroKrei 
4 /SofXo/ue^o? evrv^elv ainrj. TeXo? Be rov KXeo- 

i, "Touro rjv," eltrev, "o 
\eyeiv aTreSeiX/aora?; ou Oarrov ///tac e 
e/9 Tr\olov a7rocTTeXet9, OTTOV Trore 
vofjLi^ei,^ TO (TO)/jLa rovro xprjarijLLcoraTov ecreaOai, 
TTplv VTTO yi'ipw^ avrov KaO^evov Bia\v0rjvai;" 
5 Tldvrwv ovv eroifji^v yevo^evtov a<biKowro 
t? Taivapov tre^y Kal rr povrr e /ji^rev r? Bvi' 
avrovs ev rots o7rXot9' yueXXofcra Se T?}? 

TI K.parijcriK\eia rov K\eo/nevrj /aovov 
vewv rov Tloaioa)vo$ dmfiyaye, Kal Trepi- 



continually be coming home to Sparta, out of love for 
Agiatis and in supreme devotion to her. Of course, 
then, he was smitten with grief, as was natural for a 
young man who had lost a most beautiful and most 
sensible wife, but he did not allow his suffering to 
shame or betray the loftiness of his thought or the 
greatness of his spirit. He maintained his usual 
speech, dress, and bearing, gave the customary orders 
to his captains, and took thought for the safety of 
Tegea. Next morning he returned to Sparta, and 
after duly mourning his loss with his mother and 
children at home, he at once engaged in the measures 
which he planned for the public good. 

Now, Ptolemy the king of Egypt promised him aid 
and assistance, but demanded his mother and his 
children as hostages. For a long time, therefore, he 
was ashamed to tell his mother, and though he often 
went to her and was at the very point of letting her 
know, he held his peace, so that she on her part became 
suspicious and enquired of his friends whether there 
was not something which he wished to impart to her 
but hesitated to do so. Finally, when Cleomenes 
plucked up courage to speak of the matter, his mother 
burst into a hearty laugh and said : " Was this the 
thing which thou wast often of a mind to tell me but 
lost thy courage ? Make haste, put me on board a 
vessel, and send this frail body wheresoever thou 
thinkest it will be of most use to Sparta, before old 
age destroys it sitting idly here." 

Accordingly, when all things were ready, they 
came to Taenarus by land, while the army escorted 
them under arms. And as Cratesicleia was about to 
embark, she drew Cleomenes aside by himself into the 
temple of Poseidon, and after embracing and kissing 



(3a\ovcra /cal KaTacnraa-fi/uevr) Bia\yovvTa KOI o~vv- 

6 TCTapay/jievov, ""A^e," eiTcev, "to j3acn\v Aa/ce- 

, OTTO)?, ejrdv %(0 yevot)jjLe6a, 
?;/za? /jujBe avdjfiov TL rfjs 
TOVTO yap e^>' rjjuv fJLovov at 

r> / r/ A ' / 2 1 ^ ^ ' " " 5" 

oe, OTTO)? av o oaiyuwv oioaj, irapeiai, ravra o 
eiTTovaa Kal Karacrrtjcraa-a TO TrpoawTrov, eVt 
vavv e%(*)pL TO TraiSiov ey^ovcra, KOI Bia 

7 K\evcrev airalpGW TOV KvftepvrJTrjv. evret Se et? 


\6yov? Trap' 'AvTiyovov real Trpea/Belas 
Trepl Se TOV KXeo/uez/of? rjicovcrev OTI, TWV ' 
7rpoKa\ov^6i'0)v avTov et? BiaXvaeis, 0o/So4ro Si 
e/ceivrjv avev TlTo\/^aiov KaraOeadai TOV 
fjuov, 7recrTi\v avTW TO, Trj ^ird 
/cal crufji<p6povTa TrpaTTeiv KOI /Jt,r) Sia fiiav ypavv 
/cal TraiBdpiov del $$tevai TlTO\,/J,alov. auTrj fjiev 
ovv Trapd ra9 ru^a? TOiavTrj \eyeTai, yeyevrjcrOai. 
XXIII. ToO Be 'AvriyovovTeyeav fiev 
'Op%o/jievov Be /cal NLavTweiav 
, ei? avrrjv Trjv Aa/cwvi/CTjv o' 
6 K.\eo/jLvyi<; TWV fiev t,\cora)v TOU? TrevTe 
'ArrtAca? /cara^aXo^ra? e\ev0pov$ eVotet /cal 
Ta\avTa TrevTatcocria crvve\ej;, Stcr^tAtous Be 7rpoo~- 
/ta^oTrXtcra? Ma/ceBoviKcos avTiTay^a rot? Trap* 
'AvTiyovov \6Vfcdcr7rio~iv, epyov tVt vovv /SaXXerat 
2 fJLGya teal Trdcriv dTrpoaBoKtjTOV. r) MeyaX^ TroXt? 
r)v fjiev Tore /cal /ca@* eavTrjv ovBev TI fjieiwv ovBe 
dcrOevecrTepa T>}? AafceBai/novo^, 6t%e Be TIJV djro 
T0)v 'A^aiuv /cal TOV 'AvTiyovov ftotjOeiav, ev 
TT\evpal<$ Kafle^o/jievov /cal BOKOVVTOS VTTO TWV 



AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxn. 5-xxin. 2 

him in his anguish and deep trouble, said : " Come, 
O king of the Lacedaemonians, when we go forth let 
no one see us weeping or doing anything unworthy 
of Sparta. For this lies in our power, and this alone ; 
but as for the issues of fortune, we shall have what 
the Deity may grant." After saying this, she 
composed her countenance and proceeded to the 
ship with her little grandson, and bade the captain 
put to sea with all speed. And when she was come 
to Egypt, and learned that Ptolemy was entertaining 
embassies and proposals from Antigonus, and heard 
that although the Achaeans invited Cleomenes to 
make terms with them, he was afraid on her account 
to end the war without the consent of Ptolemy, she 
sent word to him that he must do what was fitting 
and advantageous for Sparta, and not, because of one 
old woman and a little boy, be ever in fear of 
Ptolemy. Such, then, as we are told, was the bearing 
of Cratesicleia in her misfortunes. 

XXIII. After Antigonus had taken Tegea by 
siege, and had surprised Orchomenus and Mantineia> 
Cleomenes, now reduced to the narrow confines 
of Laconia, set free those of the Helots who could 
pay down five Attic minas (thereby raising a sum of 
five hundred talents), armed two thousand of them in 
Macedonian fashion as an offset to the White Shields 
of Antigonus, and planned an undertaking which 
was great and entirely unexpected. Megalopolis 
was at that time of itself fully as large and strong as 
Sparta, and could have assistance from the Achaeans 
and from Antigonus ; for Antigonus was encamped 
near by, and it was thought that the Megalopolitans 
were chiefly responsible for his being called in by the 



3 iroXiTwv (nrovBaadi'Tcov. ravrijv Biaprrdaai Bia- 
voi]6el<$ 6 KXeoyU,tV?7? (01) yap O~TLV fp /j,a\,\ov 
eoifce TO Ta%v real CITT poo-Bo KT^TOV e/ceivrjs 
7rpd%C(t)s\ rjfjiepwv TrevT6 crtr/a \aftelv 

e^ijye TIJV ^vva/juv eVt rrjv ^,e\a<jiav o>? Trj 

' Apyo'X.iKrjv KaKOVpyijo-wv eiteWev 

67rl rrjv M.eja\o'7TO\i,TLKrji' KCU 

{levos Trepl TO 'PoLreiov evOvs eiropevero Trjv St' 

4 'EJ\IKOVVTOS eirl T)JI> TTO\LV aTrocr^coi' 8' ov 7roXt 
Havrea ^kv e^ovra Bvo rdy^ara TWV Aafce&at- 

iwv a7rea"Ti\, 


r e 
to)? 7njKO\.ov0i. TOV 8e TIavTews ov JJLOVOV 

CK6LVOV TOV TOTTOV, a\\O, Kdl TToXu ya6yOO? ToO 
dfyvXcLKTOV CVpOVTOS, Kdi TO, (JL6V KdOai- 
V0VS, Ttt Be Stacr/taTTTO^TO?, TWV B (frpOV- 

pwv ol? verv% TrdvTas (nTOKTeivavTOS, etydacre 816 
o KXeoyu-e;'?;?, KOI irplv aladeaOai rou9 

evSov i]v /uLera T/"/? Bwd/aecos. 
XXIV. tyavepov B /xoXt? TOU KO.KOV yevo/nevov 
Tot? Kara rrjv TTO\LV, ol /AW ev@us e^eTrnrrov oaa 
Tvy^dvoi TWV ^p^/jidra)i' \a/A/3dvovTes, ol Be 
(TVvco'TpecfcovTO j^era TCOV 07r\a)v, KOL Tot? TroXe- 
/uoi? eviard/bievoi, /cal Trpoo-fidXkovres e/cetz/ou? pev 
OVK icr^vaav KKpovo~ai, TO?? Be fyevyovai rcov 
acr^aXw? aire\6iv Trapecr^ov, Mare /LtP; 

TOU? Be aXXou? diravra^ O/JLOV pera TZK.VWV KOI 
yvvaiKwv (fcOdcrai Siafyvyovras et? 

e KOL TWV Trpoa-fioritfovvTayv KOI 
TO Tr\i}0o^' o\iyoi Be TravTaTracnv r/ 

2 ecrutOi Be 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxm. 3 -xxiv. 2 

Achaeans. This city Cleomenes planned to snatch 
away (for nothing else could better describe the 
speed and unexpectedness of his famous achievement), 
and ordering his men to take five days' rations, he 
led them forth to Sellasia, as though he would ravage 
the territory of Argos. But from there he descended 
into the territory of Megalopolis, and after giving his 
men their supper at the Rhoeteium, he marched at 
once by way of Helicus against the city itself. When 
he was not far away he dispatched Panteus with two 
divisions of Lacedaemonians, ordering him to seize a 
portion of the wall between two towers which he had 
learned was the most unprotected part of the walls 
of Megalopolis, while he himself with the rest of his 
army followed slowly after. Panteus found not only 
that particular spot, but also a great part of the wall, 
undefended, and at once tore down some portions of 
it, undermining others, and slaying all the defenders 
whom he encountered. Cleomenes promptly joined 
him, and before the Megalopolitans were aware of it, 
he was inside the city with his army. 

XXIV. At last the disaster became clear to the 
citizens, and some of them at once fled the city, 
taking with them what property they could lay hands 
on, while others banded together under arms, resist- 
ing and assaulting the enemy. These they were not 
strong enough to eject from the city, but they af- 
forded a safe escape to the citizens who wished to flee, 
so that not more than a thousand persons were taken 
in the place ; all the rest, together with their wives 
and children, succeeded in escaping to Messene. 
Moreover, the greater part of those who tried to save 
the city by fighting got off alive ; but a few of them, 


rjv AvcravBpiBas re KCU eapiBas, avBpes ev- 
Booi KOI BvvaTol /uidXicrTa Twv Me7aXo7roXTah>. 
Bio Kal ~ka/36vT$ avTOV<$ evQvs ol cnpaTiwrai 
TW KXeoyLteWt Trpoa-^yov. 6 Be AvcravBpiBas a><? 
elBe TOV KXeoaevi] TroppwOev, av a (3 oi] a as, ""E- 
earu GQI vvv" elvrey, "& ftaaikev ^aKe^aL^oviwv, 
epyov aTroSei^a/jieixo TOV TreTTpay/uevov Kci\\iov 

3 Kal /3acri\iK(i)TaTOV evBo^ordrw yevecrdai,." 6 
KXeo/zez^?;? Be VTroroTr^aas avrou Trjv evrevfyv, 
11 Tt ^e," elTrev, " a> AvaavSpiSa, \eyeis ; ov 
yap Bij TTOV u Tr)V TToXiv v/jiiv aTToSovvai 
K\eveis ; ' Kal 6 AvcravBpiBas, " AVTO jjiev 
ovv" e<f>r], ' 'Xey&> Kal crvjmftovXeva) /zr; Bia<f)0ipai 
iroKiv Trj\iKavTr]v, aXX' e/jurXrjo-ai <f>i\wv Kal 

TTKTTWV Kal ftefialwv, diro^ovra Me7a- 
rrjv TrarpiBa Kal (rwrfjpa 8tf/j,ov ro- 

4 crovrov iyei'0/jievov" fjuKpov ovv o KXeo/ieV/;? 
BiacricoTTt'ia-as, " XaXeTro^," etyrj, "TO TTLcrrevcrai 
ravra, VIKULTW Be TO TT^OO? B6%av del jjia\\ov rj TO 

7ra/o' rj/iuv." Kal ravra eliroyv dire- 
TGI)? avBpas et? M.eaa)jvr]v Kal KijpvKa 
1 eavrov, TO?? Me7aXo7roXtTai? aTroStSou? rrjv 
TTO\LV eVi TO) o-vjLudov<$ elvai Kal )tXou? CLTTO- 

5 OvTco Be rov KXeo/ie^of? evyvw/jiova Kal (f)i\dv- 
Opwjra rrpOTeivavTos OVK eiacre TOI)? Me^aXo- 
TroXtVa? 6 ^iXoTrot/XT;^ eyKaTaXnreii' TTJV TT/JO? 
TOI)? 'A^atou? TTicrTiv, aXXa KaT^opwv TOV 
KXeo/iei^ou? co? ou ^TOUZ^TO? ttTroSoOi'ai T^ TTO- 
Xw, aXXa TrporrXafteiv TOU? TroXtVa?, e^e/3aXe 
Pleapioav Kal TOV AvcravopiBav K T 



all told, were captured, among whom were Lysandri- 
das and Thearidas, men of the greatest reputation 
and influence in Megalopolis. Therefore the soldiers 
had no sooner seized them than they brought them 
to Cleomenes. Then Lvsandridas, when he saw 

J ' 

Cleomenes from afar, cried out with a loud voice and 
said : " It is in thy power now, O king of the 
Lacedaemonians, to display an action fairer and more 
worthy of a king than any that has preceded it, and 
thereby win men's highest esteem." But Cleomenes, 
conjecturing what the speaker wished, said : " What 
meanest thou, Lysandridas ? Thou surely canst not 
bid me give your city back again to you." To which 
Lysandridas replied : " Indeed, that is just what I 
mean, and I advise thee in thine own interests not to 
destroy so great a city, but to fill it with friends and 
allies who are trusty and true by giving back to the 
Megalopolitans their native city and becoming the 
preserver of so large a people." Accordingly, after a 
short silence, Cleomenes said: "It is difficult to 
believe that all this will happen, but with us let what 
makes for good repute always carry the day, rather 
than what brings gain." And with these words he 
sent the two men off to Messene attended by a herald 
from himself, offering to give back their city to the 
Megalopolitans on condition that they renounce the 
Achaean cause and be his friends and allies. 

However, although Cleomenes made this benevo- 
lent and humane offer, Philopoemen would not allow 
the Megalopolitans to break their pledges to the 
Achaeans, but denounced Cleomenes on the ground 
that he sought, not so much to give their city back 
to its citizens, as rather to get the citizens with their 
city 1 ; then he drove Thearidas and Lysandridas out 
1 See the Philopoemen, \. 


o 7rp(i)Tvaa$ vcrrepov 
/cr?;cra/x6^o? ev TOt9 r/ EX- 
\rjaL Bo^av, a>? IBia rrepl avrov yeypaiTTat. 

XXV. TOVTWV Be d7Tayye\devTO)v TO> KAeo- 
fjievei, TeTrjprjKws rrjv TTO\LV aQiKTOV /cal dfcepaiov, 
wcrre jir&era \aOelv 

l d 

rore TravraTracri rpa^ui'e^ /ca 
ra fjiev ^p/j/jiara BitjpTracrev, dvSpidvras Be Ka\ 
ypa(>d$ aTrecrretXe^ et? ^Trdprrfv, rT;? Be 7roXe&)9 
ra 7rXeto"Ta KCU /jieyiffra /^eprj KaTafffcdtyas KOI 
Bia(j)0eipa<i dve^ev^ev eV OIKOV, (froftov^evos TOP 
2 ' Avriyovov fcal TOU? 'A^aiou?. 7rpd%0r) Be ovBev 
CLTT avrwv. Tvy)(avov /lev ydp ev Alyicp /3ov~\,r)v 
ejrel Be "A/oaro? iLvaftas eVl TO 

^povov eK\aie T^V 
jrpo TOV TrpoaciiTTOu, Oavfjua^ovrwv Be teal \eyeiv 

elirev ort 


KaTa7T\ayei>rcoi> rrjv o^i 
3 TO jjieyeOos TOV TrdOovs, o Be 'A^ 

ftorjOeiv, elra BpaBews CIVTM T/}? Bvvd- 
K TMV j^ei^a^iwv dvia'TaiJLevr)?, TavTrjv jjiev 
eKe\ev(Te KCLTO, j^aipav /sevens, at*T09 Be 

et? oo?, ov 

Ta? tte eauTov. 

A/o /cal TO BevTepov ey^eip^/^a TOV 

Be peTci vroXX?}? Ttpovoias, w? 


4 FloX^to?. 6t8o)? a3 et? Ta 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxiv. 5 -xxv. 4 

of Messene. This was that Philopoemen who after- 
wards became the leader of the Achaeans and won 
the greatest fame among the Greeks, as I have 
written in his own Life. 

XXV. When tidings of these things were brought 
to Cleomenes, although he had taken strict care that 
the city should be inviolate and unharmed, so that 
no one took even the least thing without being 
detected, he was now so incensed and embittered 
that he plundered it, and sent its statues and pictures 
off to Sparta ; then, after completely demolishing 
most and the largest portions of the city, he marched 
back towards home, being in fear of Antigonus and 
the Achaeans. But these did nothing. For they 
were holding a general assembly at Aegium ; and 
here Aratus, after mounting the bema, wept for a 
long time, holding his mantle before his face ; and 
when his audience was amazed and bade him speak, 
he told them that Megalopolis had been destroyed 
by Cleomenes. Then the assembly at once broke up, 
the Achaeans being filled with consternation at the 
swiftness and magnitude of the calamity. Antigonus 
at first attempted to give aid, but afterwards, since 
his forces came up to him but slowly from their 
winter quarters, he ordered them to remain where 
they were, while he himself proceeded to Argos, 
having only a few soldiers with him. 

And this was the reason why the next attempt of 
Cleomenes, which was thought to be a deed of 
extravagant and frantic daring, was really made with 
great forethought, as Polybius says. 1 For Cleomenes 

1 "Most people thought this a hazardous and foolhardy 
step ; but those who were capable of judging regarded the 
measure as at once safe and prudent" (ii. 6i, I). 



Kara TTO\LV^ rovs Ma/ce^ora?, /cal TOP 81' 

V OV 7TOXXOU9 6%OVra fJLia6o<$)OpOV<S V 

Apyei Bia^etfid^ovra fjierd rwv fyiKwv, eve@a\ev 
et9 TIJV ' Apyetav, \oyt6/jivos r) Si aiayyv^v rov 
'Avriyovov Trapo^vvOevros e 

'Apyeiovs. o /cal avve^rf. Bia^deipo^evrj^ yap 
TT}? %(t)pas VTT* avrov KOI Trdvrwv dyofjievwv real 
6 (>po/jiva)v t ol fjiev 'Apyeioi Suffavacr^TovvTe<i 
cjrl ra? 6vpa<$ cruvea'Tp6(j)ovro rov /3a<7iA,ea)9 KOL 
/careftowv, fJid^ecrOai /eeXeiWre? r; rot? KpeirroGiv 
i T?)? rjye/jLOvias' o Se ' Avriyovos, ft)? 
orrparrjyov e^pova, TO Kii'&vvevcrai irapa- 
KCLI Trpoecrdai rr)V dcrfyd\Lai> ala^pov, ov 
TO KaKW<$ dfcovcrai jrapa TOA? e/CTO? rjyov/jLevos, ov 
TrporjXOev, dXX? evefJieve TO? avrov ~\.oyi(7/j,ols. 6 
Be KXeo/z.ei'T?? %/o* T^I^ ret^wv TW arpaTM irpoar- 

XXVI. 'O?Uy&> 5e vcrrepov avOw, i? Teyeaz; 
oufja? Trpoizvai rov Avnyovov ft>? erceWev 6t? 
r;^ AaKCOVUcqv e^ftaXovvTa, ray^v TOU? crrparict)- 
Ta9 dva\a/3a)V Kal KaO' erepas 0801)9 7ra/oaXXaa9 
a/A* rjfiepa 7rpo9 T^ TroXet TWI^ ^Apyelwv ave<f)dvr], 
TTOpOutv TO Treoiov teal rov crlrov ov tceipwv, Mcrjrep 
ol \oi7Toi, SpeTrdvais /cal /za^at/)at9, aXXa KOTrrcov 

fj.evoi,$, ct)9 eVi Traioia xpwfievovs ev TM iropeve- 

(jQai avv /mrjo'evl TTOVM rrdvra crvy/cararpityai ical 

2 Bia(p0ipai rov Kapjrov. ft>9 fjievroi Kara rrjv 

1 ara iro'A.jy Blass and Zicgler, after Schoemanu : 
TroAfi' ws <j>r)ffi. 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxv. 4 -xxvi. 2 

knew that the Macedonians were dispersed among 
the cities in their winter quarters, and that Antigonus 
had only a few mercenaries with him at Argos, where 
he was spending the winter with his friends. Cleo- 
menes therefore invaded the territory of Argos, 
calculating that Antigonus would either be shamed 
into fighting and would be overpowered, or, in case 
he did not venture to fight, would incur odium 
among the Argives. And this was what actually 
came to pass. For while Cleomenes was wasting the 
country and robbing it of all that was there, the 
Argives, in distress, kept thronging the doors of the 
king and calling upon him with loud voices either to 
fight or yield the leadership to his betters. But 
Antigonus, as became a prudent general, considering 
that disgrace lay in taking unreasonable risks and 
throwing away his security, rather than in being 
abused by the outside rabble, would not go forth 
from the city, but stood by his previous plans. So 
Cleomenes came up to the very walls of the city with 
his army, wrought insolent havoc, and then with- 
drew unmolested. 

XXVI. A little later, however, hearing that 
Antigonus had advanced to Tegea with intent to 
invade Laconia from that city, Cleomenes quickly 
took his soldiers, marched past the enemy by a 
different route, and at daybreak appeared suddenly 
before the city of Argos, ravaging the plain and 
destroying the grain, not cutting this down, as usual, 
with sickles and knives, but beating it down with 
great pieces of wood fashioned like spear-shafts. 
These his soldiers plied as if in sport, while passing 
by, and with no effort at all they would crush and ruin 
all the crop. When, however, they were come to the 



}Lv\\dpajBiv yevo/jLeroi TO yvfjuvdaiov e 
rrpocrtyepeiv rrvp, GKwXv&ev, &>? KOI TWV rrepl 
\leyd\rjv TTO\LV UTT' opyrjs fidXXov 77 /eaXw? avrw 

m ^ C* \ ' 4 ' " > ' /I * ' 

iov oe Ajntyovov Trpcorov fjiev evuvs et? 

eireiTa ra oprj /cal ra? 

(f)v\aKals Kara\a/36vTo<;, dfjieXeiv KOI Kara- 
cfrpoveiv 7rpO(T7roiov/j.vos evre/Lt-v^e KijpvKas ra? 
d^i&v TOV 'YLpaiov \a^elv, OTTW? u 

3 T^ 9eu> flvaas. OVTW &e irai^a<s KCU Kareipwvev- 
crdiJievos, KCU Trj dew Ovcras VTTO TOV vewv KK\eicr- 
[j.vov,d7r?]yayev et? <&\iouvTa TOV crTpaTov e/ceWev 
Be TOV? (frpovpovvras TOV OXiyvprov e^e/ 
/caTe/5?7 Trapa TOV ^Op^o/j.ev6v, ov /JLOVOV rot? 

ra/9 typovrj/Mi KOI Odpaos efjLTreTronjKo}^, d\\d 
TO?? 7ro\e/^toi? avrjp fyyefiovi/ebis BOKMV elvai /cal 

4 TT-pay/jiaTcov fieydXtov a^ios. TO yap IK 

op/jLoo^evov oyuov TTJ XlaKeSovwv 

drrao-i Kal %opriyia 

TTJV AaKWViKij}', d\\d /cal %a)pav KaKws TroiovvTa 
TTJV eKeivwv Kal TroXe^? alpovvTa TTj\iKai>Tas, ov 

XXVII. 'AXA,' o TrpwTo? TO. ^prjfiaTa vevpa 
Trpay/JLO-Tcav Trpocrenrcov e/? TO, TOV 7ro\fjLOv 
^.d\i(JTa /SXe^a? TOUT' elnelv e 
Ta? T/)/?;pet? /j-i> Ka6e\Keiv 

7TOT6 TO)V ' A.0r)Valo>V K6\VOVTCt)V, 

ra 8' OVK e^ovTt&v " TIpoTepov CCTTIV," e<j>r), 
TO Trpo^evaai TOV (frvpdcrai" l \eyerai Be Kal 

1 TO irpooevcrai rov (pvpaaai Bekker and Blass, after 

AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxvi. 2 -xxvii. i 

Cyllarabis and attempted to set the gymnasium on 
fire, Cleomenes stopped them, feeling that his work 
at Megalopolis had been done to satisfy his anger 
rather than his honour. 

As for Antigonus, in the first place he went back 
at once to Argos, and then occupied the hills and all 
the passes with outposts. But Cleomenes pretended 
to despise and ignore all this, and sent heralds to 
the king demanding the keys to the Heraeum, that 
he might offer sacrifice to the goddess before he went 
away. Then, after this jest and mockery, and after 
sacrificing to the goddess under the walls of the 
temple, which was closed, he led his army off to 
Phlius. From thence, after expelling the garrison of 
Oligyrtus, he marched past Orchomenus, not only 
infusing high spirits and courage into its citizens, but 
also leading his enemies to think him a man capable 
of leadership and worthy to wield great power. For 
he drew his resources from but a single city, and yet 
waged war against the Macedonian power, all the 
Peloponnesians, and the treasures of a king together, 
and not only kept Laconia inviolate, but actually 
ravaged his enemies' territory and took cities of great 
size ; and men thought this a proof of no ordinary 
ability and largeness of purpose. 

XXVII. But he who first declared that money is 
the sinews of affairs would seem to have spoken with 
special reference to the affairs of war. And Demades, 
when the Athenians once ordered that their triremes 
should be launched and manned, but had no money, 

/ J 

said : " Dough must be moistened before it is 
kneaded." It is said also that Archidamus of old, 

Schoemann : TOV 7rp&>paTeC<rcu TI> (pvpairai (before the lookout- 
man comes the bread-maker) with the MSS. 



6 rra\aio<i vrro rrjv dp^rjv rov IleXo- 

rwv o~v/jL[id%(i)v avrov, elirelv o>? 6 7roXe//.o? ov 
2 rerayf^eva crireirai. KaOdrrep jap ol crecrco/jiaor- 
dOXrjral T& ^povw Karafiapovcri 
vrai TOVS evpv&fjiovs Kal 
6 'Ai/Tt7O^o? K 

TOV K\eofj,evr) j\icr^pa)<f Kal yttoXf? Tropi^ovTa rot? 
3 %evoLS fjaaOov Kal rpotyrfv rot? TroXtrai?. eVel 
raXXa 76 TT/JO? TOV KXeo/^e^ou? o ypovo^ r)v, TWV 
OLKOL Trpay/ndrwv aviffTOVTcov rov ^Avri^ovov. 
<yap TrepieKOTrrov aTrovros Kal Kare- 
Trjv MaKeboviav, Kal Tore &rj TT 0X1/9 avu>6ev 818 
/3X?7#;e arparo^, v(^ ov TropOov/Jievoi 
rov ^Avriyovov ol Ma/ceSo^e?. Kal 
rrap' o\,iyov rrpo TT}? /Lta%^9 crvverv^e ravra ra 
Ko/j,icr@)jvai TT/JO? avrov wv KO/JLI- 
ev6v$ av drrrf^Oe fiaKpa %aipeiv 

aXX' 77 ra /Aeyiara TWV 
Kpivovcra ry rrapa fJUKpov rv\ri rr]\iKavrr\v drre- 

porrrjv Kaipov Kal ^vvafjuiv, w<rre, 
ev SeXacr/a yevouevijs Kal rov 
XrjKoros rrjv SvvafJLiv Kal rrjv rro\iv, 
rrapelvai TOU? Ka\ovvras rov 'Avriyovov. b Kal 
/jLa\.i(7ra rrjv Bvarv^iav rov KXeo/nevovs OiKrpo- 
repav erroiTja-ev. el yap r^fjiepa^ Bvo povas eVecr^e 
l rraprjyaye <j)vyo/jia%ct)V, OVK av e&erjaev avrw 
aXX' e'' ol? 

TOI)? 'A^aiot/? drre\0ovrwv rwv .aKva)V vvv 
oV, wcnrep el'prjrat, Bid ri)V d%prj/j,arLav ev rot? 



towards the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, 
when the allies ordered their contributions for the 
war to be fixed, said : " War has no fixed rations." 1 
And indeed, just as athletes who have taken a full 
course of training, in time bear down and overpower 
those who are merely graceful and skilful, so also did 
Antigonus, who engaged in the war with large 
resources, wear out and prostrate Cleomenes, who 
could only meagrely and with difficulty provide pay 
for his mercenaries and sustenance for his citizen- 
soldiers. And yet in all other respects, certainly, time 
was on the side of Cleomenes ; for affairs at home 
demanded the presence of Antigonus. During his 
absence Barbarians had been overrunning and devas- 
tating Macedonia, and at this particular time a large 
army of Illyrians from the interior had burst in, and 
in consequence of their ravages the Macedonians 
summoned Antigonus home. Their letters came 
within a little of reaching him before the decisive 
battle. If they had so reached him, he would at once 
have gone away and left the Achaeans to their own 
devices. But Fortune, who decides the most impor- 
tant affairs by a narrow margin, favoured him with so 
slight a preponderance in the scale of opportunity and 
power, that no sooner had the battle at Sellasia been 
fought, where Cleomenes lost his army and his city, 
than the messengers summoning Antigonus arrived. 
And this more than anything else made the misfor- 
tune of Cleomenes to be greatly pitied. For if he 
could have held out only two days, and continued his 
defensive tactics, he would not have needed to fight 
a battle, but the Macedonians would have gone away 
and he could have made his own terms with the 
Achaeans. But now, as I said before, his lack of 
1 See the Crassus, ii. 7. 


TO rrdv OefJiGVO^ rjvayicdcrOr) Sio-fjivpiois, co? 


XXVIII. Kat dav/macrrov fMev ev rw 
eavrbv crrparijyov, eK9v[JiOi<$ 8 
TOi? TroXtrat?, ov P.TIV ovSe T&V 

ayMvicrafievcov, ru> rpojray r?}? 
KOI ry fidpei rr}? OTrXintcfy <pd\ajyo<; e 

? 5e Kal TTpo&ocriav jevecrOai ^al rrjv 
TW KXeoytte^et ra irpdy/jiara Siepyacra- 
2 fievi-iv. rov yap 'Avriyovov TOU? 'iXXi'piou? teal 
TOL? ' 'Axapvdvas KTTpie\deiv tcpixpa 
Kal KvicKuxjaaQai Odrepov /cepa?, e<$> ov 
i]v Ei)/cXetoa9 o rov KXeoyLteVou? aSeX^o?, elra ry 
dX\,rjv eVl H>d%r) ^vvafjuv eVrarTOi'TO?, avro CTKOTTTIS 
Oewpwv o KXeo/^e^T;?, co? ov&a/jiov rd oVXa T<WZ> 

r) Trpo? ri TOLOVTOV avrois 6 ' ' Kvriyovos K6 
3 ^aXecra? 5e Aa/zoreX?; TOI^ eVt rr}? 

TTay/JLVOl>, Opdv K6\,V(T6 KOI r)TLV 07TCO? 6 

TO, Kara vcorov Kal KVK\W T^? Trapard^ews. rov 

rrporepov vrr 'Avrtyovov 

elrrovros a>? KaXco? e^ovrwv, rot? 

(Tvvrrrova'iv e eaz/ra? rrpocre^eLV Kal rovrovs 

i, TriGrevaas errl rov ' Avriyovov %u> 
4 :al TT; p^/tt^ TWZ/ vre/al avrov ^rcapriarwv wcrd- 
fjievos rrjv <pd\ayya TWV Wa/ce&ovwv evrt rrevre 




resources forced him to stake the whole issue on a 
battle where, as Polybius says, 1 he could oppose only 
twenty thousand men to thirty thousand. 

XXVIII. He showed himself an admirable general 
in the hour of peril, his fellow countrymen gave him 
spirited support, and even his mercenaries fought in 
a praiseworthy manner, but he was overwhelmed by 
the superior character of his enemies' armour and the 
weight of their heavy-armed phalanx. Phylarchus, 
however, says that there was treachery also, and that 
this was chiefly what ruined Cleomenes. For Antigo- 
nus ordered his Illyrians and Acarnanians to go round 
by a secret way and envelope the other wing, which 
Eucleidas, the brother of Cleomenes, commanded, 
and then led out the rest of his forces to battle ; and 
when Cleomenes, from his post of observation, could 
nowhere see the arms of the Illyrians and Acarnanians, 
he was afraid that Antigonus was using them for 
some such purpose. He therefore called Damoteles, 
the commander of the secret service contingent, 2 and 
ordered him to observe and find out how matters 
stood in the rear and on the flanks of his array. But 
Damoteles (who had previously been bribed, as we are 
told, by Antigonus) told him to have no concern 
about flanks and rear, for all was well there, but to 
give his attention to those who assailed him in front, 
and repulse them. So Cleomenes, putting faith in 
what he was told, advanced upon Antigonus, and by 
the sweeping onset of his Spartans drove back the 
phalanx of the Macedonians for about five furlongs, 

1 Hint. ii. 65. 2 and 7. The battle of Sellasia was fought 
in June of 221 B.C. 

2 A rural police with the special duty of watching the 
Helots, or slave population. 



Kparcov rj/co\ov0r)o-ev. elra ra>v rrepl rov Eu 
Sav arfo darepov KVK\w9evrwv eVicrra? /cal /cari- 
&wv rov /CLV&VVOV, 

errev, oi%rj, yevvao? wv Ka Traw 
5 ^Trapriarcov KOI yvvai^lv aotSiyu-o?." OI/TO) Be rwv 
irepl TOV 1&vK\6iSav avaipeOevrwv, /cal TWV e/ceWev, 
a)? ercpdrovv, eiri^epo^vwv rapaTTOfievov^ opwv 
TOU? crr/jaTtcora? KCLL /neveiv ovtceTi roX/uw^Ta?, 
ecrto^ev eavrov. airoOavelv &e Kal TWV %ivwv 
TroXXoi"? Xeyoi/crt KOI Aa/ceSat/uoi^toL'? avra^ra? 

XXIX. 'ETrel Se et? Tr/v TTO\LV a(j)LKero, rot? 
airavrriaacTi rwv 7ro\iTwv iraprjvei Se^ea-dai 
rov 'Avriyovov, airro? Se eiTrev el're ^wi^ el're a?ro- 
tiv, o yueXXot TT; ^rrdpry cruvoiaeiv, rovro 
opwv Se ra? ^vvaiKa^ Tot? /ACT' avrov 
Trecfrevyocri rcpocrrpe^ovo-a^ /cal Se^OyueW? ra oVXa 
2 /cat TTorbv rrpoa-fyepovuas, avros ela"r)\0 
rrjv oiKiav rrjv eavrov, TT}? Se rraL^icrKT]^, rjv 
\ev0pav ovaav e/c MeyaX?;? TroXeco? az' 

T?}? ryvvaiKos re\vrijv, co? eWiaro, 

/cal 3ov\0jLevrs arco 

Oeparreveiv, ovre melv e/cSeS^^/^co? V7re/J,eiVV 
ovre KaOiaai KCK/JUJKCO^, dXX' waTrep ervy^ave 819 
reOwpaKio-fjievo^ r&v KIQVWV nvl rr/v %et/?a rrpoa-- 
/SaXa>y 7r\ayiav /cal TO rrpoGwrrov eVl ro^ TTTJ^VV 
3 67rt#et?, /fal ^povov ov rcoXvv ovrca &iavarrav<jas 
TO aw/na /cal rfj Stavoia TrepiSpa/jioov arravras 
TOL? \oyia /AOVS, wp/Arjae pera rwv <fy'i\.wv et? TO 
/. KciKeWev 7ri/3dvres eV auTO rovro rrape- 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxvm. 4 -xxix. 3 

and followed after them victoriously. Then, after 
Eucleidas with the other wing had been encircled, he 
came to a stop, and seeing their peril, said ; " I have 
lost thee, my dearest brother, I have lost thee, thou 
noble heart, thou great example to Spartan boys, thou 
theme for a song to Spartan wives ! After 

Eucleidas and his forces had in this way been cut to 
pieces, and the enemy, after their victory there, were 
coming on against the other wing, Cleomenes, seeing 
that his soldiers were in disorder and no longer had 
courage to stand their ground, took measures for his 
own safety. Many of his mercenaries fell, as we are 
told, and all the Spartans, six thousand in number, 
except two hundred. 

XXIX. When Cleomenes came to the city, he 
advised the citizens who met him to receive Antigo- 
nus ; as for himself, he said he would do whatever 
promised to be best for Sparta, whether it called for 
his life or death. Then, seeing the women running 
up to those who had escaped with him, relieving 
them of their arms, and bringing drink to them, he 
went into his own house. Here his concubine, a free 
woman of Megalopolis whom he had taken to him- 
self after the death of his wife, came to him, as was 
her wont upon his return from the field, and wished 
to minister to him ; but he would neither drink, 
though he was faint with thirst, nor sit down, though 
he was worn out. Instead, all in armour as he was, 
he put his arm aslant against one of the pillars of the 
house, dropped his face upon his forearm, and after 
resting himself in this way for a short time, and 
running over in his thoughts all possible plans, he set 
out with his friends for Gythium. There he went on 
board of vessels provided for this very purpose and 

put to sea. 


VOL. X. E 


XXX. 'O &e 

rrjv rro\LV, Kal ^prja-d^evo^ rot? 
<f>i\av0p(*>rra)s, /cal TO a^LwfjLa rrfs ^Trdprrjs ov 
Trpomj\aKi(Tas ovB' evvftpiaas, d\\a /cal VOJJLOVS 
/cal rroXireiav a7ro8ou? /cal rot? Oeols Qvaas, ave- 
-%d)pr)crev r)^epa rpirr), TrvdofJievos ev MatceSovia 
ir6\vv Tr6\/Aov elvai /cal 7rop6el<j6ai rrjv ^copav 
VTTO TWV ftapfBdpwv. rjSrj & /cal TO vocrrffia 

2 Kal /cardppovv GVVTOVOV. ov /JLIJV dTreiirev, 

TT/QO? TO 19 oxeov<i ycovas ocrov eiri 
vi/cr) /j.ejLO'T'r} Kal <$>ov(p TrXeivrw rwv ftapftdpwv 
ev/cXeecrrepov dirodavelv, &>? pev et'/co? eart Kal 
\eyov(Tii> ol Trepl <&v\ap%ov, avrf) rfj irepl rov 
/cpawyfj TO aw/Aa TTpoaavappij^as' ev & 

r]V d/coviv on (Sowv yu-eTa rrjv 



avrfyaye /cal irvpe^as arvvTQVtos ereXevTrjcre. ravra 

ra Trepl ^AvrL'yovov, 
XXXI. KXeo^69 Se Tr\iwv CLTTO 

vr\aov erepav, Alyia\iav, /cai-ea^ev. 60 ev et? 
v TrepaiovcrOai yueXXoz^T09 avrov, 

ovo/jia ripvKwv, dvrjp Trpos re Ta9 

/ca Tot9 
7670^0)9 T/9 ^^77X09 aet #al fjieydXavvos, e 

J J/ ItT'^ V '-v -\ ' ' 

avrw /car uoiav, \.ov fjiev Ka\\t,arov, etrrev, 
" a) /Sa&iXev, 9dvarov rov ev rfj f^d^ 
Kairoi Trdvres i]Kovaav IJ/AWV \eyovrtov 
vTrp/3ij(Terai rov fiaaiXea rwv ^rrapnarwv 'Azm- 
701^09 el /A*] veKpov. 6 e Sevrepos So^y Kal dperfj 
vvv eri rrdpecrriv r}/j,lv. irol TrXeo/zey u\oyi(rra)<i, 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxx. i-xxxi. 2 

XXX. Antigonus marched up and took the city 
without resistance. He treated the Lacedaemonians 
humanely,, and did not insult or mock the dignity of 
Sparta, but restored her laws and constitution, 1 
sacrificed to the gods, and went away on the third 
day. For he learned that there was a great war 
in Macedonia and that the Barbarians were ravaging 
the country. Moreover, his disease was already in 
full possession of him, having developed into a 
quick consumption and an acute catarrh. He 
did not, however, give up, but had strength 
left for his conflicts at home, so that he won a 
very great victory, slew a prodigious number of the 
Barbarians, and died gloriously, having broken a 
blood-vessel (as it is likely, and as Phylarchus says) 
by the very shout that he raised on the field of battle. 
And in the schools of philosophy one used to hear 
the story that after his victory he shouted for joy, 
" O happy day I " and then brought up a quantity 
of blood, fell into a high fever, and so died. So 
much concerning Antigonus. 

XXXI. As for Cleomenes, he sailed from Cythera 
to Aegialia, another island, and put in there. As he 
was about to cross from thence to Cyrene, one of his 
friends, Therycion by name, a man who brought a 
large spirit to the conduct of affairs and was always 
somewhat lofty in his speech and grandiloquent, 
came to him privately and said : " The noblest death, 
O King, a death in battle, we have put away from us ; 
and yet all men heard us declare that Antigonus 
should not pass the king of Sparta except over his 
dead body. But a death that is second in virtue and 
glory is now still in our power. Whither do we 

1 As they were before the reforms of Cleomenes. 



eyyvs bv /ca/cov real ^aicpav 
; el yap ovrc ala-^pov ean Sov\eveiv rot? 
<>i\,L7T7rov KOI ' A\%dvSpov TGI)? d(j) ' 
, TT\OVV TTO\VV KpSai>ov/jLev ' AvTiyovM 

eauroi;?, w et'/co? eVr^ TTroXe/za/ou 
3 6Voz> A.lyv7TTLCi)v MatceSovas. el Se (' coj/ K/cpa- 
rr)/ji0a rot? oVXoi? ou/c d%iov/j,ev ap^eaOai, TI 
rov /jiij veviKrjKora Seo-TTOTtjv TTOIOV/JLCV avrwv, "va 
avO ez^o? Bveiv Kafciovs (pavco/nev, *Avriyovov 

t9 ALJVTTTOV r)tcet,v; fca\bv 
avrfj Qkapa yevoio KOI tyjKwrov eTriSeitcvv- 
rat? UroXe/jtaiov yvvai^lv al^/jLd\coTov etc 
Kal (frvydSa TOP vlov. oi>% ew? en rwv 
dp%OfiV Kal TYJV AaKwviicrjv d(j)opa)- 
evravOa TT}? TU^?;? aTraXXa^az/re? eauroi/? 
d7ro\oyt](r6/jL@a rot? ev SeXauta Kei/JLevois virep 
27ra/)T7^?, aXX' eV AlyvTrra) K 
Tiva T/]? 

TotaOra TOU t&rjpVKiwvos eiTrovros 6 KXeo- 

yue^9 aTre/cpLvaro, " Twv dvO pwrrivwv TO pacrTOV t 

a) Trovrjpe, Kal Trdcriv ev erot/zft) &KMK.WV, diro- 

Oavelv, dv&pelos elvai SOKCIS, fyevywv alayiova 

5 (f)vyr)V rfjs Trporepov; TroXe/ucu? p,6v yap eve 

Kal KpeiTTOves ^fJLwv y rj Tv%fl o^aXe^Te? fj 
VTTO 7r\ij0ov<;' 6 Be TT/JO? TTOZ^OU? Kal 
ias r) tyoyovs Kal So^a? dvOpanrcov dira- 



unreasoningly sail, fleeing an evil that is near and 
pursuing one that is afar off? For if it is not shame- 
ful that the descendants of Heracles should be in 
subjection to the successors of Philip and Alexander, 
we shall spare ourselves a long voyage by surrender- 
ing to Antigonus, who is likely to surpass Ptolemy 
as much as Macedonians surpass Egyptians. But if 
we cannot consent to be ruled by those who have 
conquered us in arms, why should we make him 
our master who has not defeated us, thus showing 
ourselves inferior to two instead of one by running 
away from Antigonus and joining the flatterers of 
Ptolemy ? Or, shall we say that it is on thy mother's 
account that we come to Egypt ? Surely thou wilt 
make a noble spectacle for her, and one to awaken 
envy, when she displays her son to the wives of 
Ptolemy, a captive instead of a king, and a runaway. 
Let us rather, while we are still masters of our 
own swords and can gaze upon the land of Laconia, 
here rid ourselves of Fortune's yoke, and make our 
peace with those who at Sellasia died in defence of 
Sparta, instead of sitting idly down in Egypt and 
asking every now and then whom Antigonus has left 
as satrap of Lacedaemon." 

Such were the words of Therycion, and to them 
Cleomenes replied : " It is the easiest possible step 
thou urgest, wretched man, and one that any man 
may take, this dying ; and dost thou think thyself 
brave when thou art making a flight more shameful 
than the one preceding it ? Better men than we 
have given in to their enemies before this, having 
been betrayed by Fortune or overwhelmed by numbers. 
But he who in the face of toils and hardships, or of 
the censorious judgments of men, gives up the fight, 



f)TTaTai TJ}? avrov /taXa/aa9 Bel ydp 
TOV av6aipeTOV OdvaTOv ov (pvyrjv elvai 
aXXa rrpd^LV. ala^pov ydp Kal %r)i 
eavTols Kal drrodvijo-Keiv' e<$> o vvv av rrapaKa- 820 
XeZ? f]fJLQ-s, (TTrevBwv drra\\ayrjvaL TWV TrapovTcov, 
Ka\ov Be ovBev ovBe %p)']crifjLov aXXo BiaTrparTO- 
6 /jievos. eya) Be Kal o~e Kal fjiavTov OLO/JLOL Belv 
ra? vTrep TT}? Trarpt'So? e'Xvr/^a? an KaTa\iTfelv 

ll' r it 

OTTOV B* av 77/109 eKelvai ^araX/Trftxri, pa&Ta (3ov- 
Xo/tez/ot9 aTToOavelv virdp^ei" 

11/309 TavTa @rjpvKLO)v ovBev dvTenrcov, ore 
7rpo)TOV eo~%e Kaipov dTro&TrjvaL TOV KXeo/tei^oL'9, 
eKTpaTrofievos irapd TOV alyia\bv eo~<f)aj;V eavTov. 

XXXII. 'O Be KXeo/te^7;9 a?ro TWV 
dva'xOels Trj Aifivy Trpo cre/SaXe, Kal Bid TWV 
\IKWV Traparre/JLTTo/jLevos YJKGV el? 'A\edvBpeiav. 

\5.\TT-\ ' '' V \>/ 

?t-9 oe T&) llTOA-euatw, KaT ap^as u.ev eTvy^ave 
'nXavOpcoTrov Kal fieTpiov 7T/909 avrov 
Be yvut/Jir]^ BiBovs rrelpav dvrjp e^aiveTO 
e/A<f)pwv, Kal T7/9 KaO* i]/j,epav o/ttXta9 avTOV TO 
AaKwviKov Kal a^>eXe9 TTJV ^dpiv e\ev&epiov el)(, 
Kal TIJV evyeveiav ovBa/ KaTaia^vvwv ovBe 
/ca/tTTTO/tei'09 t'Tro rr)9 Tu^7;9, TWV ?r/)09 rjBovrjv 
Kal KO\aKuav Bia\eyo/j,ev(ov jriOavcoTepos e<pai- 
2 V6TO, TroXXr; u.ev aiBws Kal /terai'ota TOV 
fjLdiov el^ev dvBpos a/teX/;cra^ra TOLOVTOV 
TTpoefjievov TW ' AvTiyovtp, Bo^av a/ta 
rr)\iKavT^v Kal Bvva/Aiv, dva\au.^dvwv Be Tiyaat9 
Kal <f)L\o(})po(Tvvai$ TOV KXeo/JLevrj Tcapeddppvvev 
a>9 /tera vewv Kal %pr)/jidTCt)v dTrocrT\wv avTOV 
et9 rrjv 'EXXa^a Kal KaTaaT^awv 6/9 TTJV fiaai- 
1 Kal $riv Blass and Ziegler, after Richards. 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxxi. 5 -xxxn. 2 

is vanquished by his own weakness. For a self-inflicted 
death ought to be, not flight from action, but an 
action in itself. For it is shameful to die, as well as 
to live, for one's self alone. And yet it is to this that 
thou now invitest me in thine eagerness to be rid of 
present troubles, though beyond that thou wilt effect 
nothing that is honourable or useful. I, however, 
think it right that neither thou nor I should abandon 
our hopes for our country ; when these abandon us, 
death will be very easy if we wish it." 

To this Therycion made no reply, but as soon as he 
got an opportunity to leave Cleomenes, he turned 
aside along the sea-beach and slew himself. 

XXXII. But Cleomenes, putting to sea from Aegia- 
lia, landed in Libya, and travelled through the King's 
country to Alexandria. After coming into the 
presence of Ptolemy, at first he met with only ordin- 
ary and moderate kindness from him ; but when he 
had given proof of his sentiments and shown himself 
to be a man of good sense, and when, in his daily 
intercourse, his Laconian simplicity retained the 
charm which a free spirit imparts, while he in no 
wise brought shame upon his noble birth or suffered 
the blows of Fortune to bow him down, but showed 
himself more winning than those whose conversation 
sought only to please and flatter, then Ptolemy was 
filled with great respect for him, and deeply repented 
that he had neglected such a man and abandoned him 
to Antigonus, who had thereby won great glory and 
power. Ptolemy therefore sought to regain Cleo- 
menes by honours and kindnesses, and kept encour- 
aging him with assurances that he would send him 
back to Greece with ships and treasure and restore 



3 \eiav. eBiSov be Kal crvvTa^iv avTw Tecrcrapa 


avTov real rou? <f>i\ovs euTeXco? real <ra)- 

BtOlKWV, TO, 7r\ei(TTa K.aTa,V1]\l(J KV 

($)i\av6 pwrrlas KOL yueraoocre/? rwv OLTTO 
80? et? AiyvTTTov GKTreirTWKoTwv. 

XXXIII. 'O p,ev ovv TT peer ft VT epos 
jrplv e/CTeXecrai ra> K\eo/j,evei rrjv eKTre^-^nv ere- 
Xevrrjcre' Ti}? Be /SacriXeia? ev&vs et? 7ro\\r)i> 
dcreXyeiav KOL irapoiviav real yvvaiKO/cpariav 
2 e/jLTreaovcrris ^/zeXetro KOI ra rov KXeo/ie^ou?. 6 
fi,v jap /SacrtXeu 1 ? auro? ovrco SiecfrOapro TTJV 
VTTO <yvvaiKa)i> real TTOTWV axrre, OTTOTC 
fJLa\.ia"Ta real (TTrovSaiorarof avrov yevoiro, 
reXera? re\lv /cal rv/jLTravov %(0v ev roi^; ftaai- 
dyeupeiv, ra & /neyiara TT}? apxf)S irpd<y- 
*A<yadoK\eiav Trjv ep(OfjLi>rjv TOV 

teal rrjv raur>;? ^rfTepa fca 
3 Qivdv0r)v. oyaco? 8' ovv eBo^e rt? ev dp%fj real TOV 

s %/oeta yeyovevai,. SeSico? <yap 
TOV doe\<f)ov IlToXe/u.a4O?, a><? Icr^vovTa Baa 

ev TO) aTpaTiwTiKw, TOV K.\eo/jievrj irpoa-- 
\d/jL/3ave Kal /AeTeSiSov TWV aTroppiJTcov trvve&pifov, 
/3ov\evo/jivos dveXelv TOV dSe\$6v. 6 Be, Ka'urep 


yopevo'ev, eiTrcov a>? fjiaXXov, el Bvvarov r)v, eBei 

4 \eiav Kal Bia/Aovrjv TWV TTpay/^aTcov. 

Be TOV rrXelcTTOV ev rot? (jbtXoi? Bwa/nevov (f)rjcravTo<; 
OVK elvai Ta TWV fjLi(rdo<p6pa)V aurot? /9e/3ata TOV 



AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxxn. 3 -xxxm. 4 

him to his kingdom. He also gave him an annual 
pension of twenty-four talents. With this money 
Cleomenes maintained himself and his friends in a 
simple and modest manner, and spent the greater 
part in good offices and contributions to the refugees 
from Greece who were in Egypt. 

XXXIII. Well, then, the elder Ptolemy 1 died 
before sending Cleomenes off as he had promised ; 
and since the court at once plunged into excessive 
wantonness and drunkenness, and women wielded the 
power, the affairs of Cleomenes were neglected. 
For the king himself was so corrupted in spirit by 
wine and women that, in his soberest and most 
serious moments, he would celebrate religious rites and 
act the mountebank in his palace , timbrel in hand, while 
the most important affairs of the government were 
managed by Agathocleia, the mistress of the king, 
and Oenanthe her mother, who was a bawd. But in 
spite of all this, at the outset Cleomenes seemed to 
be of some use. For Ptolemy was afraid of his brother 
Magas, believing that Magas had a strong following 
among the soldiers owing to his mother's influence, 
and he therefore took Cleomenes into his following 
and gave him a place in his privy council, all the while 
plotting to kill his brother. But Cleomenes, although 
all other counsellors urged the king to take this step, 
alone advised against it, saying that it were better, 
were it possible, to get the king more brothers to 
increase the security and stability of his affairs. 
And when Sosibius, who had the most influence 
among the king's ministers, declared that they could 
not be sure of the mercenaries as long as Magas was 
alive, Cleomenes bade him have no concern on that 

1 Ptolemy III., surnamed Euergetes, died in 220 B.C., and 
was followed by Ptolemy IV., surnamed Philopator. 



eveKa 76 rovrov vrXeiof? jap i] rpi(T^i\iov<; TMV 



irapecrofjievov^- ovros 6 \6yos Tore /Jiev ov fu/cpav 
KXeo/xeVei KCU TC'KJTLV evvoias teal SOKIJCTIV 
aeO^Kev, vcrrepov &, TOV nroXe/^atof 
acrQei'eias eTTiTeivovcn-jS TI-JV Bet\iav, fcal KaO- 
eicodev ev rw /jiijSev (ftpovelv, rou Trdvra 

KOL Tracriv aTTtarrep 

&OKOVVTOS elrai, (fro/Sepai* evroLei rbv KXeo/Aey?; rot? 
6 av\ifcoi<;, a>? laynuovra Trapa rot? ^eVot?' fcal 
TToXXcoi^ TJV dfcoveiv 'h.eyovTcoi' OTI " OL>TO? 6 \ecov 
ev rovrois rot? TTpo/SaTOis dvaa'TpeffreTai" TO> 
yap OVTL TOIOVTOV Sieipaivev r}^o? ev rot? /Bacrt- 
\iKols, v7ro/3\Tra)i> drpi/JLa KOI TrapeTTicrKOTrwv ra 821 

XXXIV. Nau9 f^ev ovv air&v KOI arpariav 
direlire' TrvvOavo/JLevos Se reOi'dvai TOV *Avrt- 

7TO\/LL(i) (TV /J,7T7r\e%8ai TOL/? 

ra Be Trpdy/^ara Trodeii' CLVTOV Kal 
7rapaKa\eiv, 1 ev rapa^fj Kal Bia<T7raa'fjL& T?}? 
TIe\oTTOvvi]crov yeyevrj/nevrjs, tj^iov fjiev /JLOVOS djro- 
2 (TTaXf/vai fierd rwv (friXwv, eireide Be ovBeva, TOV 
fjiev /SacTiXew? OVK elcraKovovros, aXX' ev yvvaigl 
Kal Oidarois Kal KW/JLOIS avve^ovro^ eavrov, 6 Be 
rcov o\a)v TrpoecTTrjKax; Kal 7rpo/3ov\eva)v ^.wcrl- 
jSios /jievovra p,ev rbv K.\eo/j,evj] irapa jvco^irjv 
rjjeiro Bva/jLeraxeiptcTTOv elvai Kal (frofiepov, d<f>- 
0ev-ra Be ro\/jLrjp6v, dvBpa Kal /J,eya\o7rpdyfj,ova 
l TT}? /SacriXeta? vo<rovarijs Oea-r^v yeyevrj^evov. 

j' Ziegler : Trapa.foXea 1 ttcelcre Bekker : 
f'iv tKflvov (with the MSS.). 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxxni. 4-xxxiv. 2 

point at least ; for more than three thousand of the 
mercenaries were Peloponnesians and attached to 
himself, and if he but gave them a nod they would 
readily come to his side in arms. At the time this 
speech won for Cleomenes no little faith in his good 
will and belief in his strength; but afterwards, when 
Ptolemy's weakness intensified his cowardice, and, as 
is wont to happen where there is no sound judgment, 
his best course seemed to him to lie in fearing every- 
body and distrusting all men, it led the courtiers to 
be afraid of Cleomenes, on the ground that he had a 
strong following among the mercenaries ; and many 
of them were heard to say : " There goes the lion up 
and down among these sheep." And such, in fact, he 
clearly was among the courtiers, eyeing with quiet 
contempt and closely watching what was going on. 

XXXIV. For ships, therefore, and an army, he 
gave up asking ; but on learning that Antigonus was 
dead l and that the Achaeans were involved in a war 
with the Aetolians, and that affairs yearned and 
called for him now that Peloponnesus was rent asunder 
and in confusion, he demanded to be sent away with 
his friends merely ; but he could persuade no one. 
The king would not give him a hearing, but was 
absorbed with women and Dionysiac routs and 
revels ; and Sosibius, the prime minister and chief 
counsellor, thought that if Cleomenes remained 
against his will he might be hard to manage, in- 
deed, and an object of fear, but that if he were 
sent away he would make some bold attempt, being 
a man of large undertakings, and one who had 
been an eye-witness of the distempers of the realm. 

1 Cf. chapter xxx. 2. 



3 ovBe jap at Bwpeal Karerrpdvvov avrov, dXX' 
OKTTTep rov *ATTIV ev dtyOovoiS Biairai/uevov KOI 
rpvcj)di' BoKOvvra rov Kara fyvcriv jBiov real 


cart Bvaavao")ra)V rrjv iv rat? 




avOi, fjiV(0v, 7ro0O'/c S' diJTijv re TrroXe- 
fjiov re. 

XXXV. Toiovrcov Se r&v Kar avrov ovrwv 
7rpayfj,dra>v dfafcveirai NiKayopas 6 
et? 'AXe^dvSpeiav, dvrjp /ULHTWV /j,ev rov 
frpoairoiov/Jievo^ Be ^>t\09 elvar ywpiov Be Trore 
ica\ov avrw TreTrpaKoos KOL Bi* acr^oXta^, a>? eo^/ce, 
Bia TroXeyLtof? OVK a7retX?7<^a>9 TO dpyvpiov. rov- 
rov ovv eK/Baivovra rore T/}? 6\KaBo<; IBwv o 
(erv^e yap ev rf] KprjTrlBi rov 

tea r/9 avrov 

2 et<? AiyvTrrov ayot Trpo^aai^ rjpwra. rov Be 
Ni/cayopov <pi\o(f)p6va)<; avraarfa^o^kvov KOLI <>ij- 
aavros ITTTTOU? ciyeiv TOO {3aai\et /caXou? rwv 

av," e(f)r], " ere yuaXXof "]/ceiv ayovra 

teal KivatBovs' ravra yap vvv 

xareTreiyei rov j3acri\a" ical 6 NiKayopas rore 
[lev e/jLeiBiacrev ^/nepais Be vcrrepov 6\LyaL$ VTTO- 
/jLvij&as rov yjapiov rov KXeo/JLevtjv vvv yovv 
eBeiro rj]V rijArjv aTroKaftelv, &>9 OVK av 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxxiv. 3 -xxxv. 2 

For not even gifts would soften him, but just as the 
sacred bull Apis, though living in plenty and believed 
to be having a luxurious time, feels a desire for the 
life that was his by nature, for coursings without 
restraint, and leaps and bounds, and is manifestly 
disgusted with his treatment at the hands of the 
priests, so Cleomenes took no pleasure in his life of 
ease and luxury, 

" but kept pining away in his dear heart," 
like Achilles, 1 

" As he lingered there, and kept yearning for war- 
cry and battle." 

XXXV. While matters stood thus with him, Nica- 
goras the Messenian came to Alexandria, a man who 
hated Cleomenes, but pretended to be a friend. He 
had at one time sold Cleomenes a fine estate, and 
owing to the constant demands of war upon the king, 
as it would seem, had not received the money for it. 
And so now, when Cleomenes, who chanced to be 
taking a walk along the quay, saw Nicagoras landing 
from his vessel, he greeted him heartily and asked 
what errand brought him to Egypt. Nicagoras re- 
turned his greeting in a friendly manner, and said 
that he was bringing horses for the king, some fine 
ones for use in war. At this, Cleomenes gave a laugh 
and said : " I could wish that thou hadst rather 
brought sambuca-girls and catamites ; for these now 
most interest the king." At the time Nicagoras 
merely smiled ; but a few days later he reminded 
Cleomenes of the estate, and asked that now at any rate 
he might get the money for it, saying that he would 
not have troubled him about the matter if he had not 

1 Iliad, i. 491 f. 



el fJirj Trepl T^V TWV (fropricov 

3 ety/JiiovTO. TOV 8e KXeo/u.eVou? (fjcravTos ovbev 
avTW Trepieivai TWV ceSo/jievcov, \V7rr)0ls 6 Nt/ta- 
<y6pa$ K<fiepi ra> Zuxri/Biw TO crKWfjifjLa TOV KXeo- 

6 5e KOI rovro /j.ev acr/ieVa)? eXa/Sei^, etc 
vo^ atrta? TOZ^ ySacriXea irapo^vvai ^IJTWI> 
oy Nitcayopav eTTicrrdXrjv ypdtyavra Kara 
rov K\eo/ieVou? dTroXnreiv, co? eyvciy/coros, el 
\u{3oi Tpir)pei<$ /cal crTyoaT^cora? Trap' avTov, Ku- 

4 pi'ivijv KCLTaa^elv. o fiev ovv Ni/cayopas Tavra 
7pa^a? aTreTrXefo-e* TOU 8e Sft)0"i/Stov //.era recr- 
cra/oa? ^epa? T?;^ eTTKJToX.^v TT/OO? roy IlToA,e- 
/JLCIIOV aveveyKOVTos co? dpTicos avTw Se$o/jLevi]v teal 

TO /ueipdtciov, &oj;6V e/9 ol/ciav 
elcrayayeiv TOV KXeo/<ieV>7i>, /cal 

XXXVI. 'Hi; ^aev ow /cat raOra \VTrrjpd 


ea^ev etc TOICLVT^ 
6 Xpvaep/jiov 0tXo? wz^ TOU 


fj,vei, Kal avvijOeid Ti? V7rr)p%ev auroi? /cat 7ra/o- 
2 pijaia TTyOO? aXXr/Xof?. OUTO? out/ Tore, TOV 
KXco/aeyou? BeyOevTos e\6elv TT/JO? avTov, 
fjLV /cal SLe\e^6r) /jbTpia, TO VTTOTTTOV e^aip 
irepl TOV /SacrtXea)? a7roXo70UyU6z^o?* diTLuiv oe 
TT(i\iv ex TT}? oliclas, Kal /JLTJ Trpovot'jcras e^o 

a^pl TWV 0VpO)V 7TaKO\OV00VVTa TOV 

iriKpct)*; 7TTLfjL7ja-e rot? (frvXagiv a>9 

Oripiov Kal SvcrTrjprjTov a/t6Xa>9 <ftv\aTTovcri Kai 822 

1 jnfrplus Bekker and Blasa correct to oi per plus, after 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxxv. 2-xxxvi. 2 

met with a considerable loss in the disposition of his 
cargo ; and when Cleomenes declared that he had 
nothing left of the moneys that had been given 
him, Nicagoras was vexed, and reported to Sosibius 
the pleasantry of Cleomenes. Sosibius was glad to 
get even this matter, but he desired to have some 
larger accusation with which to exasperate the king, 
and therefore persuaded Nicagoras to write and leave 
behind him a letter accusing Cleomenes of planning, 
in case he got triremes and soldiers from Ptolemy, to 
seize Cyrene. So Nicagoras wrote a letter to this 
effect and sailed away ; and Sosibius, after four days 
had passed, brought the letter to Ptolemy, pretend- 
ing that he had just received it, and so exasperated 
the young man that it was decided to remove 
Cleomenes into a large house, and while treating 
him in other ways just as before, to prevent his 

XXXVI. Even this usage was grievous to Cleo- 
menes, but his hopes for the future received a greater 
shock from the following incident. Ptolemy the son 
of Chrysermus, a friend of King Ptolemy, had all the 
while been on friendly terms with Cleomenes, and 
they were quite intimate and outspoken with one 
another. This Ptolemy, then, now that Cleomenes 
begged a visit from him, came and conversed in a 
reasonable way with him, seeking to remove his 
suspicions and excusing the conduct of the king ; 
but when he was leaving the house and did not 
perceive that Cleomenes was following on behind 
him as far as the doors, he bitterly reproached the 
guards for the careless and easy watch they kept 
upon a great wild beast that was so hard to keep. 


3 pa6v/Jitt>$. TOVTWV 6 KXeOyUez;?;? avrrjKoos yevo- 
fievos, KOI Trplv alaOeaQat TOV [IroXe/jLaiov ava- 
vwpricra? e<f>0acre rot? <itXo(?. ev9vs ovv 

* ' * *\ ' ' 

a? Trporepov et%ov eA-TTtoa? e 
opyfyv 6J3ov\V<ravTO TOV TlroXe^atou 
afivvdfjievoi KOI rrjv v/Spiv a^ta)? rr}? 
airo9avelv, KOA, fjir] Trepifieveiv wcnrep lepela iriav- 

4 Oevras KaraKOTTrjvai' Seivov 'yap, el ra? 71720? 
'Avrtyovov, avSpa TroXe/j.ta'rrjv KCU Bpacmjpiov, 
Sia\vcrei<; virepiStoV KXeo/ze^? fcdd^rai, f.i^rpa- 
ryvprov /SacriXeo)? cr^o\,rjv dva/nevcov, orav irpwrov 
aTroOrjraL TO TV/jLTravov KCU /caraTravcrrj TOV 6ia- 


XXXVII. *E7rel S^ eBo^e TCLVTCL KOI Kara 
TV^TIV o ITroXe/zaiO? et? JLdva>j3ov 
jrpwrov fj,v SieSaifcav \6yov co? TrapakvoiTO 

V7TO TOV 3a(7tX6ft)9' 67T6LTa GfC 

j3acri\iKov rot? fjL6\\ovcriv e^ elpKTrjs OLTTO- 
\vea0ai BGLTTVOV re ire^Trofjiivov KOI ^eviwv, ol 
TroXXa roiaura 


olo/Jbevovs VTTO TOV fSaGiXews 
/cat ^a/a e^ue /cat /iereStSou TOVTWV 
teal eVtT#et<? GTefydvovs /cal Ka,TaK\i6els 
p,6Ta Tayv (>i\(i)v. \eyeTai &e Ta^iov rj 

TT/SO? Tr/z; irpd^tv op/ji^jcrat,, 
olfceTrjv eva TWV crvveiBoTcov Trjv Trpd^iv e 
irapa yvvatKl KKoi/j,ij/Aevov ^9 yjpa. /cal (j)0/3ti@6i<> 
jjiijvvcriv, eireiBrj /iiecrov r)/j,epas rjv /cal TOU? (j)v\a- 
TJcr0To /caOevo'ovTas VTTO TT}? peOr]?, evSvcrd- 
TOV ^LTwva /cal TTJV pa(pr)v /c TOV Segiov 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxxvi. 3 -xxxvn. 2 

Cleomenes heard this with his own ears, and without 
Ptolemy's being aware of his presence went back 
and told his friends. At once, then, they all aban- 
doned the hopes they had been cherishing and 
wrathfully determined to avenge themselves on 
Ptolemy for his injustice and insolence, and die in a 
manner worthy of Sparta, instead of waiting like 
sacrificial victims to be first fattened and then 
smitten down. For it was an intolerable thing that 
Cleomenes, after scorning to come to terms with 
Antigonus, a man who fought well and wrought 
much, should sit idly down and await the leisure of 
a begging-priest of a king, who, as soon as he could lay 
aside his timbrel and stop his dancing, would slay him. 
XXXVII. Such being their resolve, and Ptolemy, 
as chance would have it, making a visit to Canopus, 
in the first place word was sent about that Cleomenes 
had been set free by the king ; and next, in view of 
a custom which the king had of sending presents 
and a banquet to those who were going to be released 
from imprisonment, the friends of Cleomenes in the 
city prepared and sent in to him an abundance of 
such things, thus completely deceiving the guards, 
who thought the king had sent them. For Cleomenes 
made a sacrifice and gave the guards a bountiful 
share of his provisions, and then took his place at 
table with garlands on his head and feasted with his 
friends. We are told, too, that he set out upon his 
enterprise sooner than he had intended, because he 
learned that a slave who was privy to it had passed 
the night outside in company with a mistress. So 
fearing that his plans would be revealed, when noon 
came and he perceived that his guards were sleeping 
off their wine, he put on his tunic, opened the seam 



7Tapa\vcrdiuiei>os MJUOV, <yvf^va) TW f;i<f>t /j-era TWV 

3 Tpiwv OVTCOV. 'Iirirlras e ^wXo? wv TT) 

eTreaev op/jifj rrpoOvfj-M^, 009 ^ ewpa 
Tropevo/nwovs ^t' avior, etce\VffV 
dve\eiv KOI fjw) Bia<f)0etpGiv r^v irpa^iv, d^prjO'TOV 
avOpwrrov Trepifjif.vovTas. eru^e Se TWV \\\ej;av- 
&pO)i> Tt? ITTTTOV ciywi* nrapa ra? 6vpas' rovrov 
ii<f)\6/Avoi, veil TOV 'iTTTrirav avaftahovres, e^)t { - 
povro S^oyLtw 8m T&V <7T6^ft)7rcor Kol irapK(i\ouv 

4 TOT o^Xoi' eVl T?;^ eXevOepiav. rot? 8e roaovrov, 
ft)? eoiKv, a\Kr)S /jLerfjv oaov tTraivelv KCU OavfJ-a- 
^eiv TIJV TOV KXeo/ieVoL'9 ToX/jLav, aico\ov6eiv Be 
KOL jSoiiOelv ovSels eOdppet,. 


auXr/9 e%ioi>Ta Tpeis evtfus TrpovTrecrovTes avre- 
KTeivav CTepov Se llroXe/^atou TOV <$v\dcro-ovTOs 

TlfV TTO\IV \CLVVOl>TO<$ ap/JiCLTt, 7T/509 aVTOVS, 6pfJ,?j- 

cravT<; eravTioi TOL/? /nev vmypeTas KCL\ Sopvfiopovs 
SiecrfceSaaav, avTOV Be KaTacnrdcravTes drro TOV 

5 apyuaro? airiCTivav, eZra Trpo? TJJV attpav 
povr, avappfj^at Siai'oov/jLei'oi TO $o~ja(OTi)pioi' 
^pi']a-aa6ai ra> TT\)J^I TWV 8e$/j,vcov. ty 
5e <f>pa%d/j,i>ot /vaXw? oi (f)v\aKS, wcrre 

ei'Ta T/}9 TTeipCLS TOV K.\OfJLVrj 

tcai Tr\araaOai /cara T/;^ 7roXu>, 
vSevos avTM Trpoo"X(i)povvTo<s, dXXa (frevyovTwv 

6 A~at oftovjievwv airavTtoV* 01/10)9 ot'i/ a7rocrTa9 

/f ai 7T/3O9 roi>9 </>tXof9 elTrwi', " Qv&ev Tjv dpa 
BavfJiaffTov apwiv yvvai/cas dvOpayTrwv $>ewyoi>Twv 
Ti)i> eXevtfepiav," Trape/caXecrt TrdvTas ^ta>9 avrov 

KOI TtoV TT6Trpay/AVCi)l> T\VTai>. (COL 7T/3a>TO9 /xei' 


AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxxvii. 2-6 

over his right shoulder, and with drawn sword sprang 
forth, accompanied by his friends, who were likewise 
arrayed, thirteen in number. Hippitas, who was 
lame, joined in making the first onset with all his 
soul, but when he saw that he was a hindrance to 
the progress of his companions, he bade them kill 
him, and not ruin the enterprise by waiting for a 
useless fellow. As it chanced, however, an Alexan- 
drian was leading a horse past the doors, so they 
seized the animal, put Hippitas on its back, and then 
rushed at full speed through the narrow streets of 
the city, summoning the throng to win their freedom. 
These had enough courage, as it would seem, to 
admire and praise the daring of Cleomenes, but not 
a man was bold enough to follow and help him. 

Well, then, as Ptolemy the son of Chrysermus was 
coming out of the palace, three of them straightway 
fell upon him and slew him; and as another Ptolemy, 
who had the city in his charge, was driving towards 
them in a chariot, they rushed to meet him, scattered 
his servants and mercenaries, dragged him from his 
chariot, and slew him. Then they proceeded to the 
citadel, purposing to break open the prison and 
avail themselves of the multitude of prisoners. But 
the guards were too quick for them and barred the 
way securely, so that Cleomenes, baffled in this 
attempt also, roamed up and down through the city, 
not a man joining with him but everybody filled 
with fear and flying from him. So, then, he de- 
sisted from his attempt, and saying to his friends, 
" It is no wonder, after all, that women rule over 
men who run away from freedom," he called upon 
them all to die in a manner worthy of their king 
and their past achievements. So Hippitas first, at 



VTTO TO)V VCi)Tp(i)V TLVO? 7T\1]yr) 
eClVTOV dTTO(7(f)dTTl, TT\r)V TLaVTd)<> TOV 

7 ^leydXriv TCO\LV KaTakajSovTO^. TOVTOV Be Ka\- 
\LCTTOV wpa Kai 7T/?O9 T?)V dycoyrjv evcfrvecrTaTov 
veoov yei>6/J,evov epcofievov ecr^rjKcb^ 6 ftacnXevs 
>, OTCIV avTov Te KCLI TOU? a\\ovs iBy 

OVTW Te\evTav. rjBrj Be /cei/Jievcov ^QO 
eTTiTTopevojbLevos 6 TlavTevs KOI TW 


ia\av6dvoi %wv. eVet Be KOI TOV 
<$ Trapd TO crtyvpovei&e avcrTpetyavTa TO Trpocr- 
WTTOV, 6(pLXrj(Tv avTov, elra TrapeKudiae' KCLI 
TeXo? e^ovros JjBr) 7repi[3a\(i>v TOV veicpov eavrov 
7riKaT(T(f) a e. 

XXXVIII. KXeofievtj^ /j.ev ovv kxKai&eica TT)? 
ftacriXevcras err) /cat TOIOVTOS dvrjp <ye- 


Ka'nrep ovcra yevvaia yvvr), TrpovScotee TO 
7T/90? TO T^? crv/ji<f)opd<; /jieyedos, KOI 
2 rd Trauma TOV KX,eo/ie^of9 d)\o<pvpeTO. TWV Se 
rrai^iwv TO TrpecrftvTepov a7T07r?;8r/cr^, 
civ Trpoa^>oKi](TavTo^, dirb TOV Teyovs eirl K 
eppityev eavTO' KCLI /ca/cw? JJLZV ea^ev, ov fjjrjv avre- 
ftavev, aXV r)p6i-j (Bowv KOI dyavaKTOvv eirl 

'O Be TlroXefjialos, GO? eyvw TavTa, 
TO /jLcv crw/jia TOV K.\eo/j,ei>ov<; Kpe/JLacrai 
/Bvpawo-avTas, aTTOKTelvat Be rd TraiBla KOI 
3 fjLrjTepa real Ta? Trepl avrr^v yvvai/cas. ev Be 



AGIS AND CLEOMENES, xxxvn. 6-xxxvin. 3 

his own request, was smitten down by one of the 
younger men, then each of the others calmly and 
cheerfully slew himself, except Panteus, the man 
who led the way in the capture of Megalopolis. 1 
He had once been the king's favourite, because in 
his youth he was most fair, and in his young man- 
hood most amenable to the Spartan discipline ; and 
now his orders were to wait until the king and the 
rest of the band were dead, and then to die himself. 
At last all the rest lay prostrate on the ground, and 
Panteus, going up to each one in turn and pricking 
him with his sword, sought to discover whether any 
spark of life remained. When he pricked Cleomenes 
in the ankle and saw that his face twitched, he kissed 
him, and then sat down by his side ; at last the end 
came, and after embracing the king's dead body, he 
slew himself upon it. 

XXXVIII. Such, then, was the end of Cleomenes, 
who had been for sixteen years king of Sparta, and 
had shown himself the man whom I have described. 
The report of his death spread over the entire city, 
and Cratesicleia, although she was a woman of noble 
spirit, lost her composure in view of the magnitude 
of her misfortunes, and throwing her arms about the 
children of Cleomenes, wailed and lamented. But 
the elder of the two boys, forestalling all prevention, 
sprang away and threw himself headlong from the 
roof; he was badly injured, but did not die, and was 
taken up crying out resentfully because he Avas not 
permitted to end his life. 

But Ptolemy, when he learned of these things, 
gave orders that the body of Cleomenes should be 
Hayed and hung up, and that his children, his mother, 
and the women that were with her, should be killed. 

1 See chapter xxiii. 4. 

J 37 


rairrat? TJV Kal TlavTews yvvrj /caXXicrrT/ Kal yev- 
vaiOTaTr] TO elSo?. e.Ti e avrois veoyd/j,ois oiai) 
ev aK/Aals epwTwv al Tv^ai avveftrjcrav. ev6v$ 
fjiev ovv avveKTrXevaai TW Tlavrel /3ov\o/jii"r]V 
avrrjv OVK eiacrav ol <yoveLs, aXXa /9ta KaraK\i- 
4 cra^re? (pv\aTTOv oXtyw Se vcnepov ITTTTOV tavry 
TrapacTKevdaaaa teal ^pvaiBiov ov TTO\V VVKTOS 
aireBpa, KCU Btay^aaa crui'To^co? eVt Taivapov, 
eiceWev eTreftr] j/eco? et? AfyvTTTOV TrXeovcrw 
L(j9r) TT^O? Tov av&pa teal av 
TOV eirl %evrj<$ ftiov aXuTrw? /cal 
avrij Tore TIJV KpaTijaiK\Lav VTTO TWV 

TWV aojLevv eeiaMei, TOV re 

v7ro\a/jL/3dvovcra, teal Oappelv 
\ovaa /jiTj&ev TL /xr;8' avrrjv K7r67r\7jj/^V')jv TOV 
OdvdTov, aXX' ev /.wvov aiTOv/^ev^v, irpo TWV 
5 7raL$i(ov airoOavelv. eVel Se rfXOov et? TOV TOTTOV 
ev co TCLVTCI Spdv elwOeaav ol vTrypeTai, irpwTov 
/jiev TCL TratSta, TT}? K/?aT?y<Ti/cXeta? opcoffrjs, ecr- 
(JHITTOV, elra e/ceivrjv, ev TOVTO p,ovov eVt TrjXi- 
j)0ey^a/jiV7jv irdBecnv, "^H T6Kva, Trot 
; 77^6 TlavTecos yvvij, Trepi^waa/nevrj TO 

evpaxTTOS ovo-a Kal /neydXr) TWV diro- 
Oi'Tjcrtcova'wv eKacrTrjv (Ttu>7rf) Kal ^ 

eOepaTreve Kal TrepieaTeXXev etc TWV e 
6 reXo? Be /JiTa Tracra? eavrfyv Kocr/jiijcraaa, 
KaTayayovaa TI^V 7repi/3o\rfv, Kal uijSeva Trpocr- 
e\6elv edcraaa /iT/Se ISeiv d\\ov r) TOV eVl TT}? 
(T<pay)}<; TeTay/nevov, rjpwiKws KaTeaTpe^rev, ov- 
Sevbs Be / r]0el(7a KOG/JLOVVTOS Kal TrepiKoXvirTOVTos 
yuera Trjv Te\evTi]v. OVTW Trape/jLeive TW Oavdrep 
TO Koa^iov TT}? ^%>)5, Kal o~i(j>v~\.aj;ev rjv 



Among these women was the wife of Panteus, most 
noble and beautiful to look upon. The pair were 
still but lately married, and their misfortunes came 
upon them in the hey-day of their love. Her parents, 
indeed, would not permit her to sail away with Pan- 
teus immediately, although she wished to do 
so, but shut her up and kept her under con- 
straint ; a little later, however, she procured herself 
a horse and a small sum of money, ran away by night, 
made all speed to Taenarum, and there embarked 
upon a ship bound for Egypt. She was conveyed to 
her husband, and with him bore their life in a 
strange land without complaint and cheerfully. She 
it was who now took the hand of Cratesicleia as she 
was led forth by the soldiers, held up her robe for 
her, and bade her be of good courage. And Crate- 
sicleia herself was not one whit dismayed at death, 
but asked one favour only, that she might die before 
the children died. However, when they were come 
to the place of execution, first the children were 
slain before her eyes, and then Cratesicleia herself 
was slain, making but this one cry at sorrows so 
great: " O children, whither are ye gone ? " Then 
the wife of Panteus, girding up her robe, vigorous 
and stately woman that she was, ministered to each 
of the dying women calmly and without a word, and 
laid them out for burial as well as she could. And 
finally, after all were cared for, she arrayed herself, 
let down her robes from about her neck, and suffer- 
ing no one besides the executioner to come near or 
look upon her, bravely met her end, and had no 
need of anyone to array or cover up her body after 
death. Thus her decorum of spirit attended her in 
death, and she maintained to the end that watchful 
care of her body which she had set over it in life. 



XXXIX. *H fjiev ovv AaKeSai/jLcov, 
dycovicra/Jievr) TU> yvvaiKeiw opd^aTi TT/JO? TO av- 
Bptiov t ev rot? eV^arot? Kaipols eVe'Se^e rrjv 
dpeTi^v v/3pia0r)vai jj,r) ^vva/Jiev^v VTTO rrjs TU^^?. 
o\iyaL<; Be varepov ^ftepat? ol TO crw/ta rov KXeo- 

tea aTTOKpVTTTOvra TO irpouwTrov, ware 

2 opveov e<f)L7rTacrdai <rapKO(pd<yoi>. CK &e rovrov 
Beiat$aifj,ovLa Trpoa-ejrea-e TW (BacriKel xal 

KaOapfJiwv Tat? yvvai^lv a 

dvSpos avrjprjjjievov 0O(f)i\ov<s teal Kpeirrovos 
rrjv <f)vaiv. ol Se 'AXe^a^Spe?? Kal 


/j,ev7j Kal 0ewv iral&a Trpoo-ayopevovres, a>xpt> ov 

3 KareTravcrav avrovs ol (Tofy&Tepot, StSopTe? \oyov 

jJiev /5oe?, o-^)7}/ca9 Se WTTTO* Kara- 824 
e%av6ovcri, Kavdapoi Be ovwv TO auTo 
TraOovrwv ^cooyovovvrai, TCL Be dvOpooTTiva crco- 
fjuara, rwv Trepl TOV /jiV6\bv l^^pwv ffvpporjV Tiva 
Kal crvaracriv ev eavTols \aftovTwv, o<peis ava- 

TOVTO KaTiSovres ol 7ra\aiol 
a)Q)v TOV BpaKOVTO, Tot? ijpcocri 



XXXIX. So, then, Sparta, bringing her women's 
tragedy into emulous competition with that of her 
men, showed the world that in the last extremity 
Virtue cannot be outraged by Fortune. And a few 
days afterwards those who were keeping watch 
upon the body of Cleomenes where it hung, saw a 
serpent of great size coiling itself about the head 
and hiding away the face so that no ravening bird of 
prey could light upon it. In consequence of this, 
the king was seized with superstitious fear, and thus 
gave the women occasion for various rites of purifi- 
cation, since they felt that a man had been 
taken off who was of a superior nature and beloved 
of the gods. And the Alexandrians actually wor- 
shipped him, coming frequently to the spot and 
addressing Cleomenes as a hero and a child of the 
gods ; but at last the wiser men among them put a 
stop to this by explaining that, as putrefying oxen 
breed bees, and horses wasps, and as beetles are 
generated in asses which are in the like condition of 
decay, so human bodies, when the juices about 
the marrow collect together and coagulate, produce 
serpents. And it was because they observed this that 
the ancients associated the serpent more than any 
other animal with heroes. 




T. TPArxoS 

T. 'H/^et? Be TIJV TrpcoTrjv Icnopiav 

OVK eXdrrova TrdOri TOVTWV ev 
av^vyia Oewprivai, TOV Ti/Bepuov KOI 
Yatov ftiov dvrnrapa/3d\\ovTe<>. OVTOI 
Tpdy^ov TraiSes rjcrav, eo n/uirjTfj re 
yevo/jievw KOL Si? vTrarevcravTi KOI 0pid/j,J3ov<; &vo 
KarayayovTi Xa/jLTrporepov rjv TO CLTTO TT}? dperr/^ 

2 d^lwjjia. &io KOL rr]i> ^KrjTriwvos TOV fcaTa,7ro\e- 
lLr]<javTo<$ ^Avvifiav Ovyarepa Kopvtfkiav, OVK wv 
<f)i\o<>, d\\a KOI $id<popos TO) dv&pl yeyova)*?, 
\af3elv j]%i(a6r) /zera TTJV etcelvov Te\evTi]v. Xe- 
<yTai Be 7TOT6 o~v\\a(3elv avibv ejrl 

^et'70? &paKbvT(dv, TOU? Be {idvreis 
TO Tepas a/ji(j)co pev OVK eav dve\elv ovBe d<f)eivai, 
Trepl Be 6arepou Bmipeiv, a>? o JAW apprjv TO) 
Tifteplw fyepoi OdvaTOv dvcupeOeis, rj Be 0tf\eta 

3 rfj K.opvrjXi,a. TOV ovv Tiftepiov KOL <j)i\ovvTa 
TTJV yvvairca, real fjia\\ov aura) irpoaij/ceiv OVTI 

e/ceivrjs, TOV fiev appeva KTCIVCU TWV Bpa/covTwv, 
dcfreivai Be Trjv 6r)\iav elra vaTepov ov 7roAA,a> 




I. Now that we have duly finished the first part of 
our story, we have to contemplate fates no less tragic 
than those of Agis and Cleomenes in the lives of the 
Roman couple, Tiberius and Caius, which we set in 
parallel. They were sons of Tiberius Gracchus, 
who, although he had been censor at Rome, twice 
consul, and had celebrated two triumphs, derived his 
more illustrious dignity from his virtue. Therefore, 
after the death 1 of the Scipio who conquered Hannibal, 
although Tiberius had not been his friend, but actually 
at variance with him, he was judged worthy to take 
Scipio's daughter Cornelia in marriage. We are told, 
moreover, that he once caught a pair of serpents on 
his bed, and that the soothsayers, after considering 
the prodigy, forbade him to kill both serpents or to 
let both go, but to decide the fate of one or the 
other of them, declaring also that the male serpent, 
if killed, would bring death to Tiberius, and the 
female, to Cornelia. Tiberius, accordingly, who 
loved his wife, and thought that since she was still 
young and he was older it was more fitting that he 
should die, killed the male serpent, but let the 
female go. A short time afterwards, as the story 

1 In 183 B.C. 



ovw Te\evTi}o-ai, BeKaBvo rraidas etc r/ys" 
Xt'a? avTfo yeyovoTas /azraXtTroi'Ta. 

4 Kopvrj\ia Be dva\a(3ouo-a rov<t rraibas KOI TOV 
OLKOV, OVTW awtypova Kal (f)i\oTKvov Kal 
\6tyv%ov avTi^v Trapeo-^ev ware /AT; ra:w? 
j3efBov\ev(T0ai TOV 'Yiftepiov avr\ rotaurr/v yv- 
vaiKos aTroOai'elv e\ofJivov, rj ye Kal 

TOV /3acrtXe&)9 KOLVOV/JL^VOV TO SidBtj/uia Kal 

5 fievov TOV yd/jiov avT^ rjpvtjaaTo, Kal 

ev aXXou? a7re/3aXe rraiSas, fjiiav be TWV 

, f) ^KijiTiwvi TW vecorepa) 
Kal Svo vlovs, Trcpl (ov TciSe yeyparrTai, 
Kal Fatoi/j ^iayevo^evov^ OUTW 0tXor 
0pe\lrev wcrre TfdvTwv e^feo-raTOf? 'Pa)fj,aia)V 
6/j,o\oyov/jiev(i)<; yeyovoTas TreTraiSevcrOai SOKCIV 

fi\TlOV TJ 7T<j)UK<lvai 7T/9O? dpTr')V. 

II. 'E-Trel Be, uxnrep r; TWV TrA.acrcro/teVcoi' Kal 



<popdv, OVTW TWV veavicTKoov ttcelvwv ev 7ro\\fj Ttj 
O? dvSpeiav Kal o-foffrpoavvrjv, ert Be e\ev9epio- 
Kal \oytoTtjTa Kal /j.eya\o-^rv%iav e/jL^epeia 
fjLeyd\ai rrepl TCL epya Kal ra? Tro\iTeia<$ olov 
%rjv0i]o-av Kal Bieffrdvrj&av dvo/noioTijTe(f, ov 
%elpov elvai fjioi BOKCL raura? 7rpoeK0ea0ai. 
2 TlpwTOv /J,v ovv loea rrpoaanrov Kal (B\.efJLf.LaTL 
teal Kivij/jiaTi Trpao? Kal KaTaaTrjfjLaTiKos TJV 6 



goes, he died, 1 leaving Cornelia with twelve children 
by him. 

Cornelia took charge of the children and of the 
estate, and showed herself so discreet, so good a 
mother, and so magnanimous, that Tiberius was 
thought to have made no bad decision when he 
elected to die instead of such a woman. For when 
Ptolemy 2 the king offered to share his crown with 
her and sought her hand in marriage, she refused 
him, and remained a widow. In this state she lost 
most of her children, but three survived ; one 
daughter, who married Scipio the Younger, and two 
sons, Tiberius and Caius, whose lives 1 now write. 
These sons Cornelia reared with such scrupulous care 
that although confessedly no other Romans were so 
well endowed by nature, they were thought to owe 
their virtues more to education than to nature. 

II. Now, just as, in spite of the likeness between 
Castor and Pollux as they are represented in sculpture 
and painting, there is a certain difference of shape 
between the boxer and the runner, so in the case of 
these young Romans, along with their strong resem- 
blance to one another in bravery and self-command, 
as well as in liberality, eloquence, and magnanimity, 
in their actions and political careers great unlike- 
nesses blossomed out, as it were, and came to light. 
Therefore I think it not amiss to set these forth 
before going further. 

In the first place, then, as regards cast of features 
and look and bearing, Tiberius was gentle and sedate, 

1 He was consul for the second time in 163 B.C. The year 
of his death is unknown. This story is told and commented 
on by Cicero in De divinatione i. 18, 36 ; ii. 29, 62. 

2 Probably Ptolemy VI., surnamed Philometor, king of 
Egypt 181-146 B.C. 



Be Kal (T^oSpO? O TdiO$, 0)CTT6 

fcai Bti/nriyopelv rov fjiev ev /JLLO, %<^pa /3e/3ijKora 

, rov Be < Pct>/.iaiwv Trpwrov errl rov 
rrepirrdra) re ^p^aaadai KOI 

'tfv rr)/3evvov eg W/AOV \eyovra, KaOdirep KXecava 825 
TOV ' A.9r)vaiov laToprjraL TrepiGTrda-ai re TTJV 
TrepiftoXijv /col rov fjbrjpov dXorfaai rrpwrov rwv 

3 &r//jiT}>yopovvra)V. eireira 6 Xoyo? rov /j,ev Taiov 
(po&epbs KOI TrepiTraOrjs t? Seivcocriv, rjSiutv Se 6 
rov 'Fiftepiov KOI fj,d\\ov eTrayayyos oi'tcrov rfj 
Be \eei KaOapos KOI SiaTreTrovrjaevo^ d 
KLvo<i, 6 Be Yatov TriOavbs KOI 

ovrw Be real irepl Biatrav fcal rpdire^av 
Kal a^>eX^9 o Ti/3epio<$, o Be Fato? rot? JJLZV aXXoi? 
7rapa/3a\eiv crtofypwv Kal avffTqpo?, rfj Be TT/JO? 
rov dBe\(f)bv Bia<f)opa VCOTT perrrf^ KOI rreplepyos, co? 

4 01 Trepl Apovaov tfXeyxov ori Be\(j)iva<; 1 dpyvpovs 
eiTpiaro T^/XT}? et? efcda-rrjv \irpav Bpa^f^cov ^- 
\i(ov Kal BiaKoaicov rrevry']Kovra. rw Be rjOei Kara 
rrjv rov \6yov Biacfropav 6 fiev eirieix^ Kal rcpaos, 
o Be rpa%v<$ Kal 6v/jLoeiBifc, ware Kal Trapa yi'co- 

ev TO) \eyeiv eK(j)p6/j,evov TroXXa/a? UTT' opyfjs 
re (pcovyv drro^vveiv KOI fiXaacfrrjpeiv Kal 
crvvrapdrreiv rov \6yov. oOev Kal fior/Orj/LLa TT}? 
efCTpoirffi eTTOL^craro ravrrj<^ rov AIKLVVIOV, ol/ce 
OVK dvorjrov, o? e^wv fywvcKJKiKov opyavov, w 
(f)06yyov<; dvaftiftd^ovaiv, omcrOev ecrroo? rov 
Taiov \eyovros, OTTrjviKa rpa^vvofievov alaOoiro 
Tp <f)CDvf) Kal Trapapprjyvv/uevov Bi opyrfv, eveBiBov 
rovov /jLa\aKov, c5 TO <T(j)oBpbv e 

1 5e\(f>~ivas Blass, Fuhr, and Ziegler, with the MSS. : 
(Delphic tables, or tripods), after Amyot. 



while Caius was high-strung and vehement, so that 
even when haranguing the people the one stood 
composedly in one spot, while the other was the first 
Roman to walk about upon the rostra and pull his toga 
off his shoulder as he spoke. So Cleon the Athenian 
is said to have been the first of the popular orators 
to strip away his mantle and smite his thigh. 1 In the 
second place, the speech of Caius was awe-inspiring 
and passionate to exaggeration, while that of Tiberius 
was more agreeable and more conducive to pity. 
The style also of Tiberius was pure and elaborated to 
a nicety, while that of Caius was persuasive and ornate. 
So also as regards their table and mode of life, 
Tiberius was simple and plain, while Caius, although 
temperate and austere as compared with others, in 
contrast with his brother was ostentatious and fasti- 
dious. Hence men like Drusus found fault with him 
because he bought silver dolphins at twelve hundred 
and fifty drachmas the pound. Again, their tempers 
were no less different than their speech. Tiberius 
was reasonable and gentle, while Caius was harsh 
and fiery, so that against his better judgment he 
was often carried away by anger as he spoke, raising 
his voice to a high pitch and uttering abuse and 
losing the thread of his discourse. Wherefore, to 
guard against such digressions, he employed an 
intelligent servant, Licinius, who stood behind him 
when he was speaking, with a sounding instrument for 
giving the tones of the voice their pitch. Whenever 
this servant noticed that the voice of Caius was 
getting harsh and broken with anger, he would give 
out a soft key-note, on hearing which Caius would 
at once remit the vehemence of his passion and of 

1 See the Niciaa, viii. 3. 
VOL X. F I4< ^ 


TOV 7ra$ou9 KOI Trjs fywvrj? dvtels 7rpavvTO KOI 
Trapel^ev eavrbv evavdic\rjTov. 

III. A I fjitv ovv SiCHpopal TOiavrai rives rjaav 
avra)V' dv$paya@La Be 737)09 TOi/9 7roXe/uoi>9 KCU 
7rpo9 TOU9 VTrrjKoovs SifcaiO(Tvvr) /cal 77/909 ra? 
ap~)(a<s em^eXeia KCU. Trpo? ra? 7780^9 ey/cpdreia, 
a r jrapd\\aKTOs. r^v Be Trpecrftv'repos eviawrols 
evvea 6 Tifiepios' KOL rovro rrjv e/carepov 7ro\i- 

Teiav aTTYjprriiJLevrjv rot? y^povois eirorjcre KOL ra? 

cravTwv /jLrj^e crv/AjSdXovTwv t9 TO avro 
&vva/jiiv, /neyaXyv av ej; d/u,<f)OLi> O/AOU KOL dwrrep- 
f3\7]Tov yevo/JLevrjv. \eKTeov ovv l&ia jrepl ercarepov 
KCU rrepl TOV Trpea^vrepov nrpoTepov. 

IV. 'E/ceu>09 Toivvv ev6v<$ etc irai^wv ryevo/j-evos 
YJV 7repi/9o^T09 wcrre r/)9 TMV Avyovpwv \ejo- 
iepwavvr)? a^iO)07jvai 81 dperrjv fiaXXov rj $ia 
rrjv evjeveiav. eSijXaxre &e "ATTTTIOS KXau^io?, avr/p 

tea TifJirfTiKO^ KOI 7rpoyeypa/j./jLevo<; 


TOU9 ica avrov virepaipwv. ecmw^evwv jap ev 
ravry TMV iepewv, Trpoaa'yopevaas TOV Tlifiepiov 

ai)ro9 e^vaTO TTJ Ovyarpl 

2 WJLov. oeajLvov e r/cru-ew? e/ceivov /cal 

OVTW revoULevrs, eiaioov 6 

oirca&e 7T/909 avrbv CITTO rT/9 6vpa<; evOvs e/caket 

TTjV <yVVGUKa jJLjd\r) Trj (frwvf) (3oMV, "*fl 'AvTKTTia, 

Trjv K\av$Lav ^JJLMV dvBpl KaOw^oXo^iKa^ KciKei- 

/} / (t 'p' i> ^ ,, e ^\ * / 

i">j uav/jaffacra, 1 19, etTrev, rj CTTTOUOT) r/ rt 
TO Ta^o9; et 8e Tifiepiov avTrj Ppdy^ov 

1 eZ 8e . . . evpriKfts Bekker has ct /x^ . . . fvp'urKfts ; Blass 
and Fiihr ci /*$; ef>p^Ktis (unless thou hadst found), after 


his speech, grow gentle, and show himself easy to 

III. The differences between them, then, were of 
this nature ; but as regards bravery in the face of the 
enemy, just dealings with subject peoples, scrupulous 
fidelity in public office, and restraint in pleasurable 
indulgence, they were exactly alike. Tiberius, 
however, was nine years older than his brother ; and 
this set a different period for the political activity of 
each, and more than anything else vitiated their 
undertakings. They did not rise to eminence at 
the same time, and so did not combine their powers 
into one. Such an united power would have proved 
irresistibly great. We must therefore give an account 
of each by himself, and of the elder first. 

IV. Tiberius, then, as soon as he got past boyhood, 
was so widely known as to be thought worthy of a 
place among the priests called Augurs ; and this was 
due to his virtues rather than to his excellent birth, 
as was clearly shown by Appius Claudius. For 
Appius, who had been consul and censor, had been 
made Dean of the Roman senate l by virtue of his 
dignity, and in loftiness of spirit far surpassed his 
contemporaries, at a banquet of the augurs 2 addressed 
Tiberius with words of friendship, and asked him to 
become the husband of his daughter. Tiberius gladly 
accepted the invitation, and the betrothal was thus 
arranged, and when Appius returned home, from the 
doorway where he stood he called his wife and cried 
in a loud voice: "Antistia, I have betrothed our 
Claudia." And Antistia, in amazement, said : " Why 
so eager, or why so fast ? If thou hadst only found 

1 Princeps Senatus. 

8 Presumably at the induction of Tiberius into office. 


3 vvacfrlov." OVK dyvow Be on TOVTO r/i/e? eVi TOV 
Trarepa rcbv Tpdy^wv Ti/Sepiov real 

TOP *A<j)piKavov dva<j)epovcriv, X\' ol 

rjjjLels ypd(f)o/A6v lcrropov(Tt,, Kal 

Trjv ^Krj-niwvos 'A<ppiKavov T\vrr)v rou? 

<$ria\v /c TTCIVTWV TrpoKpivavTCis TOV 

bovvai Tijv Kopv)]\Lav, ct)9 VTTO TOV Trarpos avifc- 

&OTOV Kal dveyyvov dTroXeifyOela-av. 

4 'O S' ovv vewrepo*? TtSe/Mo? o-Tpareuo/jievos ev 
Aifivy fjLTa TOV BevTepov S/C^TT/CO^O?, e^oi/ro? 
avTov TTJV d&eX^ijv, O/JLOV o-vi>$iaiTot)fj,6vos VTTO 

TO) aTaT Ta ev CLVTOV 

KaT6/jLa&6, TroXXa /cal fj,e<ydXa TT^O? 
Kal fiifjaqarw eVt TWV irpd^ewv ei 
Be TWV vewv TidvTwv eTrpwTevev evTa^ia 
5 dvBpeia' Kal TOV ye Tet^of? eVeyS?; TWV 

w? (frrja-i <&dvvio<$ t \eywv Kal avTos TW 826 

TT}? dpio~Tias. 7ro\\rjv Be Kal Trapoov evvoiav 
el%V ev TW crTpaTOTreBw Kal iroOov aTraXXarro- 
IJ.GVOS avTov KaTe\t7re. 

V. Mera Be Trjv crTpaTeiav e/ceivrjv aipeQels 
eXa^e TWV VTTCLTWV Tattp MajKLva crv- 
eVl Noyua^TtVou?, dvOptoTrw fj,ev ov 
u), fiapVTTOT/JOTaTM Be 'Pw/jLauwv aTpart-jyu). 
Bio Kal [taXXov ev TV^ais 7rapa\cyoLS Kal Trpdy- evavTLOis TOV T^ifteplov BieXajjityev ov IAOVOV 
TO avveTov Kal dvbpeiov, aXX', 6 Oavfjidviov r/v, 
atSco? re ?roXX? x ; Kal Ti^irj TOV ap^ovTOS, VTTO TWV 
KaKwv ovS* eavTov, el o~TpaTr)yos ecrTiv, eiriyi- 
2 VWCTKOVTOS. rjTTrjQels yap /za^ai? yaeyaXai? 7re- 


Tiberius Gracchus for betrothal to her ! " I am aware 
that some 1 refer this story to Tiberius the father of 
the Gracchi and Scipio Africanus Major, but the 
majority of writers tell it as I do, and Polybius says 2 
that after the death of Scipio Africanus the relatives 
of Cornelia chose out Tiberius in preference to all 
others and gave her to him, as one who had been 
left by her father unaffianced and unbetrothed. 

The younger Tiberius, accordingly, serving in Africa 
under the younger Scipio, 3 who had married his sister, 
and sharing his commander's tent, soon learned to 
understand that commander's nature (which pro- 
duced many great incentives towards the emulation 
of virtue and its imitation in action), and soon led 
all the young men in discipline and bravery; yes, he 
was first to scale the enemies' wall, as Fannius says, 
who writes also that he himself scaled the wall with 
Tiberius and shared in that exploit. While he remained 
with the army Tiberius was the object of much good 
will, and on leaving it he was greatly missed. 

V. After this campaign he was elected quaestor, 
and had the fortune to serve in a war against Num- 
antia under the consul Caius Mancinus, 4 who was not 
bad as a man, but most unfortunate of the Romans as 
a general. Therefore in the midst of unexpected 
misfortunes and adverse circumstances not only did 
the sagacity and bravery of Tiberius shine forth all 
the more, but also and this was astonishing the 
great respect and honour in which he held his 
commander, who, under the pressure of disasters, 
forgot even that he was a general. For after he had 

1 Cf. Livy. xxxviii. 57. 2 Of. Polybius, xxxii. 13. 

s In the campaign of 146 B.C., which ended with the 
destruction of Carthage. * Consul in 137 B.C. 



fjLv dva^evyvvvai VVKTOS, ere\L7ru)V TO 
(TTpaTorreBov alaQo^vwv Be TMV NofAavTivwv KOI 
TO /jiV (TTpaTOTreBov ev6v<$ \a/36vTQ)V, rot? Be 
dv0p(*)7rois tTTLTrecrovTwv tyevyovcn KOI TOVS e'cr^a- 
TOU? (frovevovTwv, TO Be TTCLV e^KVK\ovfjLevwv crTpd- 
KCL\ crvvwOovvTwv et? TOTTOU? ^a\67rou? KOI 


crwTtipiav o M ajKivos e 
3 rrepl aTrovSwv KOI $ia\vcrwv TTyOo? aurotV ol 5e 
TTicrTeveiv (f)a(rav ovSevl rr\i]v (JLOVW Tf/3ept&), KOI 
TOVTOV eKeXevov aTTocTTeXXeii' TT/oo? aurou?. eVe- 
TrovQeaav Be TOVTO real BL CLVTOV TOV veaviaicov 
(?jv yap avTOV TrXetcrro? \6yos eVt crTpctTia^, KOI 

/JL/J,l"r)/jL6VOl TOV TTaT/309 TlfiepLOV, 0? 7T O\6 fllj (T a? 

teal TroXXou? 

7T/305 TOU? No/uai'TU'oi"? at TavTijv 

TOV Bf}/jLOV op6ws Kal Bi/caiws del 

e/i</>(9el9 6 Tt/3ep^o? /cat 
rot? dvBpdcri, real TCL fj.ev Tra'cra?, ra 
eVvra'craTO, A-at Bicr/nvpLOvs eaaxre 

TToXtra?, ai^eu Oepcnreias real T&V e 

VI. Ta 8e ev TW % 
irdvTa KaTa"%ov ol Nop.avTlvoi teal BieTropOrjcrav. 
ev Be TOVTOIS teal TrivateiBes rjcrav TOV Tt/Bepiov, 
ypdjui/j.aTa teal \6yovs e^ovaai rr}? Ta/jiievTitefjs 
dp%r}<;, a? Tre/^l TTO\\OV Troiovfjievos dTro\a(3elv, 
ijBrj TOV aTpaTov Trpotee^coprj KOTOS dvecrTpe^re rrpos 
rrjv Tro\iv, %(ov fj,eP eavTov Tpels rj rerra/ja? 



been defeated in great battles, he attempted to 
abandon his camp and withdraw his forces by night ; 
but the Numantines became aware of his attempt 
and promptly seized his camp. Then they fell upon 
his men as they fled, slew those who were in the rear, 
encompassed his whole army, and crowded them into 
regions that were full of difficulties and afforded no 
escape. Mancinus, despairing of forcing his way to 
safety, sent heralds to the enemy proposing a truce 
and terms of peace ; but the enemy declared that 
they had confidence in no Roman save only Tiberius, 
and ordered that he should be sent to them. They 
had this feeling towards the young man not only on 
his own account (for he was held in very high esteem 
by the Numantine soldiery), but also because they 
remembered his father Tiberius, who waged war 
against the Spaniards, 1 and subdued many of them, 
but made a peace with the Numantines, to the 
observance of which with integrity and justice he 
always held the Roman people. So Tiberius was sent 
and held conference with the enemy, and after 
getting them to accept some conditions, and himself 
accepting others, effected a truce, and thereby 
manifestly saved the lives of twenty thousand Roman 
citizens, besides attendants and camp followers. 

VI. However, all the property captured in the 
camp was retained by the Numantines and treated as 
plunder. Among this were also the ledgers of 
Tiberius, containing written accounts of his official 
expenses as quaestor. These he was very anxious to 
recover, and so, when the army was already well on 
its way, turned back towards the city, attended by 

1 In 180-179 B.O. 



2 eraipov?. KKo\ecra$ $e rwv NofjLavrivtov TOU? 

L ra? 8e\rou?, w? /j-r 

rot? eo^ iaorv OVK 

i Trepl TWV wKOVo^ri^evwv. i)cr9evTS ovv 
ol No/uai'Tiz'ot rfj crvvrvyia T)}S ^eta? 7rapeKa\ovv 

av~ov eaeeiv et? 


> KOI 

aurou? 7roXe//tou9, aXV 009 <pi\ois xptjaOai KOI 

3 77Lcr~Viv. eBoi;v ovv TO) Tifiepitn ravra Troielv, 

TMV re SeXrco^ 7repie~)(oiJ.evw KCU BeSoiKori Trapo- 

%vveiv &)? aTriaTovfjLevovs TOVS Xo^afrtVou?. etcreX- 

QoVTl &6 i? T^y TTQ\LV irpWTOV fJLtV CLplCTTOV 

TrapeOeaav, real rracrav eTronjcravTo Berjcriv e'/xc^a- 


aTredocrav, KCLI TOW a\\wv a /3ov\oiro 
\aftelv e/ceXevov. 6 5' ov&ev rj TOV 


YII. 'ETrel Se et9 'P(t)fJ,rjv eTravfjXdev, rj /j,ev 0X77 
0)9 oeii//) /^ai Karaicrxvvovcra rny 'Paj 

ali'iav ei^e /cat KaTriyopiav, 01 de TU>V 

7T/309 Tot Tiftepiov, ra 

yeyovoTtov i-atyepovTes et9 TOI^ cp^ovTa, t' 


2 OL /jLevTOi, &va")(jepaivovTes TO, TreTrpay^eva (ju^el- 827 
Toi/9 irpoyovovs erceXevov tcai yap e/ceivot 


TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, vi. 2 -vn. 2 

three or four companions. After summoning forth 
the magistrates of Numantia, he asked them to bring 
him his tablets, that he might not give his enemies 
opportunity to malign him by not being able to give 
an account of his administration. The Numantines, 
accordingly, delighted at the chance to do him a 
favour, invited him to enter the city ; and as he 
stood deliberating the matter, they drew near and 
clasped his hands, and fervently entreated him no 
longer to regard them as enemies, but to treat and 
trust them as friends. Tiberius, accordingly, decided 
to do this, both because he set great store by his 
tablets, and because he feared to exasperate the 
Numantines by showing them distrust. After he had 
entered the city, in the first place the Numantines 
set out a meal for him, and entreated him by all 
means to sit down and eat something in their 
company ; next, they gave him back his tablets, and 
urged him to take whatever he wanted of the rest of 
his property. He took nothing, however, except the 
frankincense which he was wont to use in the public 
sacrifices, and after bidding them farewell with every 
expression of friendship, departed. 

VII. When he came back to Rome, the whole 
transaction was blamed and denounced as a ter- 
rible disgrace to the city, although the relatives 
and friends of the soldiers, who formed a large part 
of the people, came flocking to Tiberius, imputing 
the disgrace in what had happened to his commander, 
but insisting that it was due to Tiberius that the 
lives of so manv citizens had been saved. Those, 


however, who were displeased at what had been done 
urged for imitation the example of their ancestors, 
who flung' to the enemy unarmed the generals 



TOL? dyaTTyjaavTas VTTO ^avvnwv d(f)0fji>at crrpa- 
rriyovs avTovs re rot? TroXe/uot? yvfivovs irpoa- 
eppityav, Kal roi/9 efyatyanevovs Kal 


irpov/3a\ov, et? eicelvovs rrjv eTTtopfciav teal rrjv 

3 BtaXvaiv T&V a)fJLO\0'yr]iJLevwv rpeTrovres. ev6a 
Kail fjL(i\L(Tra rrjv TT/OO? TOI^ Ti/Sepiov evvoiav 

%e$>r]vev o ST}/XO?. TOV pep jap VTTCITOV 

<yvfjivov real $e$/jie 

rot? No/navrivois, rayv Se a\\cov e$ei<javro 
Sia Tifiepiov. SoKel 8e KCU ^K^TTLWV /3 

Tore /cal 7r\ela"rov Svvdfjivos ' 
aAA,' ov&ev rjrrov ev am'a/? TJV on TOV 
M.ay/civov ov irepiea-wcrev, ov$ ra? 
%>w6rivat rot? Noyuai/Tti/oi9 eo'irov 

4 olfceiov /cal <fti\ov TOV Ti/3ep[ov yevofievas. TO 

eoitcev K >L\oTLia^ ical 

TOV Tiftepiov (f)L\(ov Kal crotpicrTayv *KyV(T0ai ra 
TT}? &ia<fiopas. aAA' avTrj ye TT/QO? ou&ev d 
ouBe <f>av\ov e'^evrecre. SoKel 8' dv ^ 
Trepnrecrelv o Tiftepios ol? eTraffev, el Trapfjv avTou 
rot? Tco\LTevfJiaaL ^/crjiricDV 6 *A<f)pLKav6s' vvv &e 
etcelvov Trepl No/^avTiav 6Vro? rjSr) KOL 7ro\eu,ovvTo$ 
Tcepl rot/? I'o/iou? TroXireta? K 

am a?. 

VIII. Pw/jialoL TT}? TCOV daTvyeiTovwv 

Trjv fjiev 



themselves who had been satisfied to be let go by the 
Samnites, and in like manner cast forth those who 
had taken hand and share in the treaty, as for instance 

V * 

the quaestors and military tribunes, turning upon 
their heads the guilt of perjury and violation of the 
pact. 1 In the present affair, indeed, more than at 
any other time, the people showed their good will 
and affection towards Tiberius. For they voted to 
deliver up the consul unarmed and in bonds to the 
Numantines, but spared all the other officers for the 
sake of Tiberius. It would seem, too, that Scipio, 
who was then the greatest and most influential man 
at Rome, helped to save them ; but none the less he 
was blamed 2 for not saving Mancinus, and for not 
insisting that the treaty with the Numantines, which 
had been made through the agency of his kinsman 

C7 / 

and friend Tiberius, should be kept inviolate. It 
would appear that the disagreement between the 
two men arose chiefly through the ambition of 
Tiberius and from the friends and sophists who urged 
him on. But this disagreement certainly resulted in 
no mischief past remedy. And in my opinion 
Tiberius would never have met with his great misfor- 
tunes if Scipio Africanus had been present at Rome 
during his political activity. But as it was, Scipio 
was already at Numantia 3 and waging war there when 
Tiberius began to agitate for his agrarian laws. The 
occasion of this was as follows. 

VIII. Of the territory which the Romans won in 
war from their neighbours, a part they sold, and a 

1 In 321 B.C. Cf. Cicero, De of., iii. 30, 109. 

2 By Tiberius and his friends. 

8 Scipio was sent against Numantia in 134 B.C., and took 
end destroj-ed the city in the following year, in which year 
also Tiberius* was killed. 


rrjv Be Troiov/jbevoi, Brjiiocriav eBiBocrav 

TOi? aKTI^UJLOdi KOi aTTOpOlS TWV 7ToX*.TCOl>, O.7TO- 

(fropav ov 7ro\\rjv et? TO By/noo'iov Te\ovcnv. 
2 dp^a/jLevtov Be rwv 7r\ova~ia)v V7rep/3d\,\.eiv ras 
0,770^)0/30,9 KCU TOL/? Tre'^ra? %e\avvovTtov, eypd<f)r) 
vofjios OVK wv ir\idpa 7>/9 e%eiv 7r\elova TWV 
TrevTCLKocrLGov. /COL ^pa^vv /j,ev xpovov eVecr^e 
ri]v TT\eove%iav TO ypd/JLfjLa rovro, KOI rot? Trevrj- 
criv eftot'jdrjcre Kara %(*)pav fxevovcriv eVt ra)i> 
Kal veiJLOfiivois y}v e/cacrro? 

3 el%e fiolpav. varepov Be TWV <y6iTvia)VTa)v TT\OV- 
cricov v7ro/3\iJTOLS Trpo&coTTois fieTa^epovrwv ra? 
t? eavrovs, TeXo? Be (pai>epa)$ 7/877 S^ 
TO, TrXetcrra KaTe^ovrwv, %a)<j6 evres ol 
oure rat? crT/oaretai? ert nrpoOvfjiovs Trapei- 
eauroi;?, ^JJL\OVV re Trai&wv dvarpo(f)f)s, ware 

Lwv Be ftapftapifcwv f 
TT\r)(j6ai, Si wv eyecapyovv ol ir\ovaiOL ra 

4 TOU? TToX-iTas e^eXdaavTes. eTre^elp^cre /juv ovv 
rfj Biopdwcret, Fato? AatXto? o S/CT/TTt'aM'o? eialpos. 
dvTLtcpovcrdvTtoV Be rayv Svvarwv (^o/3?^el? TOV 
Oopvftov teal Trav&d/jievos eirefcKijdr) cro^o? 7} <f)po- 
vifjios' etcdrepov yap eBotcei arffjiaiveiv o (jairLijv^ 
6 Tt/Se'/jfo? Be Srj/j.apxo<$ drroBei^Oel^ eu^L9 eV 
avri-jv wp/jLiyae rrjv Trpa^LV, &)? /j,V ol 
\eyoucri, Aio^az/of? roO pijropos teal 

5 TOL) (f)i\oa-6(f)ov Trapopfjirjaavrcov avrov, wv 6 fjitv 

as rjv M.iTV\i)valo<;, 6 Be avroOev 

1 60 


part they made common land, and assigned it for 
occupation to the poor and indigent among the 
citizens, on payment of a small rent into the public 
treasury. And when the rich began to offer larger 
rents and drove out the poor, a law was enacted 
forbidding the holding by one person of more than 
five hundred acres of land. For a short time this 
enactment gave a check to the rapacity of the rich, 
and was of assistance to the poor, who remained in 
their places on the land which they had rented and 
occupied the allotment which each had held from the 
outset. But later on the neighbouring rich men, by 
means of fictitious personages, transferred these 
rentals to themselves, and finally held most of the 
land openly in their own names. Then the poor, 
who had been ejected from their land, no longer 
showed themselves eager for military service, and 
neglected the bringing up of children, so that soon 
all Italy was conscious of a dearth of freemen, and 
was filled with gangs of foreign slaves, by whose aid 
the rich cultivated their estates, from which they had 
driven away the free citizens. An attempt was there- 
fore made to rectify this evil, and by Caius Laelius 
the comrade of Scipio ; but the men of influence 
opposed his measures, and he, fearing the disturbance 
which might ensue, desisted, and received the 
surname of Wise or Prudent (for the Latin word 
"sapiens" would seem to have either meaning). 
Tiberius, however, on being elected tribune of the 
people, took the matter directly in hand. He was 
incited to this step, as most writers say, by Diophanes 
the rhetorician and Blossius the philosopher. 
Diophanes was an exile from Mitylene, but Blossius 



, 'AvriTrdrpov rov 

eV dcrrei avvv6^ KOI 

avrov 7Tpo(T(^(ai>jj(To-i <ypafji^drwv <pi\oao<f)(ov 
ei'ioi Be Kal Kopvr)\iav Gvvtrcain&vrai ri]V ^77- 
repa 7ro\\dfct<; TOU? f/oi/9 ovei&i&ucrav OTI ra>- 
(jLatoi ^tcrjTriwvos ai)Tr]V en irevOepdv, OVTTQ) oe 
6 fiijTepa Ypd<y)(wv Trpodayopevovcriv. a\\oi oe 
^TTopiov Tiva Tlo&Tov/jiiov aiTiov j6i'(70aL \eyov- 
<TIV, r)\iKi(t)Tr)v rov ^ijSeplov Kal 
(f)d/Ai\\ov avru) Trepl ra? avviyyopias, ov, 
eTrai>r)\6ev CLTTO TT}? crr/jarta?, evpoov TroXu rfj 
Kal ry Bvvd/jLei TraprfXXa^oTa KOI Q 
t}0e\rjaev, 0)9 eoircev, V7rep/3a\crdai TroXiTeu/zaro? 828 
7rapaB6\ov Kal /jL<yd\r)v TrpoaSoK 

o S' aSeAx/)09 avrov Fato? eV 
iw yeypatyev et? No^avrlav Tropevo/Jievov Sid 
TT}? r Tvppr]VLas TOV Tifiepiov, Kal rrjv eprj/JLiav rfj<; 
^a>/?a? opwvra KOI rou? yecopyovvras r) ve/Aovra? 
otVera? eVeicraVrou? /tat fiapftdpovs, Tore jrp&rov 
7rl vovv /3a\eo-0ai rrjv /jivpicov Kaicwv ap^acrav 
avrols 7ro\iTLav. rrjv 8e ir\eia"niv avro? o S^- 
yao9 opfjwjv Kal (friXoTi/miav ej~r)-^re, 7rpOKa\ov/nevos 
Bid rypa/jL/jLarayv avrov ev crToat9 Kal TOL^OI^ Kal 


IX. Ov n/r)V e'0' avrov ye crvi>e0tjK rov VO/JLOV, 
T049 ^e Trpwrevovaiv dperfj Kal 86%r} rwv 7ro\ircov 
^prjardfjievo^, wv Kal Kpacrtro^ rjv o 
l MOVKIOS S/cat/3oXa9 o 


TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, vm. 5 -ix. i 

was a native Italian from Cumae, had been an intimate 
friend of Antipater of Tarsus at Rome, and had been 
honoured by him with the dedication of philosophical 
treatises. But some put part of the blame upon 
Cornelia the mother of Tiberius, who often reproached 
her sons because the Romans still called her the 
mother-in-law of Scipio, but not yet the mother of 
the Gracchi. Others again say that a certain Spurius 
Postumius was to blame. He was of the same age as 
Tiberius, and a rival of his in reputation as an advo- 
cate ; and when Tiberius came back from his cam- 
paign and found that his rival had far outstripped 
him in reputation and influence and was an object of 
public admiration, he determined, as it would seem, 
to outdo him by engaging in a bold political measure 
which would arouse great expectations among the 
people. But his brother Caius, in a certain pamphlet, 1 
has written that as Tiberius was passing through 
Tuscany on his way to Numantia, and observed the 
dearth of inhabitants in the country, and that those 
who tilled its soil or tended its flocks there were 
imported barbarian slaves, he then first conceived the 
public policy which was the cause of countless ills to 
the two brothers. However, the energy and ambition 
of Tiberius were most of all kindled by the people 
themselves, who posted writings on porticoes, house- 
walls, and monuments, calling upon him to recover 
for the poor the public land. 

IX. He did not, however, draw up his law by 
himself, but took counsel with the citizens who were 
foremost in virtue and reputation, among w r hom were 
Crassus the pontifex maxim us, Mucius Scaevola the 

1 Probably a political pamphlet in the form of a letter. Cf. 
Cicero, de div. ii. 29, 62. 



Tore real KXauSio? "ATTTTto? o 

2 TOV Tiifiepiov. Kal So/eel VO/JLOS et? aoiiciav teal 
7T\eove%iav ToaavTrjv /zr/SeTrore Trpaorepo? ypa- 
<f>i}vai Kal /jLaXaKMTepos. 01)9 yap eoL BL/crjv r/)? 
d-rreideias Bovvai KOI yu-era ?7/ua<j ?}i/ Trapa TOI)? 
yo/^of? ercapTTOVvro ^utpav afyelvai, TOUTOU? e'/ce- 
Xeucre TL^V TrpocrXanfidvovTas eKJSalveiv wv 
a8t/c&)? etceKTrjVTO, /col Tra/jaSe^ecr^at TOI)? /3o?7- 

3 deias Seofjuevovs TWV TroXtrcoi/. aXXa /caLTrep ourw 

eTravopOwcrecos oucrrj^ evyvoa/jiovos, o [lev 8)7/^09 
Trapels ra yeyevij^eva, TravcraaOat. TO 

\OL7TOV d$ I KOV/J,V 0$, 01 $6 TT\OV(TIOI KOi 

opyf) 8e ical 


rov t/jiov, co? 71? avaaa^Qv e 
T?}? TroXtre/a? elordyovros TOV Tiftepiov 
teal TrdvTa Trpdy/jiaTa KLVOVVTOS. 

4 'AA.V ou8ei^ lirepaivov o yap Ti/Bepios Trpo? 
Ka\r)V vTroOeaLv Kal SiKaiav dyu>vi%6[j.ei'o<; \6yro 
teal (f)av\6repa icocr^TJcrat Svva/Aei 

&LVOS TIV Kal dfjua^o^, orrore TOV &rf/j,ov TW 
7rpiK6%v/jLevov KdTacTTas \eyot, rrepl 
a>? TCL fjiev Oripla ra Trjv '\Ta\iav vefjio^eva Kal 
(j)d)\eov e^et Kal KOLTOIQV ecrTiv avTwv 

5 Kal KaTaova-eis, 1 rot? Be virep TT}? 'IraA-ta? 
yiteVoi? :ai diro9vr}crKOvcriv ae/)o? 

d\\ov Be ov&evos {LeTecrTiv, aXX' doiKOi Kal dvi- 
BpVTOt /iieTa TCKVCOV Tr\avwvTai Kal yvvaiK&v, oi 
Be avTOKpaTopes tyevBovTai TOVS GTpaTUOTas ev 


Bekker and many other editors have 
after Stephanus and Reiske. 



jurist, who was then consul, and Appius Claudius, his 
father-in-law. And it is thought that a law dealing 
with injustice and rapacity so great was never drawn 
up in milder and gentler terms. For men who 
ought to have been punished for their disobedience 
and to have surrendered with payment of a fine the 
land which they were illegally enjoying, these men 
it merely ordered to abandon their injust acquisitions 
upon being paid their value, and to admit into owner- 
ship of them such citizens as needed assistance. But 
although the rectification of the wrong was so 
considerate, the people were satisfied to let bygones 
be bygones if they could be secure from such wrong 
in the future ; the men of wealth and substance, 
however, were led by their greed to hate the law, and 
by their \vrath and contentiousness to hate the law- 
giver, and tried to dissuade the people by alleging 
that Tiberius was introducing a re-distribution of 
land for the confusion of the body politic, and was 
stirring up a general revolution. 

But they accomplished nothing ; for Tiberius, 
striving to support a measure which was honour- 
able and just with an eloquence that would 
have adorned even a meaner cause, was formid- 
able and invincible, whenever, with the people 
crowding around the rostra, he took his stand 
there and pleaded for the poor. " The wild 
beasts that roam over Italy," he would say, " have 
every one of them a cave or lair to lurk in ; but the 
men who fight and die for Italy enjoy the common 
air and light, indeed, but nothing else ; houseless and 
homeless they wander about with their wives and 
children. And it is with lying lips that their 
imperators exhort the soldiers in their battles to 



icpwv afJLvveaOai TOU? TroXe/uof 9- ovSevl yap 
ov ftw/jLOS Trarpraos, OVK rjpiov rrpoyoviKov 
ToaovTwv 'Pw/jiaicov, aXX' vrrep aXXoTyoia? 



X. Tovrovs CLTTO (frpovij/AaTos /jLeydXov 
vs aXi-fOivov TOU? Xo7ou? Kariovras l et? 
v evOovcnwvra Kal avv^^avKJTa^evov o 
v(f)i(TTaTO TWV evavTiwv. eacravres ovv TO avri- 
~\.&yeiv eVt Ma/3/coi/ 'O/cra/3iOi/ TpeTrovrai TWV 
Brj/jidpXwv eva, veaviav e/J,j3pi0f) TO ?}^o? /tal 
2 KofffJLLOv, eralpov &e TOV Tifiepiov Kal avvrjdrj. $10 

TO .ev TrwTov alBovjLevos Kivov dveSvero" TTO\- 

\wv 8e Kal Svvarwv Seopevcov Kal 

wa~7rep eK^iaaOel? dvrncaOiorTaro rw Tifteplq) 


3 Ke\vovTes Trepaivovaiv ez^o? ei'i<rrajj.evov. 

rovro Trapo^vi'Oels 6 Tiftepios TOV fj.ev 


TroXXoi? Kal crfyo&poTepov eVl TOU? d&iKovinas 
elaetpepev r;8r;, Kekevwv e^iaTaaOai T^ ^co/oa? f)v 
KeKTi]VTO Trapa TOU? rrpOTepovs VO/JLOVS. 
4 *Hcrar ovv O/JLOV TL Kad' eKaa'Trjv ^fjiepav dywves 
avTW TT^O? rbv 'QKTdftlov eVi TOU /5/;//,aTO?, ev 829 
ol?, KaiTrep e% aicoa^ aTrovorjs Kal (friXoveiKias 
dvTepei$ovTs, ovoev elrreiv \eyovTai Trepl aXX?;- 
\wv $av\ov, ov$e prjfjLa Trpoirecrelv OaTepov 

1 Ka.Ti6i>Tas Bekker has Kararelvovra, after Coraes, from the 
variant Karardvovras. 



defend sepulchres and shrines from the enemy ; for 
not a man of them has an hereditary altar,not one of all 
these many Romans an ancestral tomb, but they fight 
and die to support others in wealth and luxury, and 
though they are styled masters of the world, they 
have not a single clod of earth that is their own." 

X. Such words as these, the product of a lofty 
spirit and genuine feeling, and falling upon the ears 
of a people profoundly moved and fully aroused to 
the speaker's support, no adversary of Tiberius could 
successfully withstand. Abandoning therefore all 
counter-pleading, they addressed themselves to 
Marcus Octavius, one of the popular tribunes, a young 
man of sober character, discreet, and an intimate 
companion of Tiberius. On this account Octavius at 
first tried to hold himself aloof, out of regard for 
Tiberius ; but he was forced from his position, as it 
were, by the prayers and supplications of many 
influential men, so that he set himself in opposition 
to Tiberius and staved off the passage of the law. 
Now, the decisive power is in the hands of any tribune 
who interposes his veto ; for the wishes of the 
majority avail nothing if one tribune is in opposition. 
Incensed at this procedure, Tiberius withdrew his 
considerate law, and introduced this time one which 
was more agreeable to the multitude and more severe 
against the wrongdoers, since it simply ordered them 
to vacate without compensation the land which they 
had acquired in violation of the earlier laws. 

Almost every day, therefore, there were forensic 
contests between Tiberius and Octavius, in which, as 
we are told, although both strove together with the 
utmost earnestness and rivalry, neither abused the 
other or let fall a single word about the other which 



rov erepov St' opyyv avemr^eiov. ov jap 
ev /3ctK'%VfjLao'iv ) l GO? eoiKv, d\\a KOI ev (j)i\o- 
ri/jiLais Kal opyais TO irefyvKevcu /mXco? /ecu rre- 
7rcu$vcr6at crax/?oz'&>? efyia'rr)o~i /cal 

5 rrjv Sidvoiav. eirel B ea)pa rov ' 
fj,vov TO) vo/jLto teal KaT6%ovTa 

%a)pa<; crvxyrjv o Tt/3epiO9, eBelro jrapelvai rrjv 
<$>L\oveiKtav, LK/ucrra/zefo? aurw rrjv Tiprjv airo- 


OVK avaa-"xofjivov Se rov 'Qxraftuov, Biaypdfjifj,ari 
ra? a'AAa? ap^a? a?racra? e/ccoXvcre ^prffjiari^eiv, 

6 a^pL av f) Trepl rov vo^ov Sieve^Ofj -v/r^^o?* ra> Be 
rov K/3oz^ou vaw crffrpaylSas t'3ta? erreftakev, OTTW? 
ol racial prj&ev ej; avrov \au(Bdvoiev fjur]$ etV</>e- 
poiev, KOI rot? arri6ii(jci<ji rwv o~rpari] < yoiv tyfjbiav 
CTTeieijpygev, wcrre rrdvras VTroSeicravras d<peti'ai 

7 rrjv e/cacrrft) TrpocrtjKovcrav OiKovo^JLiav. evrev6ev 
ol Krrj^ariKol ra? JJLCV eaOtjras /j,ere/3a\ov fcal 
Trepifjecrav olicrpoi KCU rarreivol Kara rijv dyopdv, 

7T/3ov\evov Be T<W Tiftepiw Kpixpa Kal o~vvi- 
o~raaav eir avrov TOL/? dvaipij&ovras, ware /ca- 
Kelvov ov&evos dyvoovvroi vTro^wvvvcrOai 


XI. 'E^crracr^? Be rr}? T^e'pa? Kal rov Btjfj,ov 
avrov Ka\ovvro<$ enl rrjv ^Irfjfov, ^pTrdaOrjaai' 
VTTO row rr\ov(Tiwv ai vBpiai, Kal ra yivo^eva 
7roX\.r)V el'xe (Tvy%V(Tiv. ov fjLrjv d\\a rcov rrepl 
Tiftepiov 7r\i')06i ^Laa-acrOai Bvva/jLevwv Kal avcr- 
ejrl rovro, MaAAto? Kal 

yap zv 

76 ffct>(ppci>i> ov 
(Euripides, Bacchae, 310 f. (Kirchhoff)). 


TIBER I US GRACCHUS, x. 4 -xi. i 

anger made unseemly. For not only " in Bacchic 
revelries/' as it appears, but also in the exercise of 
rivalry and wrath, a noble nature and a sound train- 
ing restrain and regulate the mind. Moreover, when 
Tiberius observed that Octavius himself was amenable 
to the law as a large holder of the public land, he 
begged him to remit his opposition, promising to pay 
him the value of the land out of his own means, 
although these were not splendid. But Octavius 
would not consent to this, and therefore Tiberius 
issued an edict forbidding all the other magistrates 
to transact any public business until such time as the 
vote should be cast either for or against his law. He 
also put his private seal upon the temple of Saturn, 
in order that the quaestors might not take any 
money from its treasury or pay anj into it, and he 
made proclamation that a penalty would be imposed 
upon such praetors as disobeyed, so that all magis- 
trates grew fearful and ceased performing their 
several functions. Thereupon the men of property 
put on the garb of mourning and went about the 
forum in pitiful and lowly guise ; but in secret they 
plotted against the life of Tiberius and tried to raise 
a band of assassins to take him off, so that Tiberius 
on his part and everybody knew it wore a con- 
cealed short-sword such as brigands use (the name 
for it is "dolo"). 

XI. When the appointed day was come and Tiber- 
ius was summoning the people to the vote, the voting 
urns were stolen away by the party of the rich, and 
great confusion arose. However, the supporters of 
Tiberius were numerous enough to force the issue, 
and were banding together for this purpose, when 



avBpes virartKOL, 7rpoo~7Tcr6vT<} TO> Tiiftepicp teal 
%ipwv ciTTTo/Jievoi KOI BaKpvovTs eSeovTO Traixra- 

2 cr6ai. TOV Be /ecu TO /meX\ov oo~ov OVTT(I) Beivbv yjBrj 

J ^ \ C* * 5Cv^ > ^ ^ /) 

crv/jL(ppovovvTOs, Kai 01 aibw TWV avopwv TTVUO- 
TI K\evovcri Trpdrreiv CLVTOV, OVK e<j)acrav 
elvai TT/JO? r^\ifcavrrjv av/jL^ovXiav, 
Be rfj ftov\fj tceXevovres KOI Beopevoi 

f n? Be ovBev eTreflaivev 77 {3ov\r) (rvveXOovcra 
Bta Tot/? TrXofcrtof? tV^uo^ra? ev avrrj, -rpeireraL 
7T/9O? epyov ov vofju/jiov ovSe ihrieiKes, a$e\e<j6ai 
T?}? a/3^7}? TOV 'QKTci/3ioi', a/jLTj-^avoyv a'XXa)? eVa- 

3 yayeiv rw vofjiw rrjv tyrj<$>ov. Kai Trputrov fjiev 

avrov, Xo7ou? re Trpoa-tyepcov 
i %eipa)i> (iTTTO^evo^, trBovvai 
TW B/J/JLW BiKaia /JLev a^iouvn, 
a Be avrl jJLeyd\wv irovwv Kai KivBvvoiv X?^o- 
. Bi(t>0ov/Avov Be TOV 'O/CTa/3/ou T^V evrev^iv 

fe3io? a>? OVK 

Kai irepl TrpayfjUiTtov fjieydXayv O.TT' 


TOV xpbvov, ev Lafjia TOVTOV fjibvov bpav ecfrij TO 

4 TravaaaOai TT)? ap^r^ TOV eTepov. Kai jrepl avTOV 

<ye TrpoTepov TOV 'OKTaftiov eVeXeutre TU> 

<>ov dvaBovvac KaTaftrfcreo-Oat, yap evdvs I 

, av TOVTO Bo^y rot? TroXt/raj?. TOV Be 
fj,rj 0e\,ovTo$ auro? e^t] Trepl e/eeivov 
dvaBa)o~eiv, eav IJLTJ /jieTayvu) /9ofXei/<rayLte^09. 
XII. Kai Tore fj,ev eVt TOVTOI? Bie\vo~e Trjv 



Manlius and Fulvius, men of consular dignity, fell 
down before Tiberius, clasped his hands, and with 
tears besought him to desist. Tiberius, conscious that 
the future was now all but desperate, and moved 
by respect for the men, asked them what they 
would have him do. They replied that they were 
not competent to advise in so grave a crisis, and 
urged him with entreaties to submit the case to the 
senate. To this Tiberius consented. 

But the senate in its session accomplished nothing, 
owing to the prevailing influence of the wealthy 
class in it, and therefore Tiberius resorted to a 
measure which was illegal and unseemly, the ejection 
of Octavius from his office ; but he was unable in any 
other way to bring his law to the vote. In the first 
place, however, he begged Octavius in public, ad- 
dressing him with kindly words and clasping his hands, 
to give in and gratify the people, who demanded 
only their just rights, and would receive only a 
trifling return for great toils and perils. But Octavius 
rejected the petition, and therefore Tiberius, after 
premising that, since they were colleagues in office 
with equal powers and differed on weighty measures, 
it was impossible for them to complete their term of 
office without open war, said he saw only one remedy 
for this, and that was for one or the other of them to 
give up his office. Indeed, he urged Octavius to put 
to the people a vote on his own case first, promising 
to retire at once to private life if this should be the 
will of the citizens. But Octavius was unwilling, and 
therefore Tiberius declared that he would put the 
case of Octavius unless Octavius should change his 
mind upon reflection. 

XII. With this understanding, he dissolved the 



KK\ricrlav' rfj B' vcrrepaia rov Bij/uov o~vve\0ovro^ 
avaftas eVl TO /3r//J.a rrd\iv erreiparo rreiOeiv rov 
'QtcTdftiov co? Be r]V duerdrreicrros, ela7JveyKe 
vojjiov dtyaipov^evov avrov rrjv Btj^ap^iav, Kal 
TOU? TroXtra? ev0v<$ KaXei Trjv -fyiifyov eTrupepovras. 
2 ovcrwv Be irevre KCU rpLaKovra <$>v\wv, co? al BeKa- 
eTTTa Trjv -^ri)(f)ov eTrevrji'D^eiaav KOL yitm? eri 
7rpO(ryevo/j,evy]s eBet TOV ""QKrafiiov IBuarrjv yeve- 
crdai, KeXevaas e7Tia")(iv avOis eBelro rov 'O/cTa- 
(3[ov KCU rcepiefBakev avrov ev o-^rei rov Btj/nov Kal 
Karrjcrrrd^ero, ~kirrapwv Kal Beo/jLevos /JLi^O' eavrov 830 
arijJLOv TreptiBelv ^evofJievov /u-^r' eKeivw /3apeo? 
ovray /cal (jKvOpwrrov 7ro\irevjjLaros alriav rrpoa- 

3 TOVT&V rwv Beijcrewv ov Tra^reXw? arey/crop 
ovb* drei'r) \eyova~iv aKpodaOai rov Qfcrdfiiov, 
d\\d Kal BaKpvwv v7ro7ri/jLrr\aa0aL rd o/jL/nara 
l aiwjrdv errl TTO\VV %povov. a>? p,evroi, TTyoo? 
U? rr\ovaiov<$ Kal rovs KrrjjAariKovs avvecrrwras 

Trap eKeiVois dBo^iav vTrocrrrjvai rrdv Beivov OUK 
ayevvfi)? Kal /ceXeOcrat rrpdrreuv o fiovXerai, rov 

4 Tiftepiov. ovrco Brj rov VOJJLOV KVpwOevros o fiev 
TtiBepios roiv drreXevBepcov rivl TTpoarera^ev drro 
rov /3///iaro? e\Kvcrai rov 'O/cra/Sto^' expfjTO Be 
vTniperats drceXevOepois IBiois, Kal rovro rtjv o^riv 
OiKrporepav rov 'OKraftuov rrapea-^ev e\Koaei>ov 

5 7T/90? vjSpiV. 6 Be cS^/uo? (j)0)p/j,^(7ev avru), Kal 
rwv rr\ovcriwv avvBpa/jiovrciyv Kal Biaa%6i>rwv ra? 
^et/oa?, o aev 'OTa/3to? efftoOv] u6\i$ e^aprrayels 
Kal Biafivywv rbu 6^\ov, olKerrjv Be avrov Trtcrrov 



assembly for that day ; but on the following day, 
after the people had come together, he mounted the 
rostra and once more attempted to persuade Octavius. 
When, however, Octavius was not to be persuaded, 
Tiberius introduced a law depriving him of his 
tribuneship, and summoned the citizens to cast their 
votes upon it at once. Now, there were five and thirty 
tribes, and when seventeen of them had cast their 
votes, and the addition of one more would make it 
necessary for Octavius to become a private citizen, 
Tiberius called a halt in the voting, and again 
entreated Octavius, embracing and kissing him in 
the sight of the people, and fervently begging him 
not to allow himself to be dishonoured, and not to 
attach to a friend responsibility for a measure so 
grievous and severe. 

On hearing these entreaties, we are told, Octavius 
was not altogether untouched or unmoved ; his eyes 
filled with tears and he stood silent for a long time. 
But when he turned his gaze towards the men of 
wealth and substance who were standing in a body 
together, his awe of them, as it would seem, and his 
fear of ill repute among them, led him to take every 
risk with boldness and bid Tiberius do what he 
pleased. And so the law was passed, and Tiberius 
ordered one of his freedmen to drag Octavius from 
the rostra; for Tiberius used his freedmen as officers, 
and this made the sight of Octavius dragged along 
with contumely a more pitiful one. Moreover, the 
people made a rush at him, and though the men of 
wealth ran in a body to his assistance and spread out 
their hands against the crowd, it was with difficulty 
that Octavius was snatched away and safely rescued 
from the crowd ; and a trusty servant of his who 





66pu/3ov, co? rjaOero ra yivo/j-eva, 7ro\\f) 

XIII. 'E/e TOVTOV Kvpovrai /j,ev o irepl 

, aipuvvrcu Be rpet? av&pes eVl rrjv 
Kai Siavofujv, auro? Tij3epio<s KOL KXau- 
8^0? "ATTTTto? o TtevBepos Kai Faio? Tpdy%o<> 6 
a8e\^)09, ou Trapaiv OVTOS, d\\a VTTO ^K^TTLWVL 

2 ?rpo? No/iavrtav crrparevofj.ei'o^. ravra TOV Tt- 
ftepiou &ia7rpatap.evov Ka6^ 


(TT^Vaz/TO? ovceva TOW eirufxivaw, d\\a 

Tiva, 7re\drr]v avrou, vrpo? itavra bva^e 

01 ^vvarol Kai (po/3ou/j.i>oi TOV Tifiepuov Trjv av- 

^t](TLv ev TTJ ftov\f) TrpoeTrrjXdfCL^ov CLVTOV, airov- 

fievu) fjL.ev, a>? e^o? ecrrtV, etc Brj/jLoaiov ffievjVJjv, 

3 OTTCO? e%oi Btave/Jtatv TJJV ^wpav, ov Soyre?, erepcav 

y avd- 

\wp.a Be 6/9 kK.d<jTr)v fjftcpav evvea 6/5oXoi)? ra^- 
at'Te?, elarjyovfjLevov TavTa Ho7T\iou Nacrj/ca /cat 
5e6co/coTO? eavTov et? T^P TT/JO? liceivov e 

etfrepev etefiaLveiv aur?}? avay/ca- 

4 'O 6e 877/40$ eri p,a\\ov e^6KaTO' Kai (f>i\ov 
TW TifSepifp TeXevTijcravTos ai 

TW veKpw p,o^6'f]pwv 7 
OTTO fyapiicLKwv avyprjffffeu TOV 

TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, xn. 5 -xm. 4 

stood in front of his master and protected him, had 
his eyes torn out, against the protest of Tiberius, who, 
when he perceived what was going on, ran down 
with great haste to appease the tumult. 

XIII. After this the agrarian law was passed, and 
three men w r ere chosen for the survey and distribu- 
tion of the public land, Tiberius himself, Appius 
Claudius his father-in-law, and Caius Gracchus his 
brother, who was not at Rome, but was serving under 
Scipio in the expedition against Numantia. These 
measures were carried out by Tiberius quietly and 
without opposition, and, besides, he procured the 
election of a tribune in the place of Octavius. The 
new tribune was not a man of rank or note, but a 
certain Mucius, a client of Tiberius. The aristocrats, 
however, who were vexed at these proceedings and 
feared the growing power of Tiberius, heaped insult 
upon him in the senate. When he asked for the 
customary tent at public expense, for his use when 
dividing up the public land, they would not give it, 
although other men had often obtained one for less 
important purposes ; and they fixed his daily allow- 
ance for expenses at nine obols. 1 These things were 
done on motion of Publius Nasica, who surrendered 
completely to his hatred of Tiberius. For he was a 
very large holder of public land, and bitterly resented 
his being forced to give it up. 

But the people were all the more inflamed ; and 
when a friend of Tiberius died suddenly and his body 
broke out all over with evil spots, they ran in throngs 
to the man's funeral, crying out that he had been 
poisoned to death, and they carried the bier them- 

1 That is, in Roman money, nine sestertii, equivalent to 
about twenty pence, or forty cents. 




evfa Trapecrrr/crav, ov <auXo)9 v 
5 Tijv (frapfia/ceiav bo^avres. eppdyrj yap 6 re/epos 
/cal Bi(f)Oop6r(i)V vypwv 7r\i]@os ^^\vaev, ware 
a.Trocrfieo'ai TTJV (^Xo^a* KOI <$>epvvT(i)i> a 
OVK e/caero irplv et? erepov TQTTOV 
teal TroXXa Trpay/j.arevcrafiei'wv /xo\<? ij-^/aro TO 

TTVp aVTOU. TT^O? TaVTO, TOU? TTO/VXoi'? Tt ^oiX\OV 

6 Ti/3e/)fo? irapo^vvwv pere/SaXe T^V effOfjra, /cal 
TGI"? Trat^a? Trpoayaycov eBelro TOV Srjfiov rovrwv 


XIV. 'Evrel Se TOU ^L\o'Too^ ^Arrd\ov 

ev fj K\rjpovo/jios ejeypaTTTO rov /9acrfXeco? 6 
, ev0v$ 6 

OTTCO? ra 
rot? TTJV *\(i)pav Sia\ay%dvov(ri, TWV 

2 d<pop/jLijv. Trepl Be TWV TroXeco^, ocrai Tr}? 'Arra- 
Xou /3acri\6Las rjcrav, ov$i> <f)i] rf) avyK\i'jTU) 
ftov\vea0aL Trpoaij/ceiv, aXXa TW >;/xa) yvoo/jirjv 

TpoQl](TeLV. K TOVTOV fJid\L(TTa 7TpO(T- 831 

rfj /3ou\fj' Kal Ho/jLirrjios /j,ev d 

TW Tiftepiay /cal Sia rovro 
aura) TOP ilepya/j,Tjvbi> TWV (Bacn\LKwv 
Se&cotcoTa /cal 7rop(f)vpav, 009 yu-t'XXo^rt 

3 {3acn\i>6ti> ev 'Pw/^rj, KotVro9 Be MereXXo9 a>^et- 
BHT TOV Tifiepiov on rov fJLev Trarpos avrov 


TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, xm. 4 -xiv. 3 

selves, and stood by at the last ceremonies. And 
their suspicions of poison were thought to be not 
without reason. For the dead body burst open and 
a great quantity of corrupt humours gushed forth, so 
that the Hame of the funeral pyre was extinguished. 
And when fresh fire was brought, again the body 
would not burn, until it was carried to another place, 
where, after much trouble, the fire at last took hold 
of it. Upon this, Tiberius, that he might exasperate 
the multitude still more, put on a garb of mourning, 
brought his children before the assembly, and begged 
the people to care for them and their mother, saying 
that he despaired of his own life. 

XIV. And now Attalus Philometor died, 1 and 
Eudemus of Pergamum brought to Rome the king's 
last will and testament, by which the Roman people 
was made his heir. At once Tiberius courted popular 
favour by bringing in a bill which provided that the 
money of King Attalus, when brought to Rome, 
should be given to the citizens who received a parcel 
of the public land, to aid them in stocking and tilling 
their farms. And as regarded the cities which were 
included in the kingdom of Attalus, he said it did 
not belong to the senate to deliberate about them, 
but he himself would submit a pertinent resolution 
to the people. By this proceeding he gave more 
offence than ever to the senate ; and Pompeius, 
rising to speak there, said that he was a neighbour 
of Tiberius, and therefore knew that Eudemus of 
Pergamum had presented Tiberius with a royal 
diadem and purple robe, believing that lie was going 
to be king in Rome. Moreover, Quintus Metellus 
upbraided Tiberius with the reminder that whenever 

1 In 133 B.C. 




ra (fra)Ta KaTea/Bevvvcrav oi 7ro\lrat, 

fjir] TTOppcoTepw TOV ueTpiov Bo^coa-iv ev 

elvai KOI 7TOTOJ9, TOVTW Be Trapatyaivovai VVKTOS 

oi OpaovTdToi teal aTropdiTaroi, TWV SrjjjLOTWv 

4 TITO? 8' "Avvios, OVK 7rieiKr)S {lev ovSe crcocfrpcov 

, ev Se \6yoi<f vrpo? ra? cpwrt^aei^ real 
diroKpicreis a/za^o? eivai &OKWV, ei? opiajjiov 
Tiva Trpov/caXelTO TOV Tiftepiov, r) yJr]v iepov OVTCL 
i a&vXov K ro)v vofjiwv rjri/jLcoKevai TOV crvvdp- 
Oopvftovvruiv Be vroXXw^ e/CTT^^^o'a? 6 
TOV re ^r)fjiov Gvi>eKii\ei KOL rbv "Avviov 

5 a%0fjvat KeXeucra? e(3ov\ero KanyyopeLV. 6 Be /cal 

TO) \OJ(f> KOI TT) Bofyj TTOXU XefTTOyLteZ^O? 6i? 

eavrov Beii'OTtjTa KareBvero, fcal 7rapK(i\ei 
Trpo T03V Xojcov diroKpivaaOaL TOV Tiftepiov. <rvy- 
%a) povvTOS Be epwTav e/ceivov /cal aKoirrfi <y^vofjLein^ 
elrrev o "Avvios, "*Av crv fj.ev UTI/JLOVV fie (3ov\r) 
KOI TrpOTnjXafci&iv, 700 Be Tiva TU>V awv eiriKa- 
\eao)/j,at crvvap^ovTcov, 6 Be avaftr) fio^Q^crwv, av 
Be opyicrO'fjs, a pa ye avTOv TVJV dpj(rjv d(^aipi]o"rj;^ 

6 7T/30? ravTiyv \jeTai r^v epu>Tr)criv ovra) BiaTro- 
pT t 6r]vaL TOV Tiftepiov ware irdvrwv b'vra /cal TO 
\ejeiv eToi/LLOTaTov /cal TO Oappelv i 

XV. Tore [lev ovv BieXvcre rrjv efCfeX/rjcriav 
aladavofJievo^ Be TMV 7ro\iTev/jidT(i)i> TO rrepl TOV 
'Q/CTafitov ov Tot? BvvaTols fj.6vov, d\\a Kal TO?? 
eKTraOeaTepov (fAeya <ydp TI fcal /ca\bv 


TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, xiv. 3 -xv. i 

his father, during his censorship, was returning home 
after a supper, the citizens put out their lights, for 
fear they might be thought to be indulging immoder- 
ately in entertainments and drinking bouts, whereas 
Tiberius himself was lighted on his way at night by 
the neediest and most reckless of the populace. Titus 
Annius, too, a man of no high character or sobriety, 
but held to be invincible in arguments carried on by 
question and answer, challenged Tiberius to a judicial 
wager, 1 solemnly asserting that he had branded with 
infamy his colleague, who was sacred and inviolable 
by law. As many senators applauded this speech, 
Tiberius dashed out of the senate-house, called the 
people together, and ordered Annius to be brought 
before them, with the intention of denouncing him. 
But Annius, who was far inferior to Tiberius both in 
eloquence and in reputation, had recourse to his own 
particular art, and called upon Tiberius to answer a 
few questions before the argument began. Tiberius 
assented to this and silence was made, whereupon 
Annius said : " If thou wish to heap insult upon me 
and degrade me, and I invoke the aid of one of thy 
colleagues in office, and he mount the rostra to speak 
in my defence, and thou fly into a passion, come, 
wilt thou deprive that colleague of his office ? ' 
At this question, we are told, Tiberius was so 
disconcerted that, although he was of all men most 
ready in speech and most vehement in courage, he 
held his peace. 

XV. For the present, then, he dissolved the 
assembly ; but perceiving that the course he had 
taken with regard to Octavius was very displeasing, 
not only to the nobles, but also to the multitude (for 

1 Cf. the Goto Major ) xxii. 5. 



TO TWV ^rjjjiap^wv d^twua uexpi rfjs r; 

BiaTerrjp^aevov dvyprjcrOai, /cal /ca0v/3pi- 
adai}, \6yov kv TU> S)j/aca &ie%ri\6ev, ov /un/cpd 

TWV 7TL^ipr)/jidTwv OVK CLTOTTOV rjv, 

wcrre V7rovor)0rjvai ir]V iriBavQiriTa teal TTVKVQ- 
2 TTjra rov av$pb<$. (fj jap lepov TOV ^rjfJLap^ov 
elvai teal dcrv\ov, on rw SIJ/HM KaQwalwiai /cal 
rov Sijfiov Trpo^a-rrjKev. av ovv yu,era/3aA,OyU.e^o9 
TOV Stj/jLov dSi/cfj teal TTJV la^vv Ko\ovy real 

Trapaiprai TTJV ty>)<f)ov, auro? eavrov 
3 r/}? T^/AT}? </>' ol? eXafiev ov TTOLWV eVet /cal TO 
K.a7r6T(t)\tov KaTacTKaTTTOvra /cal TO vewpiov e'/i.- 
TmrpdvTa Sij/juapxov lav Ser/crei. KOI ravra 

TOV orjuov, ov Srjaapxos ecrTt. TTW? ovv ov 
<$eivoi> el TOV u.ev inraTov 6 S^aap^o^; a^et, 
TOV oe &>j/jiap)ov OVK dfiaiprjcreTai TTJV egou- 
aiav 6 8?5/xo9 oTav avTrj Kara TOV 
/cal jap vjraTov /cal 

4 6fjboid)<i 6 ^T/yito? aipelTat. /cal ^v ij <ye ftacrikeia 
7r/)O9 TW Trao~av dp^rjv ex, lv ^ v aVT f) o~v\\a- 
ftovcra /cal Tat? /teyio-Tcu? iepovpyiats /ca0a)o~La)Tai 
7T/90? TO Oeiov d\\a Tap/cvvtov e^e^a\ev 
dSi/covvTa, /cal 6Y ez-'o? dvSpbs vftpw r; 


ajiov ev 'Poiar) /cal aefjivov 005 al 
rrovcrai rrapdevoi /cal (f)v\dTTovo~ai, TO 
Trvp; d\\' el TIS av dadprrj avT&v, 


it was thought that the high and honourable dignity 
of the tribunate, so carefully guarded up to that time, 
had been insulted and destroyed), he made a lengthy 
speech before the people, a few of the arguments of 
which it will not be out of place to lay before the 
reader, that he may get a conception of the man's 
subtlety and persuasiveness. A tribune, he said, was 
sacred and inviolable, because he was consecrated to 
the people and was a champion of the people. " If, 
then," said Tiberius, "he should change about, 
wrong the people, maim its power, and rob it of the 
privilege of voting, he has by his own acts deprived 
himself of his honourable office by not fulfilling the 
conditions on which he received it ; for otherwise 
there would be no interference with a tribune even 
though he should try to demolish the Capitol or set 
fire to the naval arsenal. If a tribune does these 
things, he is a bad tribune ; but if he annuls the 
power of the people, he is no tribune at all. Is it 
not, then, a monstrous thing that a tribune should 
have power to hale a consul to prison, while the 
people cannot deprive a tribune of his power when 
he employs it against the very ones who bestowed 
it ? For consul and tribune alike are elected by 
the people. And surely the kingly office, besides 
comprehending in itself every civil function, is also 
consecrated to the Deity by the performance of the 
most solemn religious rites ; and yet Tarquin was 
expelled by the city for his wrong-doing, and 
because of one man's insolence the power which had 
founded Rome and descended from father to son was 
overthrown. Again, what institution at Rome is so 
holy and venerable as that of the virgins who tend 
and watch the undying fire ? And yet if one of these 

VOL. x. r. 181 


pvcrarerai' TO yap aav\ov ov <f)v\aTTOvcriv dcre- 

ftovcrai ei? rot? Qeovs, o Bid TOU? #eoi/9 e^ovcnv. 

5 OVKOVV ovBe 8?;yu,a^o9 dSiKwv TOV Brj/jiov 1 e^eiv 

Trjv Bid roi> Brjfiov auv\iav ftiKaios eariv fj yap 

ravTrjv avaipel. KCU fji^v el Si- 

ov)(l KCLV 

6 SiKaiorepov Tracrwv airo"^ i r]<^L(Ta[j.evu>v; iepov $e 832 
teal a&vXov ov$V OUTGO? earlv a>? ra TWV 6ewv 
%pr)a0ai Be rouTOt? /col Kivelv 

/3ov\erai,, TOV &r}/j, 
\VKV. %r)i> ovv avTW Kal Triv 
avddrjfjia /^ereveyKelv a? eTepov. OTI >e OVK 
acrv\ov ovBe 

i avrwv. 

XVI. ToiavTa fiev r}V Ta K<pd\aia T^? TOV 
^LKaLO\oyia^. eVet Be avvopwvTes ol 
ra? aTrefXa? KOI T?)V GVGTCLGIV GO'OZ/TO Selv 
ere/oa? TtzpikyecrQcii &rnj.ap-)(ia<s t? TO JJL\\OV> 
av0i<; aXXot? VO/JLOIS di>6\d/ji/3ai>6 TO TrX^^o?, TOU 
T xpovov TWV (TTpaTeiwv dtyaipwv, teal BiBovs 
TUKa\icr0ai TOV Bfj/jiov diro TCOV &iKacrT&v, KOL 


2 /juyvvs K TMV iTTTrewv TOV iaov dpiO/jbov, Kal 

/3oiA,7}? TTJV lo")(yv KO\OVU>V 
Cobet : STJ/J.OV. 


TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, xv. 4 -xvi. 2 

breaks her vows, she is buried alive ; for when they 
sin against the gods, they do not preserve that invio- 
lable character which is given them for their service 
to the gods. Therefore it is not just that a tribune 
who wrongs the people should retain that inviolable 
character which is given him for service to the people, 
since he is destroying the very power which is the 
source of his own power. And surely, if it is right 
for him to be made tribune by a majority of the 
votes of the tribes, it must be even more right for 
him to be deprived of his tribuneship by a unanimous 
vote. And again, nothing is so sacred and inviolate 
as objects consecrated to the gods ; and yet no one 
has hindered the people from using such objects, or 
moving them, or changing their position in such 
manner as may be desired. It is therefore permis- 
sible for the people to transfer the tribunate also, 
as a consecrated thing, from one man to another. 
And that the office is not inviolable or irremovable 
is plain from the fact that many times men holding 
it resign it under oath of disability, and of their 
own accord beg to be relieved of it." 

XVI. Such were the chief points in the justifica- 
tion of his course which Tiberius made. And now 
his friends, observing the threats and the hostile 
combination against him, thought that he ought to 
be made tribune again for the following year. Once 
more, therefore, Tiberius sought to win the favour of 
the multitude by fresh laws, reducing the time of 
military service, granting appeal to the people from 
the verdicts of the judges, adding to the judges, w r ho at 
that time were composed of senators only, an equal 
number from the equestrian order, and in every way 
at length trying to maim the power of the senate 


Trpo? opyrjv Kal fyiXoveiKiav fj,a\\ov YI rov rov 

BlKaiOV Kal O~Vfji<j)pOVrO^ \OyLO~fJLOV. CTTcl B T?}? 

frepo/jievijs rjcrOovro TOI>? evavrlov? Kpa- 
(ou yap 7rap>jv a?ra? 6 >}yu,o?), rrpuirov 

rov ^povov eTreira rrji> 

3 et? rr]V vcrrepaiav airavrav KeXevcravres. 
Trpwrov p,ev 6t? ri]v dyopav Kcna/3a<; 6 


eirena $e$oiKvat (frija'as /JLIJ VVKTOS 

ol/eiav ol e^dpol Kal $ia<$>9eL 
avrov, ovro) TOU? dv@p(i)7rovs Sie&rjKev Mare 

oiKiav avrov Tra/ATroXXoi'? rtvas 
l SiavvKrepev&ai rrapafyvXdrrovras. 
XVIT. "A/ia 6' rjjAepa rraprjv 6 ra? opviQas 

\ 7rpoe/3a\\ 

al & ov rrporfkOov, el /JLTJ yuta /jLovrf, Bia- 
&el<javro<$ ev fid\a rov dvOpwrrov TO dyyelov 
ov&e avrrf Be TT}? rpo<f)r)s eOiyev, aX,V errdpacra 
rr)V dpLcrrepdv Trrepvya Kal Trapareivaaa TO 
<r/ce'Xo? Trd\iv et? TO dyyelov Karefyvye. rouro Kal 
rov Trporepov arrj/jueiov rov TL/3eptov dve/J-vrjaev. 
2 771^ yap avru> 

eKirpeTrws Kal Sidcrrj/jiov et? rovro 
oc^et? e\,adov evreKovres wd, Kal 
ravra e%ey\v^ravro. Bio Kal fjid\\ov o Ti/Sepios 
Tot? rrepl Ta? opvL9a<$ erapdrrero. rrporjei Be 
o/AO)?, dvu) rov Brjfjiov t]Opola6aL rrepl TO 
3 \LOV 7rvv9av6fj,evos' Kal rrplv e%e\6elv 
Taicre rrpos rov ovBov, cr<f)oBpd<> ovrco 

were rov fjiev ovvya rov fieyd\ov BaK- 


TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, xvi. 2 -xvn. 3 

from motives of anger and contentiousness rather 
than from calculations of justice and the public good. 
And when, as the voting was going on, the friends 
of Tiberius perceived that their opponents were 
getting the better of the contest, since all the people 
were not present, in the first place they resorted to 
abuse of his fellow tribunes, and so protracted the 
time ; next, they dismissed the assembly, and ordered 
that it should convene on the following day. Then 
Tiberius, going down into the forum, at first suppli- 
cated the citizens in a humble manner and with tears 
in his eyes ; next, he declared he was afraid that his 
enemies would break into his house by night and kill 
him, and thereby so wrought upon his hearers that 
great numbers of them took up their station about 
his house and spent the night there on guard. 

XVII. At break of day there came to the house 
the man who brought the birds with which auspices 
are taken, and threw food before them. But the 
birds would not come out of the cage, with the 
exception of one, though the keeper shook the cage 
right hard ; and even the one that came out would 
not touch the food, but raised its left wing, stretched 
out its leg, and then ran back into the cage. This 
reminded Tiberius of an omen that had happened 
earlier. He had a helmet which he wore in battle, 
exceptionally adorned and splendid ; into this ser- 
pents crawled unnoticed, laid eggs there and 
hatched them out. For this reason Tiberius was all 
the more disturbed by the signs from the birds. But 
nevertheless he set out, on learning that the people 
were assembled on the Capitol ; and before he got 
out of the house, he stumbled against the threshold. 
The blow was so severe that the nail of his great toe 



TV\OV payrjvai, TO Be cu^a Sia TOV V 

(frepea'dai. uiKpov Be ainov 7rpoe\66vTO<; 
t]crav virep Kepd^ov /j.a'^o/j.evoi, Kupatces ev 
real TTO\\WV, w? el/cos, dvOpajrrcov rrap- 
ep%ouei>MV, /car' avrov TOV Tifiepiov \iOo<z 
aTTwaOeis VTTU Oarepov TOW KopuKwv eirecre irapa 
TOV TroSa. TOVTO Kal TOVS 6 pa&VTaTovs Ton> Trepl 
4 avrov eTrearaev a\\a 13\,ocrcrfo? o 

7rapa)i> acr^vvrjv erj Ka Ka-rijeLav av evai 

7ro\\r)V el 

/cai'ov 8e 

rov 'Ptofiaicov Brj/Aov, Kopa/ca Setcra? ov% vTratcov- 

aeie rot? TroXtra^? KaXovor TOVTO [JLZVTOI TO 
ov OVK ev <ye\wTL O/jaecrOaL TOVI e%0pov<j, 
a)? TvpavvovvTos Kal TpvtywvTos rjBrj xara- 
5 fiorjaeddai TT/JO? TOV orj/jiov. ap.a 8e Kal rrpoaedeov 

7ro\\ol TO) Tifiepico rrapa TO)V ev 
, errei'jeaOai tce\evovTe<;, <w? TW 
wv. Kal TO. *ye Trpwra Aa/zTr/ow? drn'/VTa 

TV) '\\ftepiM, (fravevTi aev ev6u$ dpa/nei'wv ftorjv 


Kal Trepl avTov, a>? /jLTjtels TreXdcreiev 

XVIII. 'Apa/jivov Be Ttd\iv TOV 
ra? ^uXa? dvayopeveiv, ov&ev eVepatero TWV 832 
elw6oTd)v &ta TOV CITTO TWV ea^dTwv dopv/jov, 
u>0ov/j.evwv Kal a>OovvTwv TOU? evavTLovs elcrfiia- 
Kal dva/jiiyvv^evov^. ev Be TOVTO) <&ov\- 

rro ov^ avr^p et? 

1 b.v flvai Cobet and P'uhr : 

1 86 

TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, xvn. 3 -xviii. i 

was broken and the blood ran out through his shoe. 
He had gone on but a little way when ravens were 
seen fighting on the roof of a house to his left hand ; 
and though there were many people, as was natural, 
passing by, a stone dislodged by one of the ravens fell 
at the foot of Tiberius himself. This caused even 
the boldest of his followers to pause; but Blossius of 
Cumae, who was present, said it would be a shame 
and a great disgrace if Tiberius, a son of Gracchus, a 
grandson of Scipio Africanus, and a champion of the 
Roman people, for fear of a raven should refuse to obey 
the summons of his fellow citizens ; such shameful 
conduct, moreover, would not be made a mere matter 
of ridicule by his enemies, but they would decry him 
to the people as one who was at last giving himself 
the airs of a tyrant. At the same time also many of 
his friends on the Capitol came running to Tiberius 
with urgent appeals to hasten thither, since matters 
there were going well. And in fact things turned 
out splendidly for Tiberius at first; as soon as he 
came into view the crowd raised a friendly shout, and 
as he came up the hill they gave him a cordial wel- 
come and ranged themselves about him, that no 
stranger might approach. 

XVIII. But after Mucius began once more to sum- 
mon the tribes to the vote, none of the customary 
forms could be observed because of the disturbance 
that arose on the outskirts of the throng, where 
there was crowding back and forth between the 
friends of Tiberius and their opponents, who were 
striving to force their way in and mingle with the 
rest. Moreover, at this juncture Fulvius Flaccus, a 
senator, posted himself in a conspicuous place, and 
since it was impossible to make his voice heard so 



TJ; %etpt fypdcraL TL /3ov\6/jLevov avTov 
2 IBia TW Tiftepifp. Kal KeXeva-avTos eteeivov Bia- 
TO 7rXf;$o?, dvaftas /^oXi? KCU irpO(re\0wv 
OTI T/?<? {3ov\fjs a-vyKaOe^o^evrj^ ol 


voovvrai Ka9* avrovs airoKiivvvvai TOV Ti/Bepiov, 
TroXXoi)? errl TOVTO SovXovs Kal (i\ovs &)7rXt- 

XIX. 'H? ovv Tavra rot? rrepl CIVTOV 
fyei\ev 6 Tifiepios, OVTOI JJLCV evOvs ra? re Tij/3ev- 
vovs Trepie^ctivvvvTO, Kal TO, TWV vTnipeTwv oopaTa 
GvyK\wvTes ol? dveipyovcri TOV o^Xov, Sie\d/j,- 
fiavov a)? d/jLVVGv/jievoi rot? K\d(T^aai TOL/? ejrep- 

2 ^oyLieVou?. T0)v $ aTTCOTepo) Oavfjia^ovTwv TO, 
lyivofjisva, Kal Trvv6avop,evwv, o 

rfj X t P^ T ^ ? *e ( / )a ^-'} < >> evBeuevv 
KIV&VVOV, eVel rr}? (f)(0vr)s OVK CTT^KOVOV. ol 8e 
evavrioi TOVTO iSo^re? e8eov Trpos TTJV /3oi;X?;y, 
aTrayye'XXozre? alTelv SidBj^a TOV Tifiepiov Kal 
TOVTOV cn]fjielov eivai TO T?}? A-e^>aX>}? TriQiyyd- 

3 ^6f^. TrdvTes p-ev ovv etfopv/SijOrjaav 6 Be Na- 
cri/ca? r)%Lov TOV VTraTov Ty TroXei fiorjOeiv Kal 
KaTa\veiv TOV Tvpavvov. aTTOKpivaaevov Be irpdw^ 
eKeivov /Bias fjiev ovoe/HLas VTrdp^eiv ovoe dvaip/j- 
creiv ovoeva TWV TTO\ITWV aKpiTov, el /^evroi 
^nrjcfrio-aiTO TL TWV TrapavofJiwv o Br/uos VTTO TOV 
Tifieptov TreicrOels rj /3iao-0ei$, TOVTO Kvpiov ^ 

v, dvaTrriBrja-as 6 Nacrf/ca?, " 'E-Tra TOLVVV" 
, " TrpoBioaxTiv 6 ap^wv TIJV Tr6\iv, ol {3ov\Q- 


TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, xvm. i-xix. 3 

far, indicated with his hand that he wished to 
tell Tiberius something meant for his ear alone. 
Tiberius ordered the crowd to part for Flavins, who 
made his way up to him with difficulty, and told him 
that at a session of the senate the party of the rich, 
since they could not prevail upon the consul to do 
so, were purposing to kill Tiberius themselves, and 
for this purpose had under arms a multitude of their 
friends and slaves. 

XIX. Tiberius, accordingly, reported this to those 
who stood about him, and they at once girded up 
their togas, and breaking in pieces the spear-shafts 
with which the officers keep back the crowd, distri- 
buted the fragments among themselves, that they 
might defend themselves against their assailants. 
Those who were farther off, however, wondered at 
what was going on and asked what it meant. Where- 
upon Tiberius put his hand to his head, making this 
visible sign that his life was in danger, since the 
questioners could not hear his voice. But his 
opponents, on seeing this, ran to the senate and told 
that body that Tiberius was asking for a crown ; and 
that his putting his hand to his head was a sign having 
that meaning. All the senators, of course, were 
greatly disturbed, and Nasica demanded that the 
consul should come to the rescue of the state and 
put down the tyrant. The consul replied with mild- 
ness that he would resort to no violence and would 
put no citizen to death without a trial ; if, however, 
the people, under persuasion or compulsion from 
Tiberius, should vote anything that was unlawful, 
he would not regard this vote as binding. There- 
upon Nasica sprang to his feet and said : " Since, 
then, the chief magistrate betrays the state, do ye 



4 fievoi roi? vo/jiois ftorjOelv aKo\ov6elTe." Kal 
Tavra \cywv a^a /cal TO KpacnreBov TOV i/Aariov 
Oe/jievos errl TT}? K(f>a\i]<; t e^copei 77/909 TO Kavre- 
Tci)\iov. e/cacrTOS Be T-WV eTro/jLei'cov avrw Trj 

ov&evos evL(TTap.evov rrpos TO diwjj.a TMV d 
dXXa (frewyovTMV KOL TraTovvTwv aAA?;Aof?. 

O/ yu-ez^ ot'^ Trepl CLVTOVS p6rra\a /cal 
KO/JLI^OV olKoOev avrol Be TWV &i$pu>v 

v VTTO TOV (frevyovTO? o)(\ov TO, K\dfffjiaTa 

l TOU? TroSa? \a/j,{3dvoi>Te<; dveftaivov eVt TOV 
Tifiepiov, ci/jia TraiovTes rou9 irpoTeTay^evov^ 

KUi TOVTWV /JLV T)V TpOTTT) Kal </)0^0?' ttVTOV B TOV 

Ti^epiov (frevyovTOS dvTe\d/3eTo Ti? TWV 
6 o Se Trji> Tr)(3evvov a</>ei9 Kal fyevywv ev 
^iTMdLV eff(j)d\r) Kal KaTrjvi^Ori irepi TLVCIS 
rrpo avTov TrerrTcoKOTas. dviaTdfjievov 8e avTov 

o jiev eLta^co9 KCLI 

l Sicfrp 



. TWV Be aXXwv airkQavov vrrep Tpia- 


XX. Tavrrjv Trpu>Tt]v icrTOpovaiv ev 'Pw/jirj crra- 
GLV, dfi ov TO /3aai\ei>(T0ai KaTeXvaav, 


OVTC Trep f 

aXX;;Xoi9, c/^oySw {lev ol BvvaTol TCOV TTO\- 
\a)V, aiBovjuevoi Be TVJV ftov\r)V 6 Br)/no<$, erravov. 
Be Kal Tore firj ^aXe7r&>9 av evBovvai rrapr)- 


TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, xix. 4 -xx. i 

who wish to succour the laws follow me." With 
these words he covered his head with the skirt of his 
toga and set out for the Capitol. All the senators 
w r ho followed him wrapped their togas about their 
left arms and pushed aside those who stood in their 
path, no man opposing them, in view of their dignity, 
but all taking to flight and trampling upon one 

Now, the attendants of the senators carried clubs 
and staves which they had brought from home ; but 
the senators themselves seized the fragments and 
legs of the benches that were shattered by the crowd 
in its flight, and went up against Tiberius, at the 
same time smiting those who were drawn up to protect 
him. Of these there was a rout and a slaughter ; 
and as Tiberius himself turned to fly, someone laid 
hold of his garments. So he let his toga go and fled 
in his tunic. But he stumbled and fell to the ground 
among some bodies that lay in front of him. As he 
strove to rise to his feet, he received his first blow, 
as everybody admits, from Publius Satyreius, one of 
his colleagues, who smote him on the head with the 
leg of a bench ; to the second blow claim was made 
by Lucius Rufus, who p!umed himself upon it as upon 
some noble deed. And of the rest more than three 
hundred were slain by blows from sticks and stones, 
but not one by the sword. 

XX. This is said to have been the first sedition at 
Rome, since the abolition of royal power, to end in 
bloodshed and the death of citizens; the rest, though 
neither trifling nor raised for trifling objects, were 
settled by mutual concessions, the nobles yielding 
from fear of the multitude, and the people out of 
respect for the senate. And it was thought that even 



ryopr)0el<; 6 Ttftepios, eTt, Be paov el%ai Bi^a (f>6vov 

2 Kal Tpav^aTwv eTriovcriv ov <yap 7rXeioi>e? 77 

Tpio")(i\ioi Trepl avrbv rjaav. a\\ eoifcev opyfj 

TCOV TT\OV<jiu>V Kal /JLLCT61 7T\eOV >} &l a? CT/C?/7r- 

TOVTO Trodcreis r crvcnacris eV avrov 

/ecu TOVTOV /neya re/c/jujpiov w/uw? real 

o veicpos. ov 'yap eTrerpe^av avekeaOai 834 
TO crcoyua TM d8e\(j)(0 Beouevw KOL Od-fy 
d\\d yLtera rwv a\\a>i' veKpwv et? TOV 

v. fcal TOVTO Trepan ovx rjv, d\\a Kal TWV 
aurov TOL/9 fJiev e^efcjjpvrrov a/cptrou?, TOU? 
Be crvX\.a/jL/3dvovT<; d-jreKTLvvvcrav' ev ol? teal 
o ptJTCop aTrcoXeTO. Ydiov Be rtva 
et? dyyelov Ka6eip%avres Kal 
\OVT<; e^t'Sfa? /cal BpaKOVTas ovrw 
o Be Kuyaato? BXocrcrio? dvrj^Or) fjiev eVl rou? 
L7raTou9, epcoTco/jievos Be Trepl TWV ^eyovoTwv 
GD/jiO\6<yei TreTTOiriKevai nrdvra Tiftepiov /ce\evovros. 
4 etVo^ro? Be TOV Nacr</ca TTyOo? avrov, " Ti ovv, el 
ere Tifiepto? eiceXevcrev euTrprjcrai TO Ka7reTa>)uoi>; ' 
TO f^ev Trpayrov dvreXeyev a>? OVK av rovro TV/3e- 
piov Ke\evcravTos' TroXXaVt? Be Kal TTO\\WI> TO 
auTO TrvvOavofjievtoVy " 'AXX* CKCLVOV ye Trpoardcr- 
<roz'TO?," etyr), " Kafjiol TOVTO irpd^ai KO\MS el%v 
ov yap av Tifiepios TOVTO 7rpoo~eTa%ev, el fir) TU> 
Bi]fj,r*> avvetpepev." OVTOS jmev ovv Bia(f)v>ya)v ucrre- 



on this occasion Tiberius would have given way 
without difficulty had persuasion been brought to 
bear upon him, and would have yielded still more 
easily if his assailants had not resorted to wounds 
and bloodshed ; for his adherents numbered not 
more than three thousand. But the combination 
against him would seem to have arisen from the 
hatred and anger of the rich rather than from the 
pretexts which they alleged ; and there is strong 
proof of this in their lawless and savage treatment of 
his dead body. For they would not listen to his 
brother's request that he might take up the body 
and bury it by night, but threw it into the river 
along with the other dead. Nor was this all ; they 
banished some of his friends without a trial and 
others they arrested and put to death. Among 
these Diophanes the rhetorician also perished. A 
certain Caius Villius they shut up in a cage, and then 
put in vipers and serpents, and in this way killed him. 
Blossius of Cumae was brought before the consuls, 
and when he was asked about what had passed, he 
admitted that he had done everything at the bidding 
of Tiberius. Then Nasica said to him, " What, then, 
if Tiberius had ordered thee to set fire to the Capitol? " 
Blossius at first replied that Tiberius would not have 
given such an order ; but when the same question 
was put to him often and by many persons, he said : 
" If such a man as Tiberius had ordered such a thing, 
it would also have been right for me to do it ; for 
Tiberius would not have given such an order if it had 
not been for the interest of the people." l Well, then, 
Blossius was acquitted, and afterwards went to 

1 For the story of Blossius, cf. Cicero, De am, 11. 37; 
Valerius Maximus, iv. 7. 1. 



pov torero 7rpo9 'ApiaroviKOv et? ^Kaiav, KOL TWV 
eiceivov Trpay^drwv Sia(f)0apevTtt>v eavTov dvel\ev. 
XXI. 'H Be /3ofXr; OepaTreuovcra TOV STJ/AOV etc 
TrapovTwv ovre TT/JO? TTJV Siavo/jirjv en TT}? 
-tjvavnovTo, KCLI avrl TOV Tiftepiov Trpou- 
Orj/ce rot? 7roXXo?9 opLcrrrjv e\a~0ai. \ajSovTe<s 
& ra<? 'fyrjfyovs ei'Xovro TlorrXiov ^paaaov, oltcelov 
QWTCL rpdy^fo" Ovydr^p yap avrov KiKivvia Vaiw 
Y payday awco/cei. Kairoi NeVco? 6 }Lopvij/Xi6<i 
(f)Tjo-iv ov K.pd<T(Tov, B/jouTou 8e TOV dpia/ji/Sev- 
cravTQS diro KvcriTavwv OvyaTepa yr^jiai Ydiov 
d\\a ol TrXet'ou? co? TJ/JLCLS ypa^o/.iev icrTopovcnv. 
eVet 8e ^aXeTrw? [JLCV o STJ/JLOS el%e TM 
TOV Ttfieptov Kai (pavepbs r/v a^vv 
Kdipov, ij&ij &e KOI Bi/cac TU) Nacri/ca rrpoave- 

, BeLcracra irepl TOV dvSpos rj /Bov\^ 
/j.r/$ev Beo/jievr) Tr&^Tceiv CLVTOV els ' 

3 ov yap aTretcpviTTOVTO KCLTO, ra9 aTravT^crei^ ol 
avOpwTTOi Trfv &v(T/j.ei>tav, aXX' e^yptaivomo KCU 
KaT/36a>v orrov TrpocTTv^oiev, evayri KOI Tvpavvov 
Kai /jLe/AiayfcoTa <$)ov(p crfo/uaro? davXov KOL tepov 
TO ayi(i)Ta,Tov KOL (ppiKCtiBea-TaTOV ei> 

lepoyv aTTOKakovvTes. OVTW /nev 
'JraTua? 6 Nacrt/ca?, tcaiTrep evBeSe/nevos 
iepovpytais" ijv yap 6 yuey^crro? 
iepewv. e^a> Be u\vwv KCU 
ov yuera TTO\VV %povo 

4 Trepl TLepya/j,ov. ov Bel Se 6avfjL,d^eiv el 


TIBERIUS GRACCHUS, xx. 4 -xxi. 4 

Anstonicus 1 in Asia, and when the cause of Aristo- 
nicus was lost, slew himself. 

XXI. But the senate, trying to conciliate the 
people now that matters had gone so far, no longer 
opposed the distribution of the public land, and 
proposed that the people should elect a commissioner 
in place of Tiberius. So they took a ballot and 
elected Publius Crassus, who was a relative of 
Gracchus ; for his daughter Licinia was the wife of 
Caius Gracchus. And yet Cornelius Nepos 2 says 
that it was not the daughter of Crassus, but of the 
Brutus who triumphed over the Lusitanians, whom 
Caius married ; the majority of writers, however, 
state the matter as I have done. Moreover, since the 
people felt bitterly over the death of Tiberius and 
were clearly awaiting an opportunity for revenge, 
and since Nasica was already threatened with prose- 
cutions, the senate, fearing for his safety, voted to 
send him to Asia, although it had no need of him 
there. For when people met Nasica, they did not 
try to hide their hatred of him, but grew savage and 
cried out upon him wherever he chanced to be, calling 
him an accursed man and a tyrant, who had defiled 
with the murder of an inviolable and sacred person the 
holiest and most awe-inspiring of the city's sanctu- 
aries. And so Nasica stealthily left Italy, although he 
was bound there by the most important and sacred 
functions ; for he was pontifex maximus. He roamed 
and wandered about in foreign lands ignominiouslv. 

fj CJ * - 

and after a short time ended his life at Pergamum. 
Now, it is no wonder that the people so much hated 

1 The pretender to the throne of Attains Philometor (xiv. 1). 
He was defeated and taken prisoner by the Romans in 130 B.o. 

2 In a lost biography. 



OUTft)? 6 Sij/JLOS, 07TOV KOL ^KrjTTiWV 6 

os, ov BoKovai 'Pco/j-aloL /nrjSeva SiKat,6- 
repov fj-i^Se fjLO\\ov dyaTTtjcrai, Trapd /JUKpov t}\0ev 
efCTrecrelv KOL arepecrOai. T/}? TT/^O? rov S))/JLOV eu- 
i/ot'a?, ort TTpcorov fjiev ev No^a^rta rr;^ T\VTrjv 
rov Tifiepiov TTV& '6/Lte^o? uvefyatvrjcrev etc 

a>? U7r6\oiro KCU aAAo? o Ti9 TOtavrd ye pe^ot, 

5 eVetra TWV Trepl Tdlov KOI QovX/Biov avrov St* 
eV-X?/cr/a? Trvv6avo[Jiei'u>v ri typovoiri Trepl rr}? 
Ti/Bepiov TeXefT/}9, OUA: dpea-KO/jievrjv Tot? uvr' 
exelvov 7reTro\iTcv}jLei>ots drroKpia-iv e&wKev. etc 
TOVTOV jap 6 {Jiev Sr/yu,o9 avTeicpovcrev aury Xe- 
yovri, yu^Se7T&> TOVTO 7TO>/cra? Trporepov, av-os 
Be TOV &r]/j.ov elrrelv Ara/ca)? TrpOTfyOrj. Trepl p.ev 
TOVTWV ev Tft> *2,Kr)7ri(Di>os fiiw ra icaQ* efcaara 


I. Fai'o? ^e F/oay^o? eV dp^y fiev rj 

TOU? ov$ ?) ovov crvv<wv e avrovs 

ecrnj re r^? dyopas KCU tcaO' eavrov 

Sterpi/Sev, w? av Ti? ev re T&> Trapovrt, 
a Trpdrrwv Kal TO \OLTTOV OI/TW? aTrpay- 
/Siwcro/xe^o?, wcrre Aral \oyov Ticrl Ka@' 835 
aurov Trapacr^etv co? &va"%epaivovTO<; Kal 
2 (3\r)iJLGvov rrjv TOV Tifiepiov TroXtreta^. 



Nasica, when even Scipio Africanus, than whom no one 
would seem to have been more justly or more deeply 
loved by the Romans, came within a little of forfeiting 
and losing the popular favour because, to begin with, 
at Numantia, when he learned of the death of 
Tiberius, he recited in a loud voice the verse of 
Homer 1 : 

" So perish also all others who on such wickedness 

and because, in the second place, when Caius and 
Fulvius asked him in an assembly of the people 
what he thought about the death of Tiberius, 
he made a reply which showed his dislike of the 
measures advocated by him. Consequently the 
people began to interrupt him as he was speaking, 
a thing which they had never done beforehand Scipio 
himself was thereby led on to abuse the people. Of 
these matters I have written circumstantially in my 
Life of Scipio. 2 


I. Caius Gracchus, at first, either because he 
feared his enemies, or because he wished to bring 
odium upon them, withdrew from the forum and 
lived quietly by himself, like one who was humbled 
for the present and for the future intended to live 
the same inactive life, so that some were actually 
led to denounce him for disliking and repudiating 
his brother's political measures. And he was also 

1 Odyssey, L 47 (Athena, of Aegisthus). 
8 One of the lost biographies. 




fjLeiparciov IT av~ a^ acnw evvea yap 

Tae\(f)ov KaO' rjXiKLav, etceivos Be OVTTW 
rpidfcovra yeyovoos drreOavev. errel Be irpolovTos 
TOV xpovov TOV re Tporrov rjO'V'^rj Biefiaivev dpyias 
Kal /u,aXa/aa? KCLL TTOTWV KOI ^pt]/jLaTio-fj.MV d\\6- 
rpiov ovra, KCLL TOV \oyov &<nrep 
Ka.TacrKeva'Cop.ei'O'S eVt T^V iro\.LTeiav 
3 OVK rjoe/j-ijcrcov, iKr)v re TIVI TMV <$>i\a)V tyevyovri 
Berrtw avveiTToov, TOV 8/;/xou avvevOovcrLayvTos v(f) 
Kal /3aK)(6vovTOS Trepl avTov, arre 

ei? (j)6/3ov av6i$ 01 Svvarol KaOiaTavTO, Kal vroXi"; 
rjv ev aurot? ^0709 co? OVK edcrovo~Lv eVl ori/iap- 
jfiav TOV Tdlov rrpoe\6elv. 

4 ^.vvTvy^dvei Be aTrb TavTOfJiaTOV \a-%eli> avTov 
et? 2ap8a) ra/jiLav ^Opecrrr} TO) vTrdry Kal TOVTO 
TO?? fj.ev e^Opols KaO* fjSovrjv eyeyoveL, TOV e 
Td'iov OVK eXvTrrjcrev. are yap wv rro\e/j.iKO^ Kal 
^f.lpov ovev TT/OO? cTTpare/a? rjcrKri{j.i>os rj St'/ca?, 

TL B TTjV 7TO\lTLaV KaL TO /3r/[J.a (fcplTTWV, aVT- 
'XjE.LV Be Ka\OVVTL TU> Bl'][J.U> Kal TOi? <>L\OIS 0V 

BvvdfjLevos, TravTaTcacri TIJV drroBri/jLLav eKeiut^v 

5 rjydrrrjo-e. Ka'iTOi KpaTel to^a 7ro\\r} TOVTOV 
axparov yeveaOai Bijaayooyov, Kal rro\v TOV Tt- 
fiepiov \auTrpoTepov 77/209 Trjv drrb TMV cf)(\wv 
Bo^av. OVK e-^ei Be OVTW TO d\rj9es' dXX? eoiKev 
UTT' dvdyKTjs nvos /j.d\\ov OVTOS r] Trpoaipecreajs 

6 e/j-Trecreiv els TI/V 7ro\iTLav. la-opel Be Kal Ki^e- 
pwv 6 pi]T(jL>p &)? apa (frevyovTL Trdcrav dp^r/v TW 
Yatw Kal fj.eO^ r](TV^ia^ ypr}/jLtvw "Cr]V o 

6'vap <$>ave\s Kal Trpocrayopevaas, " Ti 



quite a stripling, for he was nine years younger than 
his brother, and Tiberius was not yet thirty when he 
died. But as time went on he gradually showed a 
disposition that was averse to idleness, effeminacy, 
wine-bibbing, and money-making ; and by preparing 
his oratory to waft him as on swift pinions to public 
life, he made it clear that he was not going to 
remain quiet; and in defending Vettius, a friend of 
his who was under prosecution, he had the people 
about him inspired and frantic with sympathetic 
delight, and made the other orators appear to be no 
better than children. Once more, therefore, the 
nobles began to be alarmed, and there was much 
talk among them about not permitting Caius to be 
made tribune. 

By accident, however, it happened that the lot fell 
on him to go to Sardinia as quaestor for Orestes the 
consul. 1 This gave pleasure to his enemies, and did 
not annoy Caius. For he was fond of war, and quite 
as well trained for military service as for pleading in 
the courts. Moreover, he still shrank from public 
life and the rostra, but was unable to resist the calls 
to this career which came from the people and his 
friends. He was therefore altogether satisfied with 
this opportunity of leaving the city. And yet a strong 
opinion prevails that he was a demagogue pure and 
simple, and far more eager than Tiberius to win the 
favour of the multitude. But this is not the truth ; 
nay, it would appear that he was led by a certain 
necessity rather than by his own choice to engage in 
public matters. And Cicero the orator also relates 2 
that Caius declined all office and had chosen to live a 
quiet life, but that his brother appeared to him in a 
dream and addressed him, saying : " Why, pray, dost 

1 In 126 B.O. * De div. i. 26, 56. 



" rutV. SpabvveiSi orv ^crrtz 1 diropa<ri?, 

C r ' 

TOT tjaoi 1 TTo/Tci'o/icroK ~c 
. IVivufz'Os' orr o l\mK cV 

pt"T/}? (i-^^ci^/Z 1 e^i^OV, ViT/ 77O\l' 77<i' 

Tor tFTpaTqybv evvoiq \~a] ri/.uj, 
vat \/T07?/T/ va< (bt\o~oria 9r 

. i<r)(ypov $* val po< 

yct/iflvo? fr apoovi yeroneroi 1 \'a TOI< 
T<i\ TruXt.s^ scrOffra TDK 

oi'\f]S rtjr 
Tor (TTaT^oi 1 aXX<wei> aju>itv rot/? 


o l\/toc aurov? (It/)' eai'Ta" 1 ! 1 eiroirjGev <r0ffra 
TTt/ttvI'-a/ vat ftor)Qfi<Tat TO?S" TPa>ftato*9, Taf'ra 
Tra\ir ti\- 'Pwprjv airayy\\ofjteva vat So/eovvra 

. vat Trpioroi' ftV K A.i/3vi)<i Trapa M/vt'xf/-a 
TOI" /8a<riXo>9 rrptafSti'f irapaycvofAGvov?, vat 

s UK o 

v ft- a/oova CTITOJ' Ta 
roi-rt^ e^/SaXov t'TTtcra boyfJM Troioirrai TOK 

Jt, TOT 

vat TOL> 

o ^e TorTa>r arTa> rr^ocr- 
frrrs 6^7rXUflT TT/JOS" opy>']i', vat 
Tra* \7riBas ov uoi-oi 1 VTTO 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, i. 6-n. 4 

thou hesitate, Caius ? There is no escape ; one life 
is fated for us both, and one death as champions of 
the people." 

II. After reaching Sardinia, then, Caius gave proof 
of every excellence, and far surpassed all the other 
young men in conflicts with the enemy, in just 
dealings with the subject peoples, and in the good 
will and respect which he showed towards his 
commander, while in self-restraint, frugality, and 
industry, he excelled even his elders. The winter in 
Sardinia proved to be rigorous and unhealthy, and 
the Roman commander made a requisition upon the 
cities of clothing for his soldiers, whereupon the cities 
sent to Rome and begged to be relieved from the 
exaction. The senate granted their petition and 
ordered the commander to get clothing for his soldiers 
in some other way. The commander was at a loss 
what to do, and the soldiers were suffering ; so Caius 
made a circuit of the cities and induced them of their 
own free will to send clothing and other assistance to 
the Romans. This was reported to Rome, where it 
was thought to be a prelude to a struggle for popular 
favour, and gave fresh concern to the senate. So, to 
begin with, when ambassadors of King Micipsa came 
from Africa, and announced that out of regard for 
Caius Gracchus the king had sent grain to the Roman 
commander in Sardinia, the senators were displeased 
and turned them away. In the second place, they 
passed a decree that fresh troops should be sent to 
relieve the soldiers in Sardinia, but that Orestes 
should remain, with the idea that Caius also would 
remain with him by virtue of his office. But Caius, 
when this came to his ears, straightway sailed off in 
a passion, and his unexpected appearance in Rome 



ctLTtav el%ev, d\\a Kal rot? TroXXoi? dXXoKorov 


ov IJLTJV d\\a Karrjyopias avTw yevofJLevi^ eVt Ttoi> 


dire\6eiv rj 
5 rd f^eyicrra So^a?. ecrrpaTeva-0ai fjiev yap e< 

err), TWV a\\wv Be/ca o-Tparevo^evcov ev 83 G 
wv Be 

e rw arpaTJjju) 7rapafj,e- 
pieriav, TOV vo^ov y^er' eviavrov errav- 
Se TCOV <TTpaTevcra/j.vwv 

7r\rjpe<? TO fBakdvTiov etcrei'^j/o^Q)? icevov 
%ei'ai, TOU? Be a'XXou? ercTriovras ov elcn']i>eyKav 
dpyvpiov Kal ^pvcriov juecrTovs Bevpo TOU? 

III. 'E: TOUTOU iraKw aXXa? ottVia? avTW KOI 
eTrrjyov &)? TOU? avfj-^d^ov^ d^iardvn Kal 
T}? Trepl <3>peyeX\av ev8ei%0eL<ri]$ 
Las. o Be TTCKTCLV vTrotyiav d7ro\v(rd/j.evo$ 
l </>az'el? Ka0apb<? evOvs eVt 
rwv JJLZV yvtopificw dvBpa)i> 6 

irpos avTov, o^Xou Be roaovrov 
et? TTJV iro\iv etc T?}? 'iTaTu'a? Kal 

\i7relv, TOV Be TreBiov prj Bef;a/j,evov TO 77X7)^0? 

aTTO TW^ Teywv Kal TWI> KepdfjLwv Ta? fywvds o-vvrj- 

2 ^etz'. TOGOVTOV B 1 ovv e^eftidcravTO TOV ^r)fj.ov ol 

BvvaTol Kal r>}9 e\7r/6o? ToO Patov Ka0el\ov, ocrov 

CAIUS GRACCHUS, n. 4-111. 2 

not only was censured by his enemies, but also made 
the people think it strange that he, quaestor as he 
was, had left his post before his commander. 
However, when he was denounced before the censors, 
he begged leave to speak, and wrought such a change 
in the opinions of his hearers that he left the court 
with the reputation of having been most grossly 
wronged. For he said that he had served in the 
army twelve years, although other men were required 
to serve there only ten, and that he had continued to 
serve as quaestor under his commander for more than 
two years, although the law permitted him to come 
back after a year. He was the only man in the army, 
he said, who had entered the campaign with a full 
purse and left it with an empty one ; the rest had 
drunk up the wine which they took into Sardinia, 
and had come back to Rome with their wine-jars full 
of gold and silver. 

III. After this, other fresh charges and indictments 
were brought against him, on the ground that he had 
caused the allies to revolt and had been privy to the 
conspiracy at Fregellae, 1 information of which was 
brought to Rome. But he cleared himself of all 
suspicion, and having established his entire innocence, 
immediately began a canvass for the tribuneship. All 
the men of note, without exception, were opposed to 
him, but so great a throng poured into the city from 
the country and took part in the elections that many 
could not be housed, and since the Campus Martius 
could not accommodate the multitude, they gave in 
their voices from the house-tops and tilings. So far, 
however, did the nobility prevail against the people 
and disappoint the hopes of Caius that he was not 

1 Fregellae revolted, and was destroyed in 125 B.C. 



to? Trpoo'eBoKijo'e, TrpwTOv, d\\a reraprov 
dvayopeuOtjvai. Trapa\a/3wv Be TTJV ap^v eudvs 
rjv uTrdvTwv TT/QWTO?, la")(va)V re ra> \eyeiv, o>? 
aAAo? ovBeis, KOI TOV rrd&ovs avTu> irapprja-Lav 

3 evravda yap e^ aTracr?;? vr/joc^ao-ew? Trepirjye TOV 
avaiJiL^vi}(JK,wv TWV yeyovoTwv KOL TrapaTi- 
TO, ro)i> jrpoyoi'wv, co? etcelvoL JJLZV KOI 
7ro\/jLr]a-av vrrep Tevviciov T/I/O? Brjj 

, real Yatov ISeroviov Odvarov KCLT- 

, OTL t]/iipxM Tropevo/jievM t yop? ou)( 

/ ,, *rf\ p- \ ' i 

fj,ovo<?' \IJLMV be opwvTwv, 

Tiftepiov uXo? orvveKOTTTOV oi)TOL t Kol Sia 

TroXeco? ecrvpero veKpos K KaTrercoXtoi; pi(j)rj- 

4 (TOyLte^O? 6/5 TOJ> TTOTafJiOV OL Be d\i(TKOIJLei'OL TOIV 

0vr}GKov ciKpiTOi. KaiToi rraTpiov ecrnv 
el Ti? X WI> ^' LKr l v OavaTiKi-jV /J.TJ vTratcovei, 

TOVTOV Trpo? ra? Ovpas ewOev e 
dvaKa\el(j9ai rf) crd\7TLyyi, KOI /JLTJ rrpoTepov em- 
ov avru) rou? SiKaard^. OI/TO>? ev\a- 
l 7T(f)v\ay/j,evoi Trepl ra? Kpi(rei^ rjcrav." 
IV. Toiourotv Xoyoi? TrpoavacreKTas TOV 


eV TO) \eyeiv}, Buo i^o/xou? elcre^epe, TOV yue/', et 
dpXpVTOS dcprjpfJTO Tifv dp^rjv 6 Brj^os, ovx 
TOVTW BevTepas dp%rjs [jieTovaiav elvar 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, in. 2-iv. i 

returned first, as he expected, but fourth. But after 
entering upon his office ] he was at once first of all 
the tribunes, since he had an incomparable power in 
oratory, and his affliction gave him great boldness of 
speech in bewailing the fate of his brother. For to 
this subject he would bring the people round on 
every pretext, reminding them of what had happened 
in the case of Tiberius, and contrasting the conduct 
of their ancestors, who went to war with the people 
of Falerii on behalf of Genucius, a tribune whom they 
had insulted, and condemned Caius Veturius to death 
because he was the only man who would not make 
way for a tribune passing through the forum. "But 
before your eyes," he said, " these men beat Tiberius 
to death with clubs, and his dead body was dragged 
from the Capitol through the midst of the city to be 
thrown into the Tiber; moreover, those of his friends 
who were caught were put to death without trial. 
And yet it is ancient usage among us that if anyone 
who is arraigned on a capital charge does not answer 
to his summons, a trumpeter shall go to the door of 
this man's house in the morning and summon him 
forth by sound of trumpet, and until this has been 
done the judges shall not vote on his case. So 
careful and guarded were the men of old in capital 


IV. Having first stirred up the people with such 
words as these (and he had a very loud voice, and 
was most vigorous in his speaking), he introduced 
two laws, one providing that if the people had 
deprived any magistrate of his office, such magistrate 
should not be allowed to hold office a second time ; 

1 For the year 123 B.C., ten years after Tiberius had 
entered upon the same office. 



Be, ei TIS ap%u>v ci/cpiTOv KK6Kr}pv^oi 7ro\irrjv, 
2 tear avrov BiBovTa Kpicriv TW S^aw. TOVTWV 
avTiKpvs o [JLev Mdp/eov 'OfCTaftiov rjTL 

VTTO Ttfteplov T>}? 8ijfJLap')(ias e/crreaovTa, 

' evefyeTO IToTT/XXio?' OI>TO? yap arparrjya)^ 

TOV TlSepiOV <})L\OV$ J;K/1pVJ;6. KOI 

fjiev ov% t/TTocTTa? TIJV KplaLV (j)Vjv ej; ' 
rov Be erepov vo/Jiov Fai'o? auro? 
c^rycra? r^ /jL^rpl K.opvrj\ia BerjOeicrr] 

3 TOI^ 'QfCTafiiov. KOL o Bfjfjbos r)yda9r~i KOL 

pr](T6, ri/jiwv r^v KopvrjXlav ov&ev ifrrov CLTTO TCOV 
iraiScov i} TOV rraTpos, ^9 ye real ^O\K>}V el/cova 
(TTijcras vcrTepov eTreypatye Jt.opvr)\lav fiijTepa 
rpdy%cov. enroll fjLOvev.Tai & Ka ^ T ov Taiov TTO\- 
\a prfTopiKM^ KOL ayopaicos virep avTrjs elp^/j-eva 
?rpo9 Tiva TWV e%0pwv " ^v ydp" <prj, " Kopi'rj- 

4 \iav XofSo/?eZ? TTJV Tifiepioi' TeKovaav" eVel ^6 
Bia/3/3\'Ji/:ivos rjv ei? /j,a\a,Kiav 6 

f * TLva 6e," elrrev, " e^wv Trapprja-iav 

La aeavTov; e're/ee? yap w? erceivy]; rea 
icracri r Pa)j,aioi TT\L(O ovov KLvrv air 

>P>\ T *\\tfO.)5 / \p 

avopos ovcrav r/ ere TOV avopa. TOICLVTIJ fiev rj 
TTLKpia T0)v \o-ywv TJV avrou, KOI TroXXa \afieiv 
etc T0)v yeypafJb/jLevwv eaTiv 6/noLa. 

V. Twv Be vo/Jifov ot9 ela-efape T& B^JLLM %api6- 837 
fievos /cal rca,Ta\vu>v TTJV (Tvy/cXijTov, 6 fjiev TJV 
Kk^pov^iKO^ dvave/jiwv 1 rot? Trevrjcn rrjv Brj/aocriav, 
6 Be cTTpaTKOTLfcos ecrdrJTa re Ke\evcov 

1 avai'f/j.c>}v Coraes and Bekkor, after Du Soul, for the MSS. vfijuav. Ziegler adopts Siavtuav, proposed by Sint. 2 and 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, iv. i -v i 

arid another providing that if any magistrate had 
banished a citizen without trial, such magistrate 
should be liable to public prosecution. Of these laws, 
one had the direct effect of branding with infamy 
Marcus Octavius, who had been deposed from the 
tribunate by Tiberius ; and by the other Popillius 
was affected, for as praetor he had banished the 
friends of Tiberius. Popillius, indeed, without 
standing his trial, fled out of Italy ; but the other law 
was withdrawn by Caius himself, who said that he 
spared Octavius at the request of his mother Cornelia. 
The people were pleased at this and gave then- 
consent, honouring Cornelia no less on account of her 
sons than because of her father ; indeed, in after 
times they erected a bronze statue of her, bearing 
the inscription: "Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi." 
There are on record also many things which Caius said 
about her in the coarse style of forensic speech, when 
he was attacking one of his enemies: " What," said 
he, "dost thou abuse Cornelia, who gave birth to 
Tiberius ? " And since the one who had uttered the 
abuse was charged with effeminate practices, " With 
what effrontery," said Caius, "canst thou compare 
thyself with Cornelia ? Hast thou borne such children 
as she did ? And verily all Rome knows that she 
refrained from commerce with men longer than thou 
hast, though thou art a man." Such was the bitter- 
ness of his language, and many similar examples can 
be taken from his writings. 

V. Of the laws which he proposed by way of 
gratifying the people and overthrowing the senate, 
one was agrarian, and divided the public land among 
the poor citizens ; another was military, and ordained 
that clothing should be furnished to the soldiers at 



teal /j,r}Bev et? rovro T?;? 
v<patpei(T0ai rwv arparevofjiei'wv, KOI veu>repov 
erwv errraKaiBeKa yu./) KaraXeyecrOai crrpariwrrjv 
6 Be av/jL/jia')^t,KO^ lao^n](^ov^ rroLwv rot? rro\irai$ 

2 rou? 'IraXiwra?. 6 Be airi/cbs eTTev&vi^wv rot? 

ayopdv. 6 Be BiKacrriKo 1 ;, w TO 

e T??? TCOV av<yK\v)TiKwv 
jap e/cpivov ra? Bi/cas, /cal Bia rovro <po/3epol 
rw re B/jfAM teal rot? Imreixnv r)crav, o Be rpia- 
rwv iTTTrewv rrpoa Kare\e%ev avrols overt 
teal ra? icpicreis KOIVCLS rwv QaKoalwv 

3 erroi>]cre. rovrov rov VO/JLOV elcrfyepwv rd re a\\a 
\eyerai o-TrovBduat ^La^epovrw^, real rwv rrpo 
avrov rrdv-wv Bij/Aaywywv 77730? rr)V (rvyK\r)Tov 
d<f)opcoi/rcov Kal TO Ka\ov/JLevov KOfJiinov, TT/OWTO? 
Tore cTT/oa^el? e^a> rrpos rrjv dyopdv BrjfjLrjyopfjffai, 
/cal TO \OLTTOV ovro) rroielv e etcewov, fjutcpa rrap- 
y/c\Lcrei teal fteraOecrei cr^^/zaTO? /^eya Trpdyjaa 
Kivr}(ja<$ /cal /AereveyKcbv rporrov riva rr)v rro\ireiai> 
K T^}? dpicrroKparias et? rrjv By/jLOKpariav, co? rwi> 
rroXXcov Beov, ov TJ}? /SouXr}?, (jro^d^eaOaL TOL/? 

VI. 'Evrel 5e ou JJLOVOV e'Be^aro rov VOJJLOV rovrov 
6 Brjjjios, d\\d KciKeivti) rovs Kpivovras K ra)i> 
Lmrewv eBwKe Kara\eai, /jLovap^iKij ns 
eyeyovei irepl avrov, ware Kal r^v 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, v. i-vi. i 

the public cost, that nothing should be deducted 
from their pay to meet this charge, and that no one 
under seventeen should be enrolled as a soldier ; 
another concerned the allies, and gave the Italians 
equal suffrage rights with Roman citizens ; another 
related to the supplies of grain, and lowered the 
market price to the poor ; and another dealt with the 
appointment of judges. This last law most of all 
curtailed the power of the senators ; for they alone 
could serve as judges in criminal cases, and this 
privilege made them formidable both to the common 
people and to the equestrian order. The law of 
Gracchus, however, added to the membership of the 
senate, which was three hundred, three hundred men 
from the equestrian order, and made service as judges 
a prerogative of the whole six hundred. In his efforts 
to carry this law Caius is said to have shown 


remarkable earnestness in many ways, and especially 
in this, that whereas all popular orators before him 
had turned their faces towards the senate and that 
part of the forum called the " comitium," he now set 
a new example by turning towards the other part ot 
the forum as he harangued the people, and continued 
to do this from that time on, thus by a slight deviation 
and change of attitude stirring up a great question, 
and to a certain extent changing the constitution 
from an aristocratic to a democratic form ; for his 
implication was that speakers ought to address 
themselves to the people, and not to the senate. 

VI. The people not only adopted this law, but 
also entrusted to its author the selection of the 
judges who were to come from the equestrian order, 
so that he found himself invested with something 
like monarchical power, and even the senate 



avrov. <rvv/3ov\eve 
Be 0,66 TI TMV e/ceivy TrpeTrovTwv elcnjyov/Aevos' 
2 olov TJV teal TO Trepl TOV airov Boy/^a fjiTpt(orarov 

KOI Ka\\LcrTov, ov 

8' eTreicre Trjv /3ov\}jv 
TOV CTITOV avaire/jL^raL rat? 
TO apyvpLov, Kol 7rpo(T7raLTidcra(T0ai TOV 

/ca aoprjTOv TTOIOVVTCL TIJV p-^ijv rot? 


ev rat? 

3 "Eypa-^re Be /cal 7ro\et? diroLKiSas K7Tfji7r<T0ai 
Kal ra? 0801)5 Troielaflai Kal KaTacrKevd^to-Qai 
<TiTO/36\ia, TOVTOLS aTraai 7rpaTTO/j,vois avTov 

Kal BLOtKijTrjv e^LCTTa^, Kal TT/OO? 

a7TOT/3L'0/UI'05 TWV TOCTOVTCOV Kal Tllj\LKOl)TWV, d\\d 

Kal Oav/^aaTw TLVL Ta^ei Kal TTOVW TMV 

ct>5 fiovov eKacrTOV e^epya^op-evos, coo-re Kal 

Trdvv fJLicrovvTas avTov KOI SeSoiKOTas KTT\IJT- 

Tea6ai TO Bid irdvTwv avvaifjiov Kal 
4 01 Be 7ro\\ol Kal TIJV o-^nv avTrjv 

e'^prrjfjLevov opwi'Tes avTov 7r\r)0o<$ epyo\d/3a)v, 
Te~)(VLTO)V, Trpea/BevTcov, dp^ovTwv, 


l TO (re/jLvov ev TW (f>L\,ctvdp(i)7rcp Bia<pv\dTTwv, 
Kal ve/jiwv avTov TO dpfjiOTTOV oltceltos CKUO-TW, 
^a\TTOv<f aTreBeiKvve (rvKofydinas TOVS (f)o/3epov 
avTov f) (fcopTiKOV 6Xco5 7; (Biatov d7TOKa\ovvTas. 
BeivoTepos rjv ev rat5 o/ifXta5 Kal rat5 



consented to follow his counsel. But when he 
counselled them, it was always in support of measures 
befitting their body ; as, for instance, the very 
equitable and honourable decree concerning the 
grain which Fabius the pro-praetor sent to the city 
from Spain. Cains induced the Senate to sell the 
grain and send the money back to the cities of 
Spain, and further, to censure Fabius for making 
his government of the province intolerably burden- 
some to its inhabitants. This decree brought 
Caius great reputation as well as popularity in the 

He also introduced bills for sending out colonies, 
for constructing roads, and for establishing public 
granaries, making himself director and manager of 
all these undertakings, and showing no weariness in 
the execution of all these different and great enter- 
prises ; nay, he actually carried out each one of them 
with an astonishing speed and power of application, 
as if it were his sole business, so that even those who 
greatly hated and feared him were struck with 
amazement at the powers of achievement and 
accomplishment which marked all that he did. And 
as for the multitude, they were astonished at the 
very sight, when they beheld him closely attended 
by a throng of contractors, artificers, ambassadors, 
magistrates, soldiers, and literary men, with all of 
whom he was on easy terms, preserving his dignity 
while showing kindliness, and rendering properly to 
every man the courtesy which was due from him, 
whereby he set in the light of malignant slanderers 
those who stigmatised him as threatening or utterly 
arrogant or violent. Thus he was a more skilful 
popular leader in his private intercourse with men 



rrpd^eaiv rj TO?? drro rov /?>;/xaro5 \6yois 

VII. 'EcrTrouSacre Be f^dXiara rreplr^i' 
Te ^peta? a//,a /cat rov rrpos %dpiv KCU 

evQelai yap ijyovro Bid TWV 
teal TO jj,ev eaTopwro Trerpa ^effrfj, TO 
Se a/jifjiov ^coyLiacrt vaKTtjs eTTUKi'ovro. 7n/u,7rXa- 
fjievwv Be TMV KOI\WV fcai ^evyvv^evwv <y<pvpai<j 
ocra xi/jLappoi &IKOTTTOV 1} (f> a pay yes, u^fros re TWV 
eKarepwOev laov /cal 7rapd\\T]\ov \af.i(3avovTa)V, 
6fjLa\rjv KOI Ka\i]v o^nv el%e Si o\ov TO epyov. 838 
2 7T/30? Be TouTOi? Sia/jLeTpijaas Kara /JLL\IOV oSbi> 
(TO Be JJLI\IOV OKTCO araBlai/ oXiyov diroBel} 
\t@ivov<s a-i^ela rou /jierpov 
Be \L0ov$ eXarrov a7re%oi' 
0ei' T^}? 6Bov Si&Qrjteev, &>? eli] aSiws Tot? 
ej(ovcnv eTTiftaLveiV air* avrwi> 

avrov teal rrav onovv eTot/i&)9 e^oz^TO? evBeiKvvaflai 
rrpos evvoLav, e<f)r) rrore Bij/jirjyopwv avros alr/jaeiv 
^dpiv, fjv \a/3(*jv /jLev dvrl rravros eeii>, el Be 
drroTi>)(OL, [j,r)Bev Kivoi<> ^n,^ri^oLf>r]<je.iv. rovro 
pi]6ev e'Bo^ev air^ai^ VTrareias elvai, KOI rrpoa- 
BoKiav rracriv a>? ci/jia fjiev vTrareiav, d^a Be 
2 8rjfj,ap')(iav /jierioov rrapea-^ev. evcrrdvrwv Be rwv 
dp^aipecricoi' KO.I fierectjpw ovrwv dirdv- 
Tdlov Qdvviov /cardyayv et? TO ireBLov 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, vi. 4 -vm. 2 

and in his business transactions than in his speeches 
from the rostra. 

VII. But he busied himself most earnestly with 
the construction of roads, laying stress upon utility, 
as well as upon that which conduced to grace and 
beauty. For his roads were carried straight through 
the country without deviation, and had pavements of 
quarried stone, and substructures of tight-rammed 
masses of sand. Depressions were filled up, all inter- 
secting torrents or ravines were bridged over, and 
both sides of the roads were of equal and correspond- 
ing height, so that the work had everywhere an 
even and beautiful appearance. In addition to all this, 
he measured off every road by miles (the Roman mile 
falls a little short of eight furlongs) and planted 
stone pillars in the ground to mark the distances. 
Other stones, too, he placed at smaller intervals 
from one another on both sides of the road, in order 
that equestrians might be able to mount their horses 
from them and have no need of assistance. 

VIII. Since the people extolled him for all these 
services and were ready to show him any token what- 
soever of their good will, he said to them once in a 
public harangue that he was going to ask a favour of 
them, which, if granted, he should value supremely, 
but if it were refused, he should find no fault with 
them. This utterance was thought to be a request 
for a consulship, and led everybody to expect that he 
would sue for a consulship and a tribuneship at the 
same time. But when the consular elections were at 
hand and everybody was on the tip-toe of expecta 
tion, he was seen leading Caius Fannius down into 
the Campus Martius and joining in the canvass for 

VOL. x. H 2I 3 


v exetvqt fiTa TWV 

TOVTO poTrrjv rjvejfce TOO <$>avvla> /jLeyd\,rjv. 
/JLV uTraro?, Fai'o? Be 877/^/3^09 dTTeBei^dr) TO 
BevTepov, ov 7rapayye\\a)V ovBe fjiericov, d\\a rou 

3 'ETrel Be ewpa rrjv fjiv a-vyrc\r)Tov e^Opav avri- 
Kpw$, afji[B\vv 8e rfj TT/JO? avrov evvoia TOV <&dvviov, 


/lev et? Tdpavra /cal KaTrvrjv 
, fca\a)V Be eVl KOivwvia TroXtreta? rou? 
77 Be J3ov\rj Beiaaaa pr) TravTaTrao'iv 
yevrjTcu, fcaivrjv (cal dcrvvrjflrj irelpav eirtjye 
rot? TroXXot? dTrorpOTrrjs, dvTi&yj/Aaycoyovcra Kal 
4 ^api^OfjievT] Trapa TO fteXTiaTOV. rjv yap et? 
TOV Fatov o-vvapxovTcov Aty&o? ApoOcro?, ai/ 


, ijdei 1 Be KOI \6ya) /cat ifkovTw rot? /j,d\iaTa 
TifjLO)/J<vot<> Kal Bvva/jLevots diro TOVTWV evdfjii\\o<$. 

7rl TOVTOV ovv ol jvwpt fAtoraTOi TpeirovTai, 

TrapeKaXovv avrov a-fyacrdai TOV Yatov Kal 

eVl TOV avBpa ava-Tr/vai, /jbrj ftia 
e di'TLKpovovTa rot? 7roXXot9, aXXa 
fjBovrjv apxpVTa Kal ^api^ofjievov vrrep wv 

IX. 'EvrtSoL'? ovv o At/3iO? 66? TavTa T 
TTJV eavTOV BrffjLap^Lav VO/JLOV? eypatyev OVTC 

1 tfQfi Coraes and Bekker retain the old vulgate 

CAIUS GRACCHUS, vm. 2-ix. i 

him along with his friends. This turned the tide 
strongly in favour of Fannius. So Fannius was 
elected consul, and Caius tribune for the second 
time, though he was not a candidate and did not 
canvass for the office ; but the people were eager to 
have it so. 

However, he soon saw that the senate was hostile 
to him out and out, and that the good will of Fannius 
towards him had lost its edge, and therefore again 
began to attach the multitude to himself by other laws, 
proposing to send colonies to Tarentum and Capua, 
and inviting the Latins to a participation in the Roman 
franchise. But the senate, fearing that Gracchus 
would become altogether invincible, made a new 
and unusual attempt to divert the people from him ; 
they vied with him, that is, in courting the favour 
of the people, and granted their wishes contrary 
to the best interests of the state. For one of the 
colleagues of Caius was Livius Drusus, a man who was 
not inferior to any Roman either in birth or rearing, 
while in character, eloquence, and wealth he could 
vie with those who were most honoured and influen- 
tial in consequence of these advantages. To this 
man, accordingly, the nobles had recourse, and 
invited him to attack Caius and league himself with 
them against him, not resorting to violence or coming 
into collision with the people, but administering his 
office to please them and making them concessions 
where it would have been honourable to incur their 

IX. Livius, accordingly, put his influence as tribune 
at the service of the senate to this end, and drew up 
laws which aimed at what was neither honourable 



KO,\WV TWOS OVT Twv \v<n,Te\wv e^ofievovs, d\\a 
ev fjiovov, virep[3a\e(T9ai TOV Tdlov rjSovfj KOL 

TO)V 7TO\\WV, WCTTTep 6V KW/jLW&ia, <T7T6VO'a)V 

/cal SiafjiiX^cofjievos. M KOL 
7roir}crv eavr^v rj avyK\r)TO<$ ov 

rot? TOV Tatov jToX.iTevfJiacnv t a\\a avrov e/ceivov 

ave\elv rj TaTreivwaai TravrdiTacn /3ov\o/jLevr)v. 

2 TOV jjiev <yap airoiKia^ Bvo jpd^ravra KOI rou? 

WV TTO\ITWV elcrdyovTa B^fioKOTTelv 
, Aiftiw Be Ba)Se/ca KCLTOIKI^OVTL /cat Tpicr- 


(Tvve\a^lBdvovTO. KaKeivo) /j-ev, OTL %copav 
rot? nrevTjai Trpocrra^a? CKCKTTW T\elv drrofyopav 
i? TO o~r)jn.6o-iov, &)? KO\aKvovTi TGI/? TroXXoi;? 
aTrrj-^OdvovTo, Aifiios Se KCU TTJV djroffropav TavTrjv 
3 TWV vGLfjLafjievtov dtyaipwv ijpea'Kev aurot?. ert 8e 
6 fjiev rot? A.aTivoL<; i(ro-dfi]<f)iav SiSovs c^vTrei, TOV 
be, OTTO)? fjirjSe eVt GTpaTeias e^fj Tiva ACLTLVWV 

ej3oi]6ovv TM VO/JLW. 

/ecu atTO? o At/3to? del 

e\eyev co? <ypd(f)oi TavTa Ty /3ov\fj SOKOVVTO, KTJ&O- 
4 [levy TWV 7ro\\tov o Srj Kal ^JLOVOV aTro TWV TTO\L- 

TVfjLaTO)V aVTOV Xplj&l/jLOV V7ri'lp')(V. r)fJL6p(*)T6pOV 

yap eo"%e TT^OO? Trjv {3ov\r)V 6 &r//jio$' Kal TOU? 
jvaypi/jLcoTUTov^ avToi) irpoTepov v<popa>/jivov /cat 


nor advantageous ; nay, he had the emulous eager- 
ness of the rival demagogues of comedy to achieve 
one thing, namely, to surpass Caius in pleasing and 
gratifying the people. 1 In this way the senate 
showed most plainly that it was not displeased with 
the public measures of Caius, but rather was desirous 
by all means to humble or destroy the man himself. 
For when Caius proposed to found two colonies, and 
these composed of the most respectable citizens, 
they accused him of truckling to the people ; but 
when Livius proposed to found twelve, and to send 
out to each of them three thousand of the needy 
citizens, they supported him. With Caius, because 
he distributed public land among the poor for which 
every man of them was required to pay a rental into 
the public treasury, they were angry, alleging that 
he was seeking thereby to win favour with the 
multitude ; but Livius met with their approval when 
he proposed to relieve the tenants even from this 
rental. And further, when Caius proposed to bestow 
upon the Latins equal rights of suffrage, he gave 
offence ; but when Livius brought in a bill forbidding 
that any Latin should be chastised with rods even 
during military service, he had the senate's support. 
And indeed Livius himself, in his public harangues, 
always said that he introduced these measures on the 
authority of the senate,, which desired to help the 
common people; and this in fact was the only advan- 
tage which resulted from his political measures. For 
the people became more amicably disposed towards 
the senate ; and whereas before this they had sus- 
pected and hated the nobles, Livius softened and 

1 An allusion to the rival demagogues in the Knights of 



/jLicrovvros %6\V(T teal KareTrpdvve rrjv 

KL-av not ^dKeironira ravrrjv 6 Aifiios, 009 e/c 839 

etcevcov p//.<w/i,ei>09 yva)[JLr)S e TO 
Kal aiea'0ai TO!? 7roXXot9. 

X. Me7t(TT7? Se ra> A/ooOcra) 7Tt<rTt9 evvoias 
TT/JO? roz^ &THJLOV eyivero /ecu SiKaioGvv'ris TO yu,^Sez^ 

eavrov <j)aLV6a0ai <ypd(f)OVTa. 
jap oiKiCTTas erepovs e'^eVe/xTre TWV ir6\ewv 
Kal SioiKija'ea'i ^prujLaTwv ov Trpocrrjet, TOV Taiov 
ra 7T\LcrTa Kal fiey terra rcov TOIOVTWV avry 

2 irpocrTiOivTos. eVel 5e 'Povflpiov TWV crvvap^ov- 
TWV 6^05 OiKi^evOai Kap^rj^ova ypd^ravro^ dvypr)- 

VTTO ^KrjTrlwvos, K\ijpw \a%ct)v 6 Faio9 
et? Ai/Bvrjv eVl TOZ^ KaroiKicrfAOV, en, 
fjLa\\ov eVt/Sa? o A/JOUCTO? aTro^TO? avrov TOV 
Slj/jiov vireX.d^lSave Kal TrpocrrfyeTo, /AdXiara Tat? 

3 Kara rov <$>ov\(3Lov 8taySoXat?. o Se <&ov\/3io$ 
ovros r)V rov Taiov (j)L\o$, Kal avvdp^wv eVt rrjv 



1/7T07TTO9 ^ al T0t9 aA,\O9 Ct)9 

Siarctv&v Kal irapo^vvwv Kpvfya TOU? 
7rpo9 dTToaraatv. ot? dvaTrobeiKrws Kal dve\ey- 
/CTo>9 \eyo/JLevoi<; avros TrpocreriOet rclv-riv o 
^E>ouXy8to9 ou^ vyiaivov(rr]<; ov& elprjviKrjs wv Trpo- 
4 alpea-ews. rovro /jbdXicrra Kare\ve rov Taiov 
a7ro\avovra rov jjuicrov?. /cal 6r ^KIJTTLCOV 6 

CAIUS GRACCHUS, ix. 4 -x. 4 

dissipated their remembrance of past grievances and 
their bitter feelings by alleging that it was the 
sanction of the nobles which had induced him to 
enter upon his course of conciliating the people and 
gratifying the wishes of the many. 

X. But the strongest proof that Livius was well 
disposed towards the people and honest, lay in the 
fact that he never appeared to propose anything for 
himself or in his own interests. For he moved to 
send out other men as managers of his colonies, and 
would have no hand in the expenditure of moneys, 
whereas Caius had assigned to himself most of such 
functions and the most important of them. And 
now Rubrius, one of his colleagues in the tribuneship, 
brought in a bill for the founding of a colony on the 
site of Carthage, which had been destroyed by 
Scipio, and Caius, upon whom the lot fell, sailed off 
to Africa as superintendent of the foundation. In 
his absence, therefore, Livius made all the more 
headway against him, stealing into the good graces 
of the people and attaching them to himself, particu- 
larly by his calumniations of Fulvius. This Fulvius 
was a friend of Caius, and had been chosen a 
commissioner with him for the distribution of the 
public land ; but he was a turbulent fellow, and was 
hated outright by the senators. Other men also sus- 
pected him of stirring up trouble with the allies and 
of secretly inciting the Italians to revolt. These 
things were said against him without proof or inves- 
tigation, but Fulvius himself brought them into 
greater credence by a policy which was unsound and 
revolutionary. This more than anything else was the 
undoing of Caius, who came in for a share of the 
hatred against Fulvius. And when Scipio Africanus 



*A(f)pLKavb<> $; ovSevbs alriov 

Ttjcre KOL cr^/Jietd Tiva TW veKpCo Tr\riywv Kal /5ta? 

ev rot? irepl etcelvov ye- 
ypaTTTai, TO /J.ev irKeldTOV eVl TOP 

T?}? ^ta/SoX?}?, e^Opov ovia teal TTJV rjfjuepav 
eVl TOV y3///xaro? TO> ^KJ]TTIWVL 
5 rffydTo 8e /cal TOV Yatov VTTOVOICL. teal Seii>ov 
epyov CTT' av&p\ rw TT/OCOTO) Kal {jLeyiaTw 
TO\fjLr)dev OVK eVu^e BiK^s ovSe et? 
7rpoij\0ev zvecrTrjcrav yap ol TroXXot Kal 
KaTe\v<rav TYJV Kplaiv inrep TOV Taiov $)o{Bi 
/j,rj 7re/3i7T6Tr/9 Trj aiTia TOV (frovov 

TavTa jmev ovv lyeyovet TrpoTepov. 

XI. 'Ez^ B Ty Ai/3vrj irepl TOV rr)? 
KaToiKiajJiov, T)V 6 Fa to? *\ovvwviav, OTrep etrrlv 
'Hpaiav, a)i>6/JLao~e ) TroXXa /cwXu/x 
Trapa TOV Saifioviov \ejovcriv. ij re yap 

TrvevpaTos dfyapTrd^ovTOs avnjv, TOV 


ra lepa rot? /Sw/xot? eTTiKeiueva BieaKeSaaev dve- 
fjiov 6ve\\a Kal Bieppi,\fr6V virep TOI)? opovs r}? 
yeyevrj/jievijs viroypa(f)f)S, avTovs Be TOL/? 6pov$ 
dveaTraaav 67T6\0ovT<> \VKOL Kal [jiaKpav O)%OVTO 
2 (f)epovT$. ov fjiijv dXXo, Trdvra o~vvTd%a<$ Kal 

6 Fttio? rjuepais eftSo/uUJKOVTa rat? 
7ravfj\06V e/9 'Pcti/jiTjv, Trie^eaOat, TOV 

) TOV kpovaov Trvv6avb ( 
TWV Trpay/jiaTcov T?;? avTOV Tcapovaias 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, x. 4 -xi. 2 

died without any apparent cause, and certain marks 
of violence and blows were thought to be in evidence 
all over his dead body, as I have written in his Life, 1 
most of the consequent calumny fell upon Fulvius, 
who was Scipio's enemy, and had abused him that 
day from the rostra, but suspicion attached itself also 
to Caius. And a deed so monstrous, and perpetrated 
upon a man who was the foremost and greatest 
Roman, went unpunished, nay, was not even so much 
as probed ; for the multitude were opposed to any 
judicial enquiry and thwarted it, because they feared 
that Caius might be implicated in the charge if the 
murder were investigated. However, this had hap- 
pened at an earlier time. 2 

XI. In Africa, moreover, in connection with the 
planting of a colony on the site of Carthage, to 
which colony Caius gave the name Junonia (that is 
to say, in Greek, Heraea), there are said to have 
been many prohibitory signs from the gods. For the 
leading standard was caught by a gust of wind, and 
though the bearer clung to it with all his might, it 
was broken into pieces ; the sacrificial victims lying 
on the altars were scattered by a hurricane and dis- 
persed beyond the boundary-marks in the plan of the 
city, and the boundary-marks themselves were set 
upon by wolves, who tore them up and carried them 
a long way off. Notwithstanding this, Caius settled 
and arranged everything in seventy days all told, 
and then returned to Rome, because he learned that 
Fulvius was being hard pressed by Drusus, and be- 
cause matters there required his presence. For 

1 See the Tiberius Gracchus, ad Jin., and cf. the Romulus, 
xxvii. 4 f. 

2 In 129 B.C., six years before Caius became tribune. 



Aeu/ao9 yap 'OTTt/^fo?, dvrjp 
Svvaros ev rfj ffov~\,fj, rrporepov 
virarelav TrapayyeXXwv, rov Taiov TOP Qdvviov 
Trpoayayovros, eiceivov oe Karap^aipeaidaravro^' 
3 rore e TroXXw^ (Boridovvrwv eVtSo^o? rjv virarev- 
aeiv, vjrarevwv Se KaTa\vdiv TOV Taiov, 

TLVO, rfjs &vvd/ji(D<> avrov fjLapaivo[Jievr)s 
teal rov SIJ/AOV /jbeaTov yeyovoTos TCOV roiovrcov 


elvai /cal rrjv j3ov\rjv vrreifceiv 


XII. 'Ei7rave\0(ov Be Trpwrov /JLCV UK rov Tla\a- 
riov /jLru>/cr]o~V e/5 rov VTTO ryv dyopav roirov 

KOI Trevijrayv (Twe/Baivev olicelv eVeira rwv 
e^eOt^Ke roL/9 Xot7rou9 009 cird^ayv 
avrois. o^Xov Se Travra^odeif avrq> 

rov virarov 

2 rovs aXXof9 7r\rjv 'Pai/jLaicov aTravras. yevo/Jievov 840 
Se Kijpvy/jiaros drflovs KCLI d\\OKorov, 

rwv o-i>j,j,(t)V jLr6 rwv (>ia)V ev 

Trepl r9 rj/J-epas efceivas, dvregeQ^Kev 6 

Karrfyopwv rov VTrdrov, /cal ro?9 

ov IJL^V e{3oijQr](Tv, aXXa opwv eva rcov 
avrov Kal crvvi]6cov \KOfj,vov VTTO ra>v v 
rwv rov Qavviov, iraprfkOe Kal ov 
elre rrjv 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, xi. 2-xn. 2 

Lucius Opimius, a man of oligarchical principles 
and influential in the senate, who had previously 
failed in a candidacy for the consulship (when Caius 
had brought forward Fannius and supported his can- 
vas for the office), 1 now had the aid and assistance 
of many, and it was expected that he would be con- 
sul, and that as consul he would try to put down 
Caius, whose influence was already somewhat on the 
wane, and with whose peculiar measures the people 
had become sated, because the leaders who courted 
their favour were many and the senate readily 
yielded to them. 

XII. On returning to Rome, in the first place 
Caius changed his residence from the Palatine hill 
to the region adjoining the forum, which he thought 
more democratic, since most of the poor and lowly 
had come to live there ; in the next place, he pro- 
mulgated the rest of his laws, intending to get the 
people's vote upon them. But when a throng came 
together from all parts of Italy for his support, the 
senate prevailed upon the consul Fannius to drive out 
of the city all who were not Romans. Accordingly, 
a strange and unusual proclamation was made, to the 
effect that none of the allies and friends of Rome 
should appear in the city during those days ; where- 
upon Caius published a counter edict in which he de- 
nounced the consul, and promised the allies his sup- 
port, in case they should remain there. He did not, 
however, give them his support, but when he saw one 
of his comrades and guest-friends dragged off by the 
lictors of Fannius, he passed by without giving him 
any help, either because he feared to give a proof 
that his power was already on the decline, or because 

1 See chapter viii. 2. 



eire /u?) 3oi'A6//-cZ'09, co? e\eyei>, d\!fi/j.a%ia<> auro? 
cazi crv/j.7T\OKrj<; dp%d? ZIJ 

3 Ei'Z'eTi^e Se avra) cai TT/SO? roi/9 

ev 0/577; 762't'cr^at om TOiavnji 1 ai-iav. e 
o 5/}//o? 6eacrOaL fj.ovofjid'^ov^ ev dyopa, Kal TWV 
O'L TrXeTcTTOi Oewprj-^pia KVK\W Kara- 
J;fj.icr8ovi'. Tavra 6 Faio? K\Vi' 
avrovs Kadaipelv, OTTCO^ ot vrei'J/re? e TCOI^ TOTTUIV 

4 K6Li'Ct)r d/j-tcrdi OedcracrdaL ^vvwvrai. fj-tfievos Be 

ava/*iva<i Ti]i> irpo T?}? ^ea? i^u/cra, 
i>LTWv ocroi>? el^ez^ pyo\dj3ov$ v$' 
eavrw TrapaXafiaiv, rd decopijrjjoia KaOel\e KOI 

TOTTOV e> co 

7ri]<Tev. K TOV-TOV Kal TTJV Tp'iTrjv e&o^e 
d(f)T}pjja0ai, ^>;($(L>V fj.ev avru) 7r\eia"Ttov yevo- 
/j,i'0di>, dCLKco? 8e Kal KaKovpyws TWV 
TWV rroLrjTafjL^i'wv 7i]v dvayopevcriv Kal 
5 d\\d ravra fj,ev d^(^tcrf3}JTJ](Tii' el^ev. 
ov p.erpiu>^ UTTOTV^WI', Kal 77/30? ye TOL><? 
e7reyye\Mi>-ras avTw \eyerai Opacrvrepov TOV Se- 
tLTrelv co? ^Lap^oviov yeXmra yeXaxrti', ov 
oaov avrols CJ/COTO? e/c TCOV avrov 



he was unwilling, as he said, by his own acts to 
afford his enemies the occasions which they sought 
fora conflict at close quarters. 

Moreover, it chanced that he had incurred the 
anger of his colleagues in office, and for the follow- 
ing reason. The people were going to enjoy an 
exhibition of gladiators in the forum, and most of 
the magistrates had constructed seats for the show 
round about, and were offering them for hire. Caius 
ordered them to take down these seats, in order 
that the poor might be able to enjoy the spectacle 
from those places without paying hire. But since 
no one paid any attention to his command, he waited 
till the night before the spectacle, and then, taking 
all the workmen whom he had under his orders in 
public contracts, he pulled down the seats, and when 
day came he had the place all clear for the people. 
For this proceeding the populace thought him a 
man, but his colleagues were annoyed and thought 
him reckless and violent. It was believed also that 
this conduct cost him his election to the tribunate 
for the third time, since, although he got a majority 
of the votes, his colleagues were unjust and fraudu- 
lent in their proclamation and returns. This, how- 
ever, was disputed. But he took his failure overmuch 
to heart, and what is more, when his enemies were 
exulting over him, he told them, it is said, with more 
boldness than was fitting, that they were laughing 
with sardonic laughter, and were not aware of the 
great darkness that enveloped them in consequence 
of his public measures. 1 

1 Blass compares the laughter of the doomed suitors in 
Odyssey, xx. 346 ff. the fatuous smile of men whose fate is 
sealed, though they are unaware of it. 



cravTes virarov TMV VO/JL^V TroXXoi/? Bieypa^ov teal 
TTJV Kap%r)B6vo<; GKIVOW Sidra^iv, epeOi^ovres TOV 
Tdlov, a)? av aiTiav 0/07?}? Trapaa^cav dvaipeOelr), 
TOV fjbev Trp&TOv %povov e/caprepeL, TWV $e <f>i\a)v 
teal /j,d\HTTa TOV <&ov\(3iov Trapo%vvovTo<s wp/jLrjcre 
rrd\iv wvdryeiv TOU? dvTiTa^ofjievovs 7T/)O9 TOV 
2 vTrarov. evravda teal TTJV /j,r)Tepa \eyovaiv avTw 
crvaTacridcrai, /JLKrOovfjLevrjv CLTTO rr}? evr)<t Kpv(f>a 
teal 7r/A7rovcrav et? 'Pco/zryi/ avbpas, o>5 Brj 6epi- 
Tavra yap ev rot? eTTKrroXiois avT^ yvvy- 
<ye>ypd<j)0ai ?rpo? TOV vlov. eTepoi Be xal 
rrdvv TT}? Ko/3^r/Xta? Sva")epaivova-r)s raOra TrpaT- 

Ht S' ovv e/J,e\\ov rj/Aepa TOUS VO/JLOVS \ixreiv ol 

TOV 'OTTlfjilOV, KaTL\rj7TTO fJLZV V7TO d/uL(j)OTe- 

pwv ewOev evOvs TO KaTrercoXtoi', QVGCLVTQS Be TOV 
TWV vTrrjpeTwv rt? avTOv Koii'TO? 'AvruX- 
Bia<pepa)v eTepwcre TO, o- t jr\d f y'%va TT/JO? TOL>? 

7Tpl TOV <&OV\(BiOV et7T6* " AoT6 TOTTOV djadoiS, 

tcatcol TroXtrat." Tives Be <j)acnv d^a TTJ <J>a)vfj 
teal TOV ftpa^iova ^vfjivov olov e^>' vftpei 
ovTa Trapeveyrceiv. aTfoQvr]<JKi <yovv 
evdit? o 'AvruXXfo? e/cei [AeydXois ypa<f>eiois 
tcevTOV/jLevos, eV avT& TOVTM TreTroirjaOai \eyo- 
fj,evois. teal TO fjiev 7r\f)0o<? BiTapd%@r) TTyoo? TOV 
<f>6vov, evavTia Be TOV<? rjye/jLovas ea^e BidOecris. 
6 juiev ydp Fai'o? r/^^ero teal teatetos e\eye TOV<; 



XIII. The enemies of Caius also effected the 
election of Opimius as consul, and then proceeded to 
revoke many of the laws which Caius had secured and 
to meddle with the organization of the colony at 
Carthage. This was by way of irritating Caius, that 
he might furnish ground for resentment, and so be 
got rid of. At first he endured all this patiently, but 
at last, under the instigations of his friends, and 
especially of Fulvius, he set out to gather a fresh body 
of partisans for opposition to the consul. Here, we 
are told, his mother also took active part in his 
seditious measures, by secretly hiring from foreign 
parts and sending to Rome men who were ostensibly 
reapers ; for to this matter there are said to have 
been obscure allusions in her letters l to her son. 
Others, however, say that Cornelia was very much 
displeased with these activities of her son. 

Be that as it may, on the day when Opimius and 
his supporters were going to annul the laws, the 
Capitol had been occupied by both factions since 
earliest morning, and after the consul had offered 
sacrifice, one of his servants, Quintus Antyllius, as he 
was carrying from one place to another the entrails 
of the victims, said to the partisans of Fulvius : 
" Make way for honest citizens, ye rascals ! " Some 
say, too, that along with this speech Antyllius bared 
his arm and waved it with an insulting gesture. At 
any rate he was killed at once and on the spot, stabbed 
with large writing styles said to have been made for 
just such a purpose. The multitude were completely 
confused by the murder, but it produced an opposite 
state of mind in the leaders of the two factions. 
Caius was distressed, and upbraided his followers for 

1 Cf. Cicero, Brutus, 58, 211. 



rrepl avTov co? alriav BeofMevois Trdkai Kaff 1 eavrwv 
Tot9 X@poLS BeBwKoTas, 6 Be 'O-Tri/^09 wcnrep 
evB6(TL/j.ov \a,3(i)V 7rrjpro KOI Trapw^vve TOV Brj/jiov 
7rl TTJV a/j,uvav. 

XIV. Kttl TOT6 fJLeV 6fJ,/3pOV ^GVO^kvOV Sl6\l>- 

a/j,a Be rj/jiepa TTJV fjiev /BovXijv 6 inraros 
evBov e^pr) /jidr L^ev ] , erepoi Be TO TOV 
crcu/Lta yv/Jivov eVt tc\ivris TrpoOe/jLevoi 
BS dyopas Trapa TO @ov\evTtjpiov errLTtjBe^ Trape- 
KOfJLi^ov, ol/jicayfj ^paijjievoL KOI Opqvw, yiyvwcrKOV- 
TO? p,ev TOV 'OTTI/JLLOV TO, rrpaTTo/Aeva, TrpocrTroiov- 841 
pevov Be Oavfjid^eLV, wcrre Kal rou? {3ov\evTas 

2 7rpoe\@eiv. KaTaTeBelar]^ Be T^? K\lvr}<i et? fj^eaov 
ol /JLev ea")eT\La%ov a>? eVt Beivw real /j,eyd\(p 
rrdBei, rot? Be TroXXo?? eTrrjei fJLio~elv KOI 7rpo/3d\- 
\eo-0ai TOI/? oXiyapxitcovs, co? Tiftepiov /j,ev 

ev KaTrercoXtco (fioveiKTavTes avTol Brj- 
v oma KOI TOV veitpov Trpocre^eftaXov, 6 B* 

3 vTTijpeT'ijs 'AvTii\\ios, ov BiKaia fjiev laws 

0$, Trjv Be 7r\i(TTrjv OLTIOV et9 TO TraOelv 
ev djopa 7rpoKiTai, Kal 
/^OL/XT) dprfvovcra Kal av 
ov dvOpwTrov, eVl TW TOV eVi \eLTrofJievov 
dve\elv TMV TOV Bijpov Kr)Bo/jLeva)v. K TOVTOV 
7rd\iv et9 TO /3ov\evT^piov a 
cravTO Kal TrpocreTajfav 'OTriyutw TW 

Tro\iv 6V&)9 BvvaiTO, Kal KaTaXveiv TOVS 

4 'E/cetVou Be TrpoeLTrbvTos eirl TO, 6VXa 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, xm. 4-xiv. 4 

having given their enemies ground for accusing them 
which had long been desired ; but Opimius, as though 
lie had got something for which he was waiting, was 
elated, and urged the people on to vengeance. 

XIV. A shower of rain fell just then, and the 
assembly was dissolved ; but early next morning the 
consul called the senate together indoors and pro- 
ceeded to transact business, while others placed the 
body of Antyllius without covering upon a bier, and 
carried it, as they had agreed to do, through the forum 
and past the senate-house, with wailings and lament- 
ations. Opimius knew what was going on, but pre- 
tended to be surprised, so that even the senators went 
out into the forum. After the bier had been set down 
in the midst of the throng, the senators began to in- 
veigh against what they called a heinous and mons- 
trous crime, but the people were moved to hatred and 
abuse of the oligarchs, who, they said, after murder- 
ing Tiberius Gracchus on the Capitol with their own 
hands, tribune that he was, had actually flung away 
his dead body besides ; whereas Antyllius, a mere 
servant, who perhaps had suffered more than he 
deserved, but was himself chiefly to blame for it, had 
been laid out in the forum, and \vas surrounded bv the 

Roman senate, which shed tears and shared in the 
obsequies of a hireling fellow, to the end that the sole 
remaining champion of the people might be done 
away with. Then the senators went back into the 
senate-house, where they formally enjoined upon the 
consul Opimius to save the city as best he could, 1 
and to put down the tyrants. 
The consul therefore ordered the senators to take 

1 The formal decree of martial law : consul videret ne quid 
respublica detriment,! caperet (Cicero, In Cat. i. 2, 4). 



crvyK\r)TiKov$, KOI TWV 

BOVTOS dyeiv ewOev ot/cera? Bvo 
o fjiev <&ov\f3io<s dvTLirapecTKevd- 
ero KOL crvvrjyev o^Xov, 6 Be Fai'o? e/c TT}? dyopas 
direp^ofjievo^ <TTTJ KCLTO, TOV rov 7rarp09 di'Spidvra, 

KOI 7TO\VV ^pOVOV /jL/3\^aS 6t9 CLVTQV OV$eV <f)- 

, Sa/cpvaas $e KCU (nevd^as dirgei. rovro 

TWV i&OVTWV OlKTelpat, TOV YdlOV 7Trj\Oe' 

KOI Katciaavres avrovs a>? e^/faraXetTro^re? TOV 
civBpa teal TrpoSiSovTes rjKov eVI TTJV olfciav Kal 
TrapevvKTepevov errl TWV Ovpwv, ov% o/^otco? rot? 
QovXftiov (f)v\aTTov(Tiv. e/ceivot, fiev <ydp ev 
Kal aXaXay/^ot? TrivovTes Kal dpauvvo- 

aVTOV TOV <&OV\(3iOV 7Tpd)TOV 

Kal TroAAa (fropTiKws irap ffkiKiav 
6 (frOeyyo/jievov Kal TrpaTrovTOS* oi Be rrepl TOV 
Ydiov, ft)? eVt (TVfL(>opa Koivfi TT}? Trar/otSo? fjcrv- 
yiav ayovTes Kal TrepLcrKOTrovfjievoL TO fjie\\ov, eV 
fjiepei (^uXaTTO^re? Kal dvaTravo/nevoi Sirjyov. 

XV. f/ Ayua Be rfftepa TOV [lev Qov\(3iov K TOV 
TTOTOV KaOevBovTa fio\i<; eireyeipavTe^ a)Tr\t,ovTO 
Tcepl Trjv oiKiav avTov \a(f)vpois, a FaXara? 
ore viraTevev el\7)<j)ei, Kal //-era- TroXXr}? 
cnret\r)<; Kal Kpavyfjs c^copovv /caTaXryv|ro/xe^ot TOV 
'AftevTLVov \6(f>ov. o Be Fato? QTC\i<iaaQai 
OVK r)0e\r}crv, aXX* wo-irep et? dyopdv ev 
2 Trpoyei, fJiiKpov VTre^ayo-fjLevos ey\eipi^>tov, 

Be avTO) trepl ra? Ovpas ri yvvr) irpoaTreuovaa Kal 
TrepiTTTv^acra TWV ^eipwv TTJ /u.ev avTov eKelvov, Trj 
Be TO TraiBiov, " OVK eirl TO flr/pd ere," eiirev, "w 
Fate, TrpoTre/jiTra) B^ap^ov, a>? TrpoTepov, Kal 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, xiv. 4 -xv. 2 

up arms, and every member of the equestrian order 
was notified to bring next morning two servants fully 
armed ; Fulvius, on the other hand, made counter 
preparations and got together a rabble, but Caius, as 
he left the forum, stopped in front of his father's 
statue, gazed at it for a long time without uttering a 
word, then burst into tears, and with a groan departed. 
Many of those who saw this were moved to pity 
Caius ; they reproached themselves for abandoning 
and betraying him, and went to his house, and spent 
the night at his door, though not in the same manner 
as those who were guarding Fulvius. For these 
passed the whole time in noise and shouting, drink- 
ing, and boasting of what they would do, Fulvius him- 
self being the first to get drunk, and saying and 
doing much that was unseemly for a man of his years ; 
but the followers of Caius, feeling that they faced a 
public calamity, kept quiet and were full of concern 
for the future, and passed the night sleeping and 
keeping watch by turns. 

XV. When day came, Fulvius was with difficulty 
roused from his drunken sleep by his partisans, who 
armed themselves with the spoils of war about his 
house, which he had taken after a victory over the 
Gauls during his consulship, and with much threaten- 
ing and shouting went to seize the Aventine hill. 
Caius, on the other hand, was unwilling to arm him- 
self, but went forth in his toga, as though on his way 
to the forum, with only a short dagger on his person. 
As he was going out at the door, his wife threw her- 
self in his way, and with one arm round her husband 
and the other round their little son, said : " Not to 
the rostra, O Caius, do I now send thee forth, as 
formerly, to serve as tribune and law-giver, nor yet to 



fv, ov<? errl TTO^C/JLOV evBo^ov, 'Lva JJLOL /cal rra- 


#09, r/XXa rot9 liijBepLov (frovevcriv v7ro/3d\\L<; 


?} Spdcrys, 777209 ov)V Se rot? KOIVOIS 6'(eAo? a 

3 KGKpdrrjKev rj&i] rd ^eipw (3ia KOI cn^pw ra? 

TrpdrrovcTiv. el Trepl Nofiavriav 6 cro9 
9 eTre&ev, vTroaTrovSos av JUJLLV direSoOr) 
vvv 8e tcra)? Kaju> TToraf^ou TIVOS f) Oa- 
[teens eaofiau (frfjvaL Trore TO CTOJ^ cr<wyu,a 

(f)pOVpOVflVOV. TL jap r) VOfJLOLS TL 7TK7TOV Tf 

4 $eo?9 /xera TOV Tiftepiov cfrovov; ' ToiavTa r?}9 

aTpe/Jia ra9 7repi{3o\d<; 
o Fai'09 e 

dvav&os, lAe^pi ov \iTroO vpriaaaav avTrjv 
ol OepaTTOVTes dpdfjievoi 77/009 Kpd<rcrov (D 

TOV d$6\(f)OV KO/jli^OVTeS. 

XVI. 'O ^e 4 ) ouX^O9, ft)9 eyevovTO 
dOpooi, TreicrOels vrro TOV Tatov Tre/jLTrei TWV vlwv 
TOV vecoTepov %ovTa KTjpvfceiov et9 dyopdv. rjv Be 842 
/eaXXt<7T09 o veaviaKOS 0(f)@f)vai' KOL Tore /caTa- 
<rra9 Kocr/j,ia)<; real /uer' albovs SebaKpu/jLevos erroir)- 


OVK ar;8co9 rrpos ra9 SiaXvcreis el^ov 6 Be 'O?rt- 
ov SL dyye\.a)V e^rf ^ptjvaL TrelOeiv rrjv 
aXXa KCiTaftdvTas 0)9 vrrevOvvovs 
7roXtra9 eVi fcpiffiv KOI TrapaSovTas avTOvs OVTWS 
7rapaiTLcr0ai rrjv opyijv TW Be /aeipaKLa) real 
Birjyopevcrev errl TOVTOIS KaTikrai 7rd\iv rj fj,rj 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, xv. 2 -xvi. 2 

a glorious war, where, shouldst thou die (and all men 
must die), thou wouldst at all events leave me an 
honoured sorrow ; but thou art exposing thyself to 
the murderers of Tiberius, and thou doest well to go 
unarmed, that thou mayest suffer rather than inflict 
wrong ; but thy death will do the state no good. 
The worst has at last prevailed ; by violence and the 
sword men's controversies are now decided. If thy 
brother had only fallen at Numantia, his dead body 
would have been given back to us by terms of truce ; 
but as it is, perhaps I too shall have to supplicate 
some river or sea to reveal to me at last thy body in 
its keeping. Why, pray, should men longer put faith 
in laws or gods, after the murder of Tiberius?" 
While Licinia was thus lamenting, Caius gently freed 
himself from her embrace and went away without a 
word, accompanied by his friends. Licinia eagerly 
sought to clutch his robe, but sank to the ground and 
lay there a long time speechless, until her servants 
lifted her up unconscious and carried her away to the 
house of her brother Crassus. 

XVI. When all were assembled together, Fulvius. 
yielding to the advice of Caius, sent the younger of 
his sons with a herald's wand into the forum. The 
young man was very fair to look upon ; and now, in a 
decorous attitude, modestly, and with tears in his eyes, 
he addressed conciliatory words to the consul and the 
senate. Most of his audience, then, were not disin- 
clined to accept his terms of peace ; but Opimius 
declared that the petitioners ought not to try to per- 
suade the senate by word of messenger ; they should 
rather come down and surrender themselves for trial, 
like citizens amenable to the laws, and then beg for 
mercy ; he also told the young man plainly to come 



3 Karievai. Fai'o? pev ovv, 0*9 fyacnv, e/3ov\eTo 

Kal TreiOeiv ryv o-vyK\rjrov' ovBevbs Be 
\\wv (TvyxwpovvTOs, av0i$ eTre/jbtyev 6 $>ov\- 
rov TralBa Bia\e^6/jLevov VTrep avrwv O/JLOICL 
rot? Trporepois. 6 Se 'O-Trt/uo? cnrevSwv 
avva'fyai TO f^ev /AeipaKiov evQvs crvveXa/Be 
Trape&wrcev et? fyvXaKijv, rot? 8e irepl rbv 
eiryei /zera TTO\\WV OTrXtrw^ Kal ro^orwv 

4 O'L /jid\LcrTa /3aXXo^re? aurou? Kal KararpavfjiarL- 

crvveTapa^av. yevo/jievr)? Be TT}? rpOTrfjs o 
to? el'? ri (3a\avelov 1} /zeA,>; /Jievov Kara- 
KOL fj,ra fJLLKpbv dvevpeOels KaT 
a rov irpevftvrepov Tra^So?, 6 8e Fato? 

VTT ovSevbs /za^o/zei/o?, aXXa Sv<ravacr%6Ttov 
rot? yivofJievoL^ dve^coprjcrev 6t? TO TT)? 'A^Teyu-tSo? 
iepov Kei Be ^ov\6^evo<^ eavrov dve\elv VTTO rwv 
TTKnordrcov eraipwv Ka)\vdrj, IIo^Trwiaou Kal 
\iKivvlov Trapovres <ydp ouroi TO re 

5 \ovro Kal 7rd\iv (frevyeiv CTrfjpav avTov. evOa 
\eyerai Ka9ecr0e\s et? 70^1^ Kal Ta? 

TT/QO? TT)I> ^eoi^ errev^acrOai, rbv 
dvrl TT}? d^apKTTia^ e/celvr)? Kal 

TravaacrOai Bov\evovra' fyavepws yap 

OL 7T\L(7TOi /JLT{3d\\OVTO 

XVII. QevyovTi B* ovv rw Yatw TCOV 
7TL(j)po/jLevci)v Kal Kara\a/ui/3av6vT(0v irepl rrjv 
%v\ivrjv ye(j)vpav, ol /jiev Bvo <f>i\oi TT po%a) pelv 
eKeivov K\vcravTS avrol TOU? BiwKovras vjre- 
(TTijcrav Kal ^a\o^voi Trpb rr/s ye(f>vpa<; ovBeva 
2 TraprJKav ea>? cnreBavov. TW Be Yatw crvvefyevyev 


CAIUS GRACCHUS, xvi. 3-xvn. 2 

back again on these terms or not come back at all. 
Caius, accordingly, as we are told, was willing to come 
and try to persuade the senate ; but no one else 
agreed with him, and so Fulvius sent his son again to 
plead in their behalf as before. But Opimius, who 
was eager to join battle, at once seized the youth and 
put him under guard, and then advanced on the party 
of Fulvius with numerous men-at-arms and Cretan 
archers. And it was the archers who, by discharging 
their arrows and wounding their opponents, were most 
instrumental in throwing them into confusion. After 
the rout had taken place, Fulvius fled for refuge into 
an unused bath, where he was shortly discovered and 
slain, together with his elder son. Caius, however, 
was not seen to take any part in the battle, but in 
great displeasure at what was happening he withdrew 
into the temple of Diana. There he was minded to 
make away with himself, but was prevented by his 
most trusty companions, Pomponius and Licinius ; for 
they were at hand, and took away his sword, and 
urged him to flight again. Then, indeed, as we are 
told, he sank upon his knees, and with hands 
outstretched towards the goddess prayed that the 
Roman people, in requital for their great ingratitude 
and treachery, might never cease to be in servitude ; 
for most of them were manifestly changing sides, now 
that proclamation of immunity had been made. 

XVII. So then, as Caius fled, his foes pressed hard 
upon him and were overtaking him at the wooden 
bridge over the Tiber, but his two friends bade him 
go on, while they themselves withstood his pursuers, 
and, fighting there at the head of the bridge, would 
suffer no man to pass, until they were killed. Caius 
had with him in his flight a single servant, by name 



ofCTl]S OVOfjia loKpaTIIS, 7rvTO)V flV, 

cv dfjii\\r), 7rapa><e\vo/j,V(0v, ovBevo? Be ftorj- 
OOVVTOS, oi'Be 'tinrov aiTov/jievy Trapacr^eiv e0e\ij- 
cravTOS' 7reKivTO yap eyyvs 01 BicoKOVTes. o Be 
(f)OdveL fJLLKpov e/9 iepov aXcro? 'ILpLvvvwv Kara- 
<fivyu)v, Kafcei Bia^Oeiperai,, rov QiXoKparovs ave- 
3 XOZ^TO? exelvov, elra kawrov eTricr^dPavTOs. co? Be 

eviol aaiv, ajioreoi .ev VTTO 

/re?, TOV Be OepdnovTos TOV 
7repi/3a\6i>TOS ovBels exeivov TjBvvr/Ojj 
TrpoTepov rj TOVTOV VTTO TroXXon' TTCUO- 
/jLevov dvaip0y)i'ai. TTJV Be K(>a\r)V TOV Ta'iov 
\eyovaiv d\\ov /Aev aTCOKo^fai Kai KO/JLL^CIV, 
d<pe\eo~0ai Be TOVTOV <j)i\ov 'OTTL/J-LOV TIVCL, STT- 
TOV/jLOV\i]iov rjv yap irpoKKripvyp.ei ov ev dp^rj 
r/}? /^a^>7? laoaTacnov ^pvai'ov TOLS dveveyKovcrt 

4 TTJV Ta'iov Kal <&ov\{3iov K(f)a\t)v. avr}V^0r} Be 
VTTO TOV ^,e7TTOv/j.ov\r/iov 7repL7T7rap/j,evrj BopaTi 


Oelcra Xir^oa? eTTTaKaiBeKa Kal oijjtaipov e'tXtcvcre, 
TOV %7rTOv/u.ov\r)iov Kal rrepl TOVTO /jtiapov yevo- 
/jievov Kal KaKovpy)jo~avTos' e^eX&jy yap TOV eyKe- 
(>a\ov veT))^e /^oXv/BBov. 01 Be TOV <&OV\$LOV 
Tt/v K(j)a\^v KO/j.icravTS (//crai^ yap TWV dcrrj/jLO- 

5 Tepa)v^) ovBev eXaftov, TCL Be &a)/jiaTa Kal TOVTWV 

a\\o)v et? TOV TTOTa/abv eppifyrj, Tpia- 
L0)v dvaipedevT(t)v Kal Ta? overlap avTwv 
aTreBoi'TO 7T/009 TO Brijj.6o-iov. aTreiTrav Be TrevOeiv 
Tat? yvvaii, TJJV Be Ta'iov Ajticivviav Kal TT)? 

dTreo-Tep^crav. u>/j.oTaTOv Be Trpoaetpyd- 343 
ToO <&ov\/3iov TOV vearrepov viov, OVTC 



Philocrates; and though all the spectators, as at a race, 
urged Caius on to greater speed, not a man came to 
his aid, or even consented to furnish him with a horse 
when he asked for one, for his pursuers were pressing 
close upon him. He barely succeeded in escaping 
into a sacred grove of the Furies, and there fell by 
the hand of Philocrates, who then slew himself upon 
his master. According to some writers, however, 
both were taken alive by the enemy, and because the 
servant had thrown his arms about his master, no one 
was able to strike the master until the slave had first 
been dispatched by the blows of many. Someone 
cut off the head of Caius, we are told, and was carry- 
ing it along, but was robbed of it by a certain friend 
of Opimius, Septimuleius ; for proclamation had been 
made at the beginning of the battle that an equal 
weight of gold would be paid the men who brought 
the head of Caius or Fulvius. So Septimuleius stuck 
the head of Caius on a spear and brought it to Opim- 
ius, and when it was placed in a balance it weighed 
seventeen pounds and two thirds, since Septimuleius, 
besides showing himself to be a scoundrel, had also 
perpetrated a fraud ; for he had taken out the brain 
and poured melted lead in its place. But those who 
brought the head of Fulvius were of the obscurer sort, 
and therefore got nothing. The bodies of Caius and 
Fulvius and of the other slain were thrown into the 
Tiber, and they numbered three thousand ; their 
property was sold and the proceeds paid into the 
public treasury. Moreover, their wives were for- 
bidden to go into mourning, and Licinia, the wife of 
Caius, was also deprived of her marriage portion. 
Most cruel of all, however, was the treatment of the 
younger son of Fulvius, who had neither lifted a hand 



vrap/jievov ovr ev rot? pa^o/nevcus yev- 
/jivov, a\\a 7rl cnrovBds e.\6bvra rrpb TT}? /j,d%r)<> 
6 (rv\\a{36vre<; /col /jLerd rrjv fid^v dve\6vrS. ov 
fjLrjv a\\a real rourov KOI rwv a\\wv aTrdvrcov 
fjid\\ov r)viacre TOJ)? TroXXoi/? TO 
'Ofiovoias lepov VTTO rov 'OTTifii 
yap 86fcei teal fjieya fypovelv KCU rponov TIVCL 



rives rov crrl'xpv rovrov ""Epyov d 
vabv b/jiovoias rroielS 
XVIII. Ouro? aevroi TTOWTO? eEovcria 

. * 

ropo? ev VTrareia ^prfcrdfjievo^ KCU 

7rl Tio"i\LOi<> TroXtrai? Fdiov 

KOI <&ov\!3iov QXaKKOV, wv o IJLCV TJV VTrarifcbs /col 
b Be r^? KaO* avrbv r)\iKias dpeTrj 

7rp(i)TVK(t)<i, OUK a7T6<7^TO K\OTTr)S, 

d\\d TrefjifyOeis a>? 'lovyovpflav rbv No/xa8a IT pea - 
j3evrr)S Sie(f)0dp?] %prnj,axnv VTT* avrov' KOI Bi/cfjv 
6<})\(i)i> ala^iaTrjv S(apoBofcias ev art/ua Kareyrj- 
pacre fjuaovfjievos KOI 7rp07ni\aKi6[jivo<; VTTO rov 
2 Brjfjiov, Trap 1 avrd /j,ev rd Trpa^Oevra raTreivov 
yevopevov /cal a-varaX-evTOS, b\iya) Se varepov 
avTOS ocrov el-^ev i/jiepov /cal irbOov rwv 
-wv. clicbvas re yap avrwv dvabei^avre.? ev 
q) rrpovriOevro, /cal TOU? TOTTOU? ev ol? e^>o- 
vevOrjaav d<f>iepa)(Tavr<; drrrjp^ovro JJLCV wv wpai 
(frepovai irdvrwv, e'Ovov Be /cal /cad' rjfjiepav TTO\- 
\ol /cal TTpoaemrrrov, wcrrrep 0ea)v iepols e7ri<f>oi- 

XIX. Kal fievroi /cal rj iopvi]\La \eyerai rd 

CAIUS GRACCHUS, xvn. 5~xix. i 

against the nobles nor been present at the fighting, 
but had come to effect a truce before the battle and 
had been arrested ; after the battle he was slain. 
However, what vexed the people more than this or 
anything else was the erection of a temple of Concord 
by Opimius 1 ; for it was felt that he was priding him- 
self and exulting and in a manner celebrating a 
triumph in view of all this slaughter of citizens. 
Therefore at night, beneath the inscription on the 
temple, somebody carved this verse : " A work of 
mad discord produces a temple of Concord." 

XVIII. And yet this Opimius, who was the first 
consul to exercise the power of a dictator, and put to 
death without trial, besides three thousand other 
citizens, Caius Gracchus and Fulvius Flaccus, of whom 
one had been consul and had celebrated a triumph, 
while the other was the foremost man of his genera- 
tion in virtue and reputation this Opimius could 
not keep his hands from fraud, but when he was sent 
as ambassador to Jugurtha the Numidian was bribed 
by him, and after being convicted most shamefully 
of corruption, he spent his old age in infamy, hated 
and abused by the people, a people which was humble 
and cowed at the time when the Gracchi fell, but 
soon afterwards showed how much it missed them 
and longed for them. For it had statues of the 
brothers made and set up in a conspicuous place, 
consecrated the places where they were slain, and 
brought thither offerings of all the first-fruits of the 
seasons, nay, more, many sacrificed and fell down 
before their statues every day, as though they were 
visiting the shrines of gods. 

XIX. And further, Cornelia is reported to have 

1 Opimius restored the temple of Concord which had been 

built by Camillas (see the Camillus, xlii. 4). 



T aXXa TT}? avfjityopas evyevws KOI 
evejfcelv, /cal Trepl Twv lepwv ev o9 
eiTTeiv a>9 a^/ou? ot ve/cpol ra<ou? e^ovaiv. avrr) 
Be Trepl TOU? Ka\ov[i,evov<$ M.ia"r)vov<i 
2 ovBev yiteraXXa^aaa T/}? crvuijOous 


c EXXr;i/ft)f ai (friXoXoycov Trepl avrrjv ovrwv, 
wr /3a<rtXea)i> ai ^e^ofjievwv irap 
avrf)? Swpa real TTefiirovTWV. rjSiarrj /j,ev ovv f)i> 
avTt] rot? d(f)iKvoviJ,6VOi,<; Kol crvvovai 
TOV TOV Trarpo? 'A<ppifcavov fiiov /cal 
Oav/jLaaKOTarr] Be TMV Trai&wv aTrevdrjS /cal dSd- 
Kpvros iwrifjiovevovcra, fcal TrdOrf KOI irpd^eis 
avrwv, wcnrep apvaicov nvwv, e^rjyov fjiivr] rot? 
3 TrvvOavofJLevois. o9ev eSo^ev eviois eicvovs VTTO 
rj /j,6y0ov$ fca/c&v yeyovevai /cal rwv 

dvaicrOijTOs, atTot? eo? 
avai<iQr)Toi<$ ovariv ocrov e evfyv'ias KOI TOV 

vkvai /cal TTd()dai /faXw9 o<>eXo9 e'crrt 

vpwTTots, /ca OTI r)S pers rj 
/mev TO, /ca/cd 

ev 8e TO) TTTalaaL TO fyepew 6u\oyi(TTO)^ ov 


I. 'HjLiv Be teal 

irepas clover rjs T7?9 
lv e/c 7rapa\\rf\ov 
TWV ftiwv Trfv diToOea)pr]a'iv. TOU9 fjiev ovv Ypd<y- 


borne all her misfortunes in a noble and mag- 
nanimous spirit, and to have said of the sacred places 
where her sons had been slain that they were tombs 
worthy of the dead which occupied them. She re- 
sided on the promontory called Misenum, and made 
no change in her customary way of living. She had 
many friends, and kept a good table that she might 
show hospitality, for she always had Greeks and 
other literary men about her, and all the reigning 
kings interchanged gifts with her. She was indeed 
very agreeable to her visitors and associates when 
she discoursed to them about the life and habits of 
her father Africanus, but most admirable when she 
spoke of her sons without grief or tears, and nar- 
rated their achievements and their fate to all en- 
quirers as if she were speaking of men of the early 
days of Rome. Some were therefore led to think 
that old age or the greatness of her sorrows had 
impaired her mind and made her insensible to her 
misfortunes, whereas, really, such persons themselves 
were insensible how much help in the banishment of 
grief mankind derives from a noble nature and from 
honourable birth and rearing, as well as of the fact 
that while Fortune often prevails over virtue when 
it endeavours to ward off evils, she cannot rob 
virtue of the power to endure those evils with calm 


I. Now that I have brought this story of the 
Gracchi also to an end, it renrains for me to take a 
survey of all four lives in parallel. As for the Gracchi, 



vou? ot8' ot rrdvv ra\\a /ca/ca><; \eyovres real 
{jLKTOVVTes ero\/jirjo-ar elrrelv 009 ov/c evtyvecrraroi 
7T009 dperrjv eyevovro 'Pw/j-aicov drrdvrwv, KOI 

2 rpo<f)i]<; re real rraiBevcrea)? eKTrperrovs e 
Be "AyLBos real KXeo/xei^ou? $vcri$ e 

TT}? eiceivwv yevofjLevrj, Trap 1 ocrov ovre 
/jieTd\.a(36vTs op6f)s, eOecri re /cal 
re? v<^ MV ol Trpeaftvrepoi rrd\ai 
peicrav, auTOi'9 r; i yeyLtoz/a9 evre\eia<; tcai cra)(f)po- 

3 avvri<$ Trapea^ov. eri Be ol fiev, ore \afJLrrporarov 
elyev rj 'P^yUT; /cal /jLeyiarov d^iay/JLa teal /caXuv 
epywv ^r]\ov, Mcnrep BiaBo^v aperf}? irarpwas 
KalTrpoyovifcris irjcr%vv07)crav eyicara'Knrelv ol Be 
ical rrarepwv rdvavrla rrpoypr]iJLevwv yeyovores, /cal 
rrjv TrarpiBa fjLO^drjpa rrpdrrovcrav real voaovffav 
TTapa\aftovres, ovoev ri Bia ravra rrjv Trpo? TO 

4 ica\ov d-JTiip,jB\vvav op^v. /cal yJr]V rrjs ye 
Ypdy%a)v d(f)i\oxpr)/uLarias /cal 77/009 dpyvpiov 
ey/cpareias fjieyicrrov ecrriv on \rj^fjidr(ji)V dBi/cwv 
Kadapovs ev dp^als /cal rro\i,reiat<s Bie<f)v\aav 
eavrovs' *A.yi$ Be KCLV Birjyavd/crrjcrev errl rq> 
fjur/Bev d\\orpiov \aftelv erraivoviJLevos, 09 rrjv 
ovaiav rrjv eavrov rot9 rro\lrat<; erreowicev, dvev 
rwv a\\wv /cr^/jidrfov e^aKocna rdXavra vofiia- 
/xaT09 eyovaav. 7rr)\i/cov ovv evo/j,i%e KCLKOV eivai 
TO /cepBaiveiv aSt/c&)9 o /cal Bi/caia)<$ rc\eov e\eiv 
erepov rf\eove%iav rjyovfJLevo^; 

1.1. r/ M 76 fJir]V eiri(3ov\r) fcal roX/xa rwv 



then, not even those who utterly revile and hate them 
on other grounds have ventured to deny that of all 
Romans they were best equipped by nature for the 
practice of virtue, and enjoyed a rearing and training 
which were preeminent ; but Agis and Cleomenes 
would appear to have had even sturdier natural gifts 
than theirs, in so far as, though they did not receive 
a correct training, and were reared in those customs 
and ways of living by which their elders had long ago 
been corrupted, they nevertheless made themselves 
leaders in simplicity and self-restraint. And further, 
the Gracchi, at a time when Rome had her greatest 
and most splendid repute and an ardour for noble 
deeds, were prevented by a sense of shame from 
abandoning what was like an inheritance of virtue 
from ancestors near and remote ; Agis and Cleomenes, 
on the other hand, though they were sons of fathers 
who had adopted opposite principles to theirs, and 
found their country in a wretched plight and full of 
distempers, did not suffer these things to blunt the 
edge of their zeal for what was noble. Moreover, the 
chief proof that the Gracchi scorned wealth and were 
superior to money lies in the fact that they kept 
themselves clear from unrighteous gains during their 
official and political life ; whereas Agis would have 
been incensed to receive praise for not taking any- 
thing that was another's, since he freely gave to his 
fellow citizens his own property, which amounted to 
six hundred talents in ready money alone, to say 
nothing of other valuables. How great a baseness, 
then, would unlawful gain have been held to be by 
one in whose eyes even the lawful possession of more 
than another was rapacity ? 

II. Again, the enterprise and boldness of their 



7TO\V TO) /JLy0i 7Taprj\XaTTV. 67TO- 

\LTi>ovTO jap 6 [lev 68wv KaTacrKevds Kal Tro\ewv 

, Kal TO TfdvTMV veaviKwraTOV rjv 

V dvaa-wcrai. Srj/^ocriou^ dypov?, Tata* Be 
TO, BiKaartjpia Trpoae/jifiaXovTi, TWV iTrTri/cwv rpta- 
2 Koaiovs' 6 Be^AyiBos KU\ KXeoyueVou? 

TO fiLKpa Kal KaTa jjiepos Toyv r)/j,apTri/j,evQ)v 

l iiTroKOTTTeiv v$pav TLVCL TeyLt^o^ro?, w? 
6 Yl\dT(t)V, r)yrjcrdiJ,6vos elvai, TTJV a/za TrdvTa 

Kal /jLTa(TKevdo~ai 

3 uejaftoXrjv eTrrjye rot? Trpdy/JLaaiv. d\r)0e<TTpov 
8' tcroD? i7Tiv e&Tiv OTL Tr)V TcdvTO, d'TTepyaa'a- 
KaKa fiTa{3o\r)v e^ijX.avvev, aTrdywv Kal 

TO oiKeiov 


iviGTaaQai 'Pay/jLaicoi', ol? Se 'A^f? 
Se TO epyov eTreOrjxe, TWV 

TO xdXkLaTOv vjreKeiTO Kal 


, wv TOVTOIS fiev 6 AvKovpyos, e/eeivq) ] 
4 Be 6 TIvQio? fteftaiwTrjs. o &e fJiiyicrTOV, OTL 
/AW eKiva)V7ro\iTv/jiacriv et? ov&ev rj 'Pa)/jirj 


, o\iyov %povov Trjv ^7rdpTt"iv TT}? IleXo- 

t 'T?-\ -v V ' ~ N 

KpaTovcrav rj Ej\,\.as evretoe icai 

/neyiaTov ^vva^evoi^ Siaywi'i^o/jLevrjv dywva 

Blass, Fuhr, and Ziegler, after Madvig : 


attempted reforms were certainly very different in 
magnitude. For in their political activities Caius had 
in view the construction of roads and the founding of 
cities, and the boldest of all the projects of the 
Romans were, in the case of Tiberius the recovery of 
the public lands, and in that of Caius the reconstitu- 
tion of the courts of justice by the addition of three 
hundred men from the equestrian order; whereas 
Agis and Cleomenes in their reforms, considering that 
the application of trifling and partial remedies and 
excisions to the disorders of the state was nothing 

more than cutting off* a Hydra's heads (as Plato says 
tried to introduce into the constitution a change which 
was able to transform and get rid of all evils at once ; 
though perhaps it is more in accordance with the 
truth to say that they banished the change which 
had wrought all sorts of evils, by bringing back the 
state to its proper form and establishing it therein. 
Besides, this also can be said, that the policies of the 
Gracchi were opposed by the greatest Romans, 
whereas those which Agis instituted and Cleomenes 
consummated were based upon the fairest and most 
imposing precedents, namely, the ancient rhetras or 
unwritten laws concerning simplicity of life and 
equality of property, for which Lycurgus was voucher 
to them, and the Pythian Apollo to Lycurgus. 2 But 
the most important consideration is that through the 
political activity of the Gracchi Rome made no 
advance in greatness, whereas, in consequence of the 
achievements of Cleomenes, within a short time 
Greece beheld Sparta mistress of the Peloponnesus 
and carrying on a struggle for the supremacy with 
those who then had the greatest power, the object of 

1 Republic, p. 426 e. 2 See the Lycurgus, xiii. 

VOL. x. *45 


TOP irepl r/7? rjye/AOVias, ov reXo? TJV aTra\\ayelaav 
'I\\vpitca)v o r jr\o)v teal Ta\aTifcwv rr/v 'EXXaSa 

III. Ol/Jiai Be teal ra? reXefra? raw dvSpwv 

lveiv riva T?}? aperijs Biacfropdv. etceivot, 
yap /jLa%6/jL6voi irpos rou? TroXtra?, etra 


T0)v iroKtTwv o\iyov Belv CKMV a 

$6 TTpoirrjKaKLa-Oels KOI dSifcrjOels a>p- 
/utfj(T {lev dfJivvaa'Oai, rov 8e Kaipov /LLTJ irapaa^ovro^ 
2 avTov euroX/zo)? avel\e. 7rd\iv Be rdvavria crtco- 
TTOVCTIV *Ayis ^ev ovbev aTreSe^aro 
epyov, aXXa 7rpoavype0>j, rat? &e 

TroXXat? at AraXat? yevo^evai^ 7rapa/3a\iv 
i/Bepiov rrjv ev Kap^T/Soz^ TOI) 

ov fJUKpov epyov, real ra? 
, al? Sicr/jivpiovs 'Pwfjiaiwv 

OVK e^o^ra? a\\7]V e\7rL8a vwrripias irepieiroirjcre' 
teal Fafc'o? 8e 7ro\\r)v /jiev avrodi, TTO\\TJV be ev 
^.apSovi (TrpaTevo/jievos dvbpayaOiav efyrjvev, ware 
rot? TTyocoTOi? ay evajjii\\ov^ 'Pco/jialwv yevecrdat, 
(TTpar'rjyoL^, el yu-r) TrpoavypeOrjcrav. 

IV. T^? 8e vroXtreta? o /i-e^ 'Ayt? eoticev a^avQai 
p,a\aK(t)repov, eKKpovcrOeis VTTO y Ayrjcri\,dov teal 
v/reucra y uei>o5 TOI^ dva^acr/jiov rot? TroXtrai?, /cat 84E 
6'Xco? eXXtTr^? /cat areX?)? cor 7rpoei\ero teal Kartjy- 
yei\ev vTTo ttroXyLtta? 5ta T^ ijXitciav 
o Be KXeofjiewr)? rovvavrLov Opacrvrepov teal 



which struggle was to set Greece free from Illyrian 
and Gaulish troops and array her once more under 
descendants of Heracles. 

III. I think, too, that the way in which the men 
died makes manifest a difference in their high ex- 
cellence. For the Gracchi fought against their fellow 
citizens, and then died as they sought to make their 
escape ; but in the case of the Greeks, Agis would 
not kill a single citizen, and therefore died what one 
might almost call a voluntary death, and Cleomenes, 
after setting out to avenge himself for insults and 
wrongs, found the occasion unfavourable and with a 
good courage slew himself. But again, when we take 
the opposite view of their relative merits, Agis 
displayed no deed worthy of a great commander, but 
was cut off untimely, and with the many honourable 
victories won by Cleomenes we can compare the 
capture of the wall at Carthage by Tiberius, which 
was no trifling deed, and his truce at Numantia, by 
which twenty thousand Roman soldiers who had no 
other hope of salvation were spared ; and Caius, too, 
manifested great bravery in military service at home, 
and great bravery in Sardinia, so that the brothers 
might have vied successfully with the foremost Roman 
generals, had they not been cut off untimely. 

IV. In their civic activities, however, Agis would 
seem to have taken hold of things with too little 
spirit ; he was baffled by Agesilaus, and broke his 
promise to the citizens about the re-distribution 
of lands, and in a word abandoned and left un- 
finished the designs which he had deliberately 
formed and announced, owing to a lack of courage 
due to his youth. Cleomenes, on the contrary, 
undertook his change of the constitution with too 



repov eVt T^V /JLera/3o\r)v >}\de r?}? 
aTTO/cTaVa? rot"? (f)6pov<$ Trapavo/Jitos, ou? 
Trpocrayayecrdai Tot9 oVXot? Kparovvra KOL yuera- 
aTrjcrai paBiov r)V, wcrTrep OVK 0X1701;? a 

2 jneTeaTtjaev CK TT}? TroXew?. TO 7^/0 aVef 
eo-^ar^? ava^Kri^ eirnpepeiv criSvjpov oure l 
ovre iroXiTiKOV, a\V are^ 

TOVTW Se al TO aSf/ceit' yw-eT' a) / aoT?;TO? TrpoaecrTt, 
TWV B Tpdy^cov oitSerepos fjiev ijp^aro 
/JUJ)vXiov, Faio? 8e \eyerai 

O/3yU,/}crat 7T/90? CLfJLVVCLV, a\\a Xa/ATT/OOTaTO? W 

ToZ? TroXe/it/tot? dpyoraros ev rfj a-rdaei 

3 /eat fya/3 7rpofj\0v aovrXo? /cal fjia^ofjiev 

prjcre, /cal oXa>? TrXetoi^a TOU yu-?^ T^ Spaaai jrpovoiav 
r) rou firj iraOelv e%a)V ewparo. Sib /cat T^ (frvyrjv 
CLVTWV OVK aToX/ita? ari^lov, aXX' ev\aj3eia<$ 
TTOL^reov. eBei yap vTrel^ai Tot? 


Y. Twi^ Toivvv ey/cXrj/jidTcov TWV /card Tifiepiov 
/jLeyicTTOV eaTLV OTL TOV crvvdp-^ovra TT}? 
e$;e/3a\6 real Sevrepav auTO? 
Fata Se TOV 'Av.TV\\iov fyovov ov 

9 Trpoo-erpt/BovTO' Sie(f)0dpij yap d 

avrou /cal dyavaKrovvros. KXeo/^e^? ^6, tVa 
cr^a-ya? TWI^ efyopwv edcrw/jiev, r]\ev6epwcre 
2 aTTavras rov<t ot/ceTa?, efiaaiXevae & TW 
TO) 5e 



much rashness and violence, killing the ephors in 
unlawful fashion, when it would have been easier to 
win them over to his views or remove them by 
superiority in arms, just as he removed many others 
from the city. For a resort to the knife, except under 
extremest necessity, is not the mark either of a good 
physician or statesman, but in both cases shows a 
lack of skill, and in the case of the statesman there 
is added both injustice and cruelty. Neither of 
the Gracchi, however, initiated civil slaughter, and 
Caius, we are told, would not resort to self-defence 
even when his life was threatened, but though he 
was a most brilliant soldier in the field, he showed 
himself most inactive in civil strife. For he went 
forth from his house unarmed and withdrew when the 
battle began, and in a word was seen to be more 
intent upon not doing any harm to others than 
upon not suffering harm himself. Therefore we must 
hold that the flight of the brothers was not a mark of 
cowardice, but of caution. For they were obliged 
either to yield to their assailants, or, in case they held 
their ground, to defend themselves actively against 

V. Again, the greatest of the accusations against 
Tiberius is that he deposed his colleague from the 
tribuneship and canvassed for a second tribuneship 
himself; and as for Caius, the murder of Antyllius 
was unjustly and falsely attributed to him, for it 
happened contrary to his wishes and much to his dis- 
pleasure. But Cleomenes, not to mention again his 
slaughter of the ephors, set free all the slaves, and 
was king by himself in point of fact, though nomin- 
ally with another, after he had chosen his brother 
Eucleidas, a man from the same house, as his col- 



v CK yum? otcas avrw 
Be, w 7rpocrr]Kov r^v d'jro TT}? ereyoa? 
ovri avpfiacriXeueii', eTreiae [Jiev etc 

Kare\.0elv, artoQaVOVTOS Be TOV <f)OVOV OVfC 

e/5e/8atft)<T6 rrjv alriav icaO^ avrov 

3 avaipecrews. fcairoi Avtcovpyos, bv Trpoareiroielro 

rrjv /te^ fia&iKeiav e/ccov cnrebcoKe rw 
TOV aBe\(f)ov Xap/XX,a>, <o/3ou/zei;o? Be /J,tj, 
Kav aXXa>9 cnroOdvr) TO /uieipd/ciov, atria rt? eV 
avTOV 6\0rj, TTO\VV xpovov ea> 7T\av^6el<; ov irpo- 
repov 7ravf)\0ev rj rrralBa ro3 \api\\y ryeveaOai 
BidBo^op T^? ap*xf)S. d\\a Avfcovpyto [lev ovBe 
aXXo? T? 'EXX^w^ Trayoa/SX^ro? ovBefa- OTI Be 
rot? KXeo/xtVou? iro^iTevfiacri KCUV motion teal 

4 Trapavo^iai /xet^o^e? eveiai, BeBj]\corai. /cal 
OL 76 ro^ rpoTTOV avT&v tyeyovTes TOVTOL^ 


, rfj Be GKelvwv (pvcrei <^tXoTi/zta? a/Lter- 
plav, aXXo Be ovBev oi (frOovovvres e 
eKpLTnaOevTas Be rw TT/JO? TOU? 
d<ya)vi teal Ovfiw irapa rrjv CIVTWV fyvcnv 
TTVoals, e(f)ivat rrepl ra etr^ara TJJV r jro\ireLav 

5 a)/j,o\6yovv. 7rel TT}? 76 Trpwrr;? uTrodecreco^ TI 
icd\\iov r) Bi/caLorepov rjv, el /xr) Kara (3iav teal 
Bvvacrreiav em*)(eipr)aavTes e^Maai rov vo^ov oi 
7T\ovcrioi TrepiecrrTjcrav d^orepOLS dywvas, rq> /JLCV 

vTrep avrov, T> Be ercBiKovvri rov 



league ; and he persuaded Archidamus, who belonged 
to the other house and should have been his colleague 
on the throne, to come back to Sparta from Messene, 
and upon his death, by not following up the murder, 
he fixed upon himself the blame for his taking off'. 
And yet Lycurgus, whom he professed to imitate, 
voluntarily surrendered the royal power to Charillus 
his brother's son, and because he feared lest, if the 
young man should die by another's hand, some blame 
might attach to himself, he wandered a long time in 
foreign parts, and would not come back until a son 
had been born to Charillus who should succeed to his 
office. 1 However, with Lycurgus no other Greek is 
worthy to be compared ; but that the political 
measures of Cleomenes were marked by greater in- 
novations and illegalities than those of the Gracchi, is 
evident. And indeed those who are inclined to crit- 
icize their characters accuse the two Greeks of having 
been from the outset over fond of power and strife, 
and the two Romans of having been by nature im- 
moderately ambitious, though their detractors could 
bring no other charge against them ; nay, it was 
agreed that they were caught up by the fury of the 
contest with their opponents and by a passion contrary 
to their own natural bent, as by blasts of wind, and so 
let the state drive into extremest danger. For what 
could be more just and honourable than their original 
design ? And they would have succeeded in it, had 
not the party of the rich, by their violent and partisan 
attempts to abrogate the agrarian law, involved both 
of them in fierce struggles, Tiberius through fear for 
his own life, and Caius in an effort to avenge his 
brother, who had been slain without justice or 

1 See the Lycurgus, iii. 5. 



dBe\<f)OV avev BiKr)<$ real Boy/iaras ovBe vif a 
6 ^vvos jiev ovv KOL ai/ro? e/c rwv 

Trjv Siacfropdv el ^e Bel /cal Kaff 1 GKCHTTOV 
vacrOai, Tiftepiov fjiev aperfj TreTrpwrevKevai Ti 

Be r)fj,apTr)Kevcu TO 
Be /cal ro\/jirj Ydiov ovrc o\iyu> 
varepov yeyovevai. 



senatorial decree and without the concurrence even 
of a magistrate. 

From what has been said, then, my reader will 
perceive for himself the difference between these 
men ; but if I am to express my opinion of them 
individually, I should say that Tiberius led them all 
in exemplary virtues, that the youthful Agis com- 
mitted the fewest errors, and that in achievement 
and courage Caius fell far short of Cleomenes. 





I. KXea^S/30? r)v ev ^lavTiveia yevov 5 re Trpcorou 356 

rj0ei<$ ev rot? yttaXtcrra T&V 7ro\LTO)v, Tv%y 
8e xprjad/nevos KCU rrjv eavrov <pwyct)V fjKev et? 
M ejaX.yji' 7ro\iv ov% ^Ktara Sia rbv <&i\07roi[ivo5 
Trarepa Kpavyiv, avBpa irdvrwv ei>Ka \a/jL7rpov, 
2 IBia Se TT^O? eiceivov otVetco? e^ovra. ^WVTOS /uv 
ovv avrov Trdvrwv ervy^ai'e, reX-evTijaavTos Be 
TTJV dfjLoi^rjV T% fyi\ol;via<; aTroSiBo 
avrov TOV viov opfyavov OVTCL, KaOaTrep 
yevvaiav Tiva KCU /3aai\.ifcr)v TOV i']8ov<; 
TT\d(jiv KOI avj;r](riv \a/jL(3di>oi>Tos. 









eavTov? eVt iro\iTeiav /cal 
3 OVTOI KCU Trjv eavTwv TraTpiBa Tvpavvi&os d7rrj\- 

7rapao~Kvdo-avTS, KCLI Nt/to^Xea 

Tvpavvov 'Aparro a-vve%efta\ov, Kal Kvprjvaiois 



I. OLEANDER was a man of the highest lineage and 
greatest influence among the citizens of Mantineia, 
but he met with reverses and was exiled from his 
native city. He then betook himself to Megalopolis, 
chiefly because of Craugis, the father of Philopoemen, 
a man in every way illustrious, and attached to him by 
ties of personal friendship. As long as Craugis lived, 
Oleander's wants were all supplied, and when Craugis 
died, Oleander, wishing to requite him for his 
hospitality, undertook the rearing of his orphan son, 
just as Homer says that Achilles was reared by 
Phoenix, 1 so that the boy's character took on from 
the very outset a noble and kingly mould and growth. 
But as soon as Philopoemen had ceased to be a boy, 
Ecdemus and Megalophanes, of Megalopolis, were 
put in charge of him. 2 They had been comrades of 
Arcesilaiis at the Academy, and beyond all men of 
their day had brought philosophy to bear upon 
political action and affairs of state. They freed their 
own native city from tyranny, by secretly procuring 
men to kill Aristodemus ; they joined with Aratus in 
expelling Nicocles the tyrant of Sicy on ; 3 and at the 
request of the people of Gyrene, whose city was full 

1 Cf . Iliad, ix. 438 ff. 

2 A brief biography of Philopoemen may be found in 
Pausanias, viii. 49-51. It agrees, in the main, with that of 
Plutarch. Philopoemen was born about 252 B.C. 

3 See the Aratus, ii.-x. 


BerjQeicrt, rerapay/JLevcov TCOV Kara TIJV TTO\IV /cal 
VO&OVVTWV, Tr\evGavT6<$ evvo/^iav edevTO tcai BLGKO- 
4 cr/Ar/crav apiara rrjv TTO\IV. avroi ye fjLTjv ev rot? 
a'XXoi9 6/97049 /cal rrjv < &iX.oiroL[jLevos CTTOIOVVTO 
TraiBevaiv, a>? KOIVOV O(/>eXo9 rfj '\L\\dSi rov avbpa 
TOVTOV VTTO (f)i\o(TO(f)ias dTrepyaao/Aevoi,. /cal yap 
o-^riyovov ev ytfpa rat? r&v TraXaiwv i} 

vwv 7riT/covcra TOVTOV ayoerat? rj 

/cal avvtjv^Tjcre TTJ 80^77 TTJV Svva/j,iv. 

jrpocreLTrev, &>9 ovoeva /^eyav fieTa TOVTOV CTI TT}? 
'EXXaSo? avSpa yeivapevrjs ovBe ai/r^? aiov. 

ntf-r \ \ \ ?> > 5 r f >/ 

. nv oe TO /lev etoo? OVK ator^po?, 009 evioi 

eltcova yap UVTOV Sia/jievovcrav ev 

ayvoiav crv/jufirfvai, \eyovai Si ev/co\iav Tiva /cal 357 
afyeXeiav avTov. TrvvQavo/^evrfyap ep^eaBai 7Tyoo9 
atTou9 TOI^ crTpaTTjyov TWV 'A^atwy 
Trapacr/cevd^ovaa SCITTVOV, ov TrapovTOS Kara 

2 TOV dvopos. ev TOVTW Be TOV ^>tXo7rot/xe^o9 

^\a/jivBiov euTeXe9 e^oz^ro9, olofiewrj 
v7rr)pTwv elvai /cal jrpoBpo/jiov 7rapfcd\ei 

Sia/covias avve(j)dilrao-0ai. /cal 6 /zei; v0v<> djrop- 
TTJV ^XayauSa TWI^ %v\wv 6a"%t%V' o Be 
ireicrekOtov /cal Oeaadfjievo^, " Tt TOUTO," 
w ( ^>i\07roifjLrjv; >1 " Ti yap aXXo, 

Bcopi^wv /celvos, " -^ /ca/cds 0^66)9 Bi/cas 

3 TOU Se aXXou <ra)/xaro9 T^ (frixriv e7ncr/ca>7rTCDV o 


PHILOPOEMEN, i. 3-11. 3 

of confusion and political distemper, they sailed 
thither, introduced law and order, and arranged 
matters in the city most happily. They themselves, 
however, counted the education of Philopoemen also 
among their many achievements, believing that their 
philosophical teachings had made him a common 
benefit to Greece. For since he was the child, as it 
were, of her late old age and succeeded to the virtues 
of her ancient commanders, Greece loved him sur- 
passingly, and as his reputation grew, increased his 
power. And a certain Roman, in praising him, called 
him the last of the Greeks, 1 implying that Greece 
produced no great man after him, nor one worthy 
of her. 

II. In looks he was not, as some suppose, ill- 
favoured ; for a statue of him is still to be seen at 
Delphi ; and the mistake of hisMegarian hostess was 
due, as we are told, to a certain indifference and 
simplicity on his part. This woman, learning that 
the general of the Achaeans was coming to her 
house, in great confusion set about preparing 
supper; besides, her husband chanced to be away 
from home. Just then Philopoemen came in, wear- 
ing a simple soldier's cloak, and the woman, thinking 
him to be one of his servants who had been sent 
on in advance, invited him to help her in her 
housework. So Philopoemen at once threw off his 
cloak and fell to splitting wood. Then his host 
came in, and seeing him thus employed, said : 
"What does this mean, Philopoemen?" "What 
else," said Philopoemen in broad Doric, "than that I 
am paying a penalty for my ill looks ? " And once 
Titus Flamininus, making fun of certain parts of his 

1 See the Aratus, xxiv. 2. 


Ttro? elrrev, " 'H 
e%6is Kal (JKekr)- yacrrepa o ov/c e^et?-" rjv yap 
K ra)i> fieawv arevcarepos. TO fAevroL <TKa)u/j,a 
7T/30? rr)v BvvafJiiv avrov fJLa\\ov eXe^Oi]. KOL 
yap OTrXtra? e^wv ayaOovs Kal /TTTret? ^prifjid'Twv 
TroXXa/a? OVK evTropei. -ravra fjiev ovv ev rat? 
cr^oXat? irepl TOV 4>tX,o7rotyuef09 \eyerai. 

III. ToO 6' 7/$ou9 TO (f)i\,OTi,jAOV OVK rjv jravrd- 
TTCKTL fyiKoveiKias fcaOapov ovS* 0/977)9 d7Tij\\ay- 
fjievov aXXa KaiTrep J E*7ra/j.eivd)v$ov /3ov\6fi6i>os 
elvai fjiaXiara ^7/XwT?;?, TO Spaa-rrfpiov Kal CTVVZTOV 

avrov Kal VTTO 

TW &e Trpdo) Kal jSadel Kal fyiXavOpanru) Trapd Ta 


2 Tt/c/)? r) 7ro\LTtKrj^ dperrjs oiKelos elvai. Kal ydp 
K Trat&wv evOvs TJV (friX-ocrTpaTicoTrjs, Kal TOi? 
Trpo? rovro ^piiai^OL^ fJiadt'ifjiaa-Lv vTrr/Kove Trpo- 
, 67r\o/j,a%eiv Kal iTnreveLV. eirel Be Kal 
evffrvws eSoKei Kal 7rap6Ka\ovv avTov 
ejrl TYJV aB\i](Tiv evioi TWV $i\wv Kal T&V 

rjpwTrja-ev avrovs /ULIJ 11 TT/OO? rrjv 
v V7TO T^? a^X^creo)? /9XayS 
3 T&V Se fyajjievwv, owep r/v, dO^TiKov crrpaTicoriKov 

Kal fiiov SiafyepeLV Tot? Trdcrt, /jidXio-ra Be 
Biairav erepav Kal aaK^aiv elvai, TWV fjiev virvw 
T TroXXft) Kal 7r\r)o-/j.ovais eVSeXe^ecrt Kal Kivrjcrecrt, 

Kal rcrviai^ avowTwv re Ka 

\arrovra)v rrjv e%iv vrro Trdarjs /QOTTT}? Kal rrapeK- 
ovaav, rd Be Trdarjs /j,ev TrXaz^/y? e/ATreipa KCLI 


PHILOPOEMEN, n. 3-111. 3 

re, said : " Philopoemen, what fine arms and legs 
thou hast; but belly them hast not"; for Philo- 
poemen was quite slender at the waist. This piece of 
fun, however, was aimed the rather at his resources. 
For though he had excellent men-at-arms and horse- 
men, he was often at a loss for money. However, 
these stories are told of Philopoemen in the schools of 

III. But the love of distinction which marked his 
character was not altogether free from contentiousness 
nor devoid of anger ; and although he desired to 
pattern himself most of all after Epaminondas, it was 
the energy, sagacity, and indifference to money in 
Epaminondas which he strenuously imitated, while 
his proneness to anger and contentiousness made him 
unable to maintain that great leader's mildness, 
gravity, and urbanity in political disputes, so that he 
was thought to be endowed with military rather than 
with civic virtues. For from his very boyhood he was 
fond of a soldier's life, and readily learned the lessons 
which were useful for this, such as those in heavy- 
armed fighting and horsemanship. He was also 
thought to be a good wrestler, but when some of his 
friends and directors urged him to take up athletics, 
he asked them if athletics would not be injurious to 
his military training. They told him (and it was the 
truth) that the habit of body and mode of life for 
athlete and soldier were totally different, and particu- 
larly that their diet and training were not the same, 
since the one required much sleep, continuous surfeit 
of food, and fixed periods of activity and repose, in 
order to preserve or improve their condition, which 
the slightest influence or the least departure from 
routine is apt to change for the worse ; whereas the 



Trpoarj/cov elvai, fidkiara be 

<j>epeiv paBiajs /mev evSeiav eWicr/jieva, paBia)<$ Be 
dypwjrviav, aKovcras 6 ^iXoTroi^rfv ov JJLOVOV auro? 
TO Trpdyfia teal KareyeXacrev, aXXa KOI 
varepov anglais Kai r jrpOTrrj\.aKL<j[Jiol i $ ) 
oaov rjv eV CIVTM, Tracrav a6\rf(TLV e^efBakev a>? 
TO, %pr)(Ti/LLc0TaTa TWV awfidrajv et? rou? 
dywvas a^prjcrra jroiovcrav. 

IV. 'AvraXXaYei? Se Bi&acrKdXwv KOI 
<ya)ja)v V ^ev rat? TroXtrf/cat? crrpareiais, a? 
CTTOIOVVTO ArXwTreta? evefca KCU Xe^Xacri'a? et? r^ 
e/Lt^aXXo^re?, eWicrev avTov Trpwrov 
efcarpaievovrwv, vara^ov Be 
fta&'i^eiv. a^oX^ 8e ovcriys i} tewrjy&v 
TO crcoyLta /cat KarecrKeva^e tc^vfyov apa KOI pcopa- 
2 Xeot', 77 yewpywv. fy yap aypo? auTw /caXo? avro 
(TTa&iwv etKOffi TT}? TroXea)?. et? TOVTOV e/3d$ie 
/caO rjfiepav /Aero, TO apiarov rj pera TO Selirvov, 
teal Kara{3a\a)v eavrov eVt <TTi/3a&iov rov TV^OVTOS 

epyarwv aveiraveTO. Trpco'l' Be 

dvacrra<{ KOI crvvefya^dfjievos epyov TO A? 
\ovpyovaiv 77 j3o7]\aTovau>, av0i<; et? TroXii/ a 
Ta B^/jioaia TOi? <fii\oi<? teal Tot? 

Ta yttei' ovv etc rwv crpaTeiMvirpocnovra Karav- 


O olicov arro TT}? yecopylas av^eiv 
eTreiparo Bi/caiOTaTa) T&V ^pr] /j,ar icr JJLWV ', ovSe TOVTO 
7roiovfj.evos irdpepyov, aXXa /cat 7raj/t> irpocnj/ceiv 


PHILOPOEMEN, in. 3 -iv. 3 

soldier ought to be conversant with all sorts of 
irregularity and all sorts of inequality, and above all 
should accustom himself to endure lack of food easily, 
and as easily lack of sleep. On hearing this, Philo- 
poemen not only shunned athletics himself and 
derided them, but also in later times as a commander 
banished from the army all forms of them, with every 
possible mark of reproach and dishonour, on the 
ground that they rendered useless for the inevitable 
struggle of battle men who would otherwise be 
most serviceable. 

IV. And when, set free from teachers and tutors, 
he took part in the incursions into Spartan territory 
which his fellow-citizens made for the sake of booty 
and plunder, he accustomed himself to march first as 
they went out, but last as they came back. And 
when he had leisure, he would give his body hard 
exercise in hunting, thus rendering it agile and at the 
same time sturdy, or in cultivating the soil. For he 
had a fine farm twenty furlongs from the city. To 
this he would go every day after dinner or after 
supper, and would throw himself down upon an 
ordinary pallet-bed, like anyone of his labourers, to 
sleep for the night. Then, early in the morning, he 
would rise and go to work along with his vine-dressers 
or his herdsmen, after which he would go back again 
to the city and busy himself about public matters with 
his friends or with the magistrates. 

As for what he got from his campaigning, he used 
to spend it on horses, or armour, or the ransoming of 
captives ; but his own property he sought to increase 
by agriculture, which is the justest way to make 
money. Nor did he practise agriculture merely as a 
side issue, but he held that the man who purposed to 



i rv 

Be \6ya)v Kal o-vyypd/j./j,acri 
evervyxavev, ou Tracriv, aXX' a<' &v eBo 

4 TTjQo? dpeTifv uxbeXelcrOai. Kal rwv Q/jUjpiKGOv oaa 
ra? TT/OO? avSpeiav eyeipeiv Kal irapo^vveiv eVo/it^e 

ias, TOVTOIS Trpocrel^e. TWV S' a\\cov ava- 

/j-dXiara TO?? EvayyeXov 
evefivero Kal ra? Trepl 'A\%ai'Spov I 
KaTel^e, TOU? \6yovs CTTL TO. 7rpdyfj.ara Kara- 
aTp6<piv oio/j.ei>o$, el JJL^ cr^oX)}? eveKa Kal 

5 aKaprrov Trepaivoivro. Kal yap rwv 

, eVt TWV TOTTWV avTwv 

e\ey)(ov Kal /zeXer?;^ eTroieiro, ^ 
Kal 7r6$L(ov aTTOKOTrds, Kal ocra Trepl peidpoL? 
) crrevajTrols TrdOrj Kal cr^jJiaTa BLacrTr 
Kal 7rd\iv crfcrTeXXo^eV?;? (>d\ayyo$. e 


6 TO<? /ue^' eavTou 7rpo/3d\\a)v. eoiKe yap ovros 
o dv^p Trepairepa) T>}? dvdyKrjs e/A(f)L\OKa\rja'ai 
rot? CTTpaTiwTiKOi<;, Kal rbi' rroKefjiov a>? TTOLKL\W- 
rdnjv vTTodecnv T?}? dpertj^ dcnrdcrao'dai, Kal 
oXco? Karafypovelv roov d7TO\ei7ro/j.i'a)v co? aTrpd- 

V. "HS?; Se avrov Tfudtcovra err} 

o ySacr^Xeu? AaKeSai/novioov VVKTO? 
Trpoa-Treacov rfj MeyaXrj 7ro\ei Kal ra? 
<; /S^acra^e^o? eVro? 7rapr)\@e Kal rifv dyo- 
pdv KaieXaftev. K/3oii6rjaas Be ^iXoTroi^v roz)? 

PHILOPOEMEN, iv. 3 -v. i 

keep his hands from the property of others ought by 
all means to have property of his own. He also 
listened to the discourses and applied himself to the 
writings of philosophers not all of them, but those 
whom he thought helpful to him in his progress 
towards virtue. And as for the poems of Homer, 
whatever in them was thought by him to rouse and 
stimulate the activities of the soul which made for 
valour, to this he would apply himself. Among other 
writings, however, he was most of all devoted to the 
"Tactics" of ISvangelus, and was familiar with the 
histories of Alexander, thinking that literature was 
conducive to action, unless it w r ere prosecuted merely 
to while away the time and afford themes for fruitless 
small talk. Indeed, he would ignore the charts and 
diagrams for the illustration of tactical principles, and 
get his proofs and make his studies on the ground 
itself. The ways in which places slope to meet 
one another, and level plains come to an abrupt end, 
and all the vicissitudes and shapes of a phalanx 
when it is elongated and contracted again in the 
vicinity of ravines or ditches or narrow defiles, these 
he would investigate by himself as he wandered about, 
and discuss them with his companions. For it would 
seem that he brought more zeal than was necessary 
to the study of military science, setting his affections 
on war as affording a most manifold basis for the 
practice of virtue, and despising as unsuccessful men 
those who left it to others. 

V. He was now thirty years of age, when Cleomenes, 
King of the Lacedaemonians, suddenly attacked 
Megalopolis by night, forced the guard, made his way 
into the city, and occupied the market-place. Philo- 
poemen came to the help of the citizens, but had not 



uev 7roXe/ii'ou? ov KaTicr^vcrev ee\dcrai ) 

, TOI>? 

- -- rroXiVa? -poTTOv -ivd Try? TroXeo)? eeAcAe^e, 

70!? emSuiHCOVfft Kal TOP KXeo- 

2 TpavfjMTLas ycvofi&fos* eVet ce ir 

avTol) o KXeo/M&nrfi els ^lecrcrTJvrjv aTreXOovvi rijv 
re TTG\IV fj.Ta row 

o <&i\G7roifj,r)v 7ou? TroXtVa? 


r^ TroXii/ KXeo/ze^?, TrpocTKra-rat, ce rovs TroXtVa? 

T<W Arat 777^ rroXij/ e^eiy ftefiaiorepov ov yap 



KO0ijftVO<;, aXXa Arai, 70U7<Di^ urr' eptjfilaQ 
aOai. Tav~a \eyatv TOV? /zef TroXtVa? aTrerpe^e, 
TO) ce KXeoftevet Trpof^avLv 7rape<j-)(e \v[j.r)vacrQaL 


VI. 'L-7t ce Arrvyovos o /S 


l ra? rrept SeXXaTtay axpas Kal 7a? e/ 

avTC/v rraperatt. TT/V cvvap.iv ey/i-, 
Kal @id&r0at ctavoov^evO), r/v /j.fv ev 
t fj.e~a TWV kav~ov 
t&iXtnroifirjv, Kai Tra/xurraras 

1 See the C7eom^ne>. xxiv. 

- r :'. the: Oor'i'r,*-.. ixvii. and zxviii. The baV.le of 
it in 221 B.C. 


PHILOPOEMEN, v. i-vi. i 

force enough to drive the enemy out, although he 
fought with vigour and daring. He did, however, 
steal the citizens out of the city, as it were, by 
attacking their pursuers and drawing Cleomenes 
against himself, so that with the greatest difficulty 
he got away last of all, after losing his horse and 
receiving a wound. Moreover, when Cleomenes sent 
to them at Messene, whither they had gone,, and 
offered to give them back their city with its valuables 
and their territory, Philopoemen, seeing that the 
citizens would be glad to accept the offer and were 
eager to go back home, opposed and dissuaded them 
from it, showing them that Cleomenes was not so 
much offering to restore their city as he was trying 
to win over to himself its citizens, that so he miorht 


have the city also more securely in his possession ; for 
he would not be able, Philopoemen said, to remain 
there and guard empty houses and walls, but the 
solitude would force him to abandon these also. By 
this speech Philopoemen diverted the citizens from 
their purpose, but furnished Cleomenes with an excuse 
for devastating and demolishing the greater part of 
the city and marching offloaded with booty. 1 

VI. Soon, however, Antigonus the king marched 
with the Achaeans to give aid against Cleomenes, and 
finding that his enemy was occupying the heights 
and passes about Sellasia, he drew up his forces near 
by with the purpose of attacking him and forcing a 
passage. 2 Philopoemen was stationed among the 
Macedonian cavalry with his own fellow-citizens, 3 
and had as a support the Illyrians, a large body of 

3 According to Polybius, ii. 66. 7, a thousand Achaeans 
and as many Megalopolitans were stationed with the 
Macedonian cavalry. 



2 TroXXoi? ovai KOI fjLa'\ifJiOis. eiprjTO Be 
efaBpevovaiv ijav^iav e^eiv a^pi av airo Qarepov 
Kepcos VTTO rov /?ao-/,Xe&>? dpOfj <j>oiviiels vrrep 
crapicrr]<s Biarera/j,evrj. rwv Se rjye/jiovwv rot? 

ipwfjLevwv K(3id%ecr0ai TOL/? Aa/ce&ai- 
teal TCOV 'A^aiayv, Mcnrep Trpoa-ereraKro, 
TTJV etfie&peiav ev rd^ei Sia(f)V\aTT6vTa>v, Eu^Xa^a? 
o rov KXeojuievovs aeX</>o? Kara^aduiv TO JIVO/JLCVOV 
Trepl TOU? vroXe/xtof? Ta^u rou9 e'Xa- 
rwv fyiKwv TrepieTre/JL^rev, %6mcr0v rot? 
eirnrearelv /ceXeucra? al Trepiairav eprf- 
TMV iTrTrewv a7ro\e\ei/jL/jLevovs. 

3 Vivopevwv Be TOVTCOV Kal Twvfyi\wv Toi/?'JXXu- 359 
piovs TrepicrTrcovTwv teal SiaraparTovTwv, avvi&cov 

6 ( &i\.o7roi/nijv ov /Jieya ov epyov eTnOeeOai. rot? 
/tal TOV Kaipov v<j)ijyov{jL6vov TOUTO, irpwrov 

aXXa jjiaivecrOai $o/ca)v Kare^povelro, 
ovSe a^LOTrlcrrov TT/JO? rrj\tKovro 

Trepl avrbv ovcrrjs, atTO? e/i./3aXXet 
4 (rvveTrKnTaadfjievo^ rou? TroXtra?. yevo^evr]^ Be 
TO irpGyrov, elra (frvyfjs Kal cfrovov TroXXoC 

TOV? (3a,(Ti\iKOV<; KOI 7rpocr/jiij;ai Kara Ta^o? Oopv- 

Tot? 7roXe/uo? TOI^ /xei' ILTTTTOV 
8e Trpo? ^wpia cr/coXia Kal /neara pel 
l (papdyywv 7reo? ev ITTTTIKW OutpaKi Kal (TKevfj 
fiapvrepa ^aXeTrw? a 
S^eXaweTat Bia/jLTrepes O/JLOV TOV? 



good fighters, who closed up the line of battle. 
They had been ordered to lie quietly in reserve until, 
from the other wing, a signal should be made by the 
king with a scarlet coat stretched upon a spear. But 
the Illyrians, at the command of their officers, tried 
to force back the Lacedaemonians, while the Achaeans, 
as they had been ordered to do, kept quietly waiting 
at their post. Therefore Eucleidas, the brother of 
Cleomenes, who noticed the gap thus made in the 
enemies' line, quickly sent round the most agile of 
his light-armed troops, with orders to attack the 
Illyrians in the rear and rout them, now that thev had 

/ * J 

lost touch with the cavalry. 

These orders were carried out, and the light-armed 

3 O 

troops were driving the Illyrians before them in 
confusion, when Philopoemen perceived that it would 
be no great task to attaek the light-armed troops, 
and that the occasion prompted this step. At first he 
pointed this out to the king's officers. Then, when 
they were not to be persuaded by him, but looked 
down upon him as a madman (since his reputation 
was not yet great enough to justify his being entrusted 
with so important a manreuvre), he took matters into 
his own hands, formed his fellow-citizens into a 
wedge, and charged upon the enemy. At first the 
light-armed troops were thrown into confusion, then 
put to rout with great slaughter. And now Philo- 
poemen, wishing to encourage still finther the king's 
troops and bring them swiftly upon the enemy thus 
thrown into disorder, quitted his hors*, and with 
grievous difficulty forced his way along on foot, in his 
horseman's breastplate and heavy equipment, towards 
ground that was irregular and full of water-courses 
and ravines. Here he had both his thighs pierced 



evl /jLeerayKvXy, Kaipias ^ev ov yevo/jievrjs, I 

Be TTJS 7rXT77?}9, wcrre rrjv alyjpfyv I'm, 6drepa 

5 Sicocrat. TO fj,ev ovv irpwrov eva^edel^ cbcnrep 
Secr/iw iravTCLTraaiv drrbpws el^e' TO jap 

TT}? dyKV\r)<; yakeTrr^v 7roiei TOV 

> ^ r ^ \ * / \ ' ^ f 

ave\KO/JLvov oia rwv rpav/marcov rrjv Trapooov <w 
Be &KVOVV ol irapovres a-^raadai KOL TT}? /jLa^tj^ 
aKfjirjv o^elav e^oucrT;? ea-(f)d$a%v VTTO OV/JLOV /cal 
(f)i~\.OTt/jLias Trpo? TOI^ dywva, TTJ Trapaftdcrei fcai 
TT) 7rapa\\d^L TWV crK\wv 8ta yuecroi' tfXacra? TO 
aKovrLGfjia %wpi? e/ceXevcrev e\Kvcrai TCOV d 

6 e/cdrepov. ovrw Be d7ra\\ayel<? Kal 

TO ^t(^>09 %a)pei Bid TWV Trojid-cov eVt TOU? 


Trapaa^ev T0t9 

ovv 6 'Avriyovos d r jre r Treipdro TGOV 
epwrwv Bid ri, fjir] Kekevaavro^ avrov, TO ITTTTLKOV 
7 eKLV^aav. TWV Be d7ro\oyov/jLevwv &)? Trapd yvd)/j,r)v 
ftiaeOelev et? %et/oa? e\6elv Tot? TroXeyutoi? peipa- 
KLOV M.eya\o7ro\,iTiKOv 7r/ooeyn/3aX6Wo?, ^eXacra? 
6 ^Kwriyovos " 'E/ee>o TOIVVV TO peipditiov" eiTiev, 
epyov 9776/^0^09 fj,eyd\ov TreTroirj/cev." 
VII. 'E/c TOUTOf Bo^av ea"X6v, wcnrep etVo9, o 
Kal TOV fj,ev ' AvTiyovov crTrovBd- 
6Vft)9 (TTpaTevoiTO fjLGT avrov, Kal 

Kal %prj/u.aTa, TrapyTrjaaTO, 
eavTov vcnv KaTa/naOcov vrpo9 TO d 

Kal ^aXe7rco9 e^ovaav, dpyelv Be 
ov /3ov\6/jLevos daKr/crea) 1 ? eveKa Kal 

2 GTpaTeav. KaKel avyyov %povov 


PHILOPOEMEN, vi. 4 -vii. 2 

through by a thonged javelin. The wound was not 
fatal, though severe, and the head of the weapon 
came out on the other side. At first, then, he was 
held fast as by a fetter, and was altogether helpless ; 
for the fastening of the thong made it difficult to draw 
the weapon back through the wound. But since 
those about him hesitated to attempt this, and since, 
now that the battle was at its hottest, the ardour of 
his ambition made him impatient to join in the 
struggle, by moving his legs backward and forward he 
broke the shaft of the weapon in two in the middle, 
and then ordered each fragment to be drawn out 
separately. Thus set free, he drew his sword and 
made his way through the front ranks against the 
enemy, thereby greatly animating the combatants 
and inspiring them with a desire to emulate his valour. 
After his victory, therefore, Antigonus put his 
Macedonians to the question, and asked them why, 
without his orders, they had brought the cavalry into 
action. They defended themselves by saying that 
they had been forced against their will to attack the 
enemy, because a young man of Megalopolis had 
first led a charge against them. At this, Antigonus 
gave a laugh and said : " Well, then, that young 
man behaved like a great commander." 

VII. This naturally brought Philopoemen into high 
repute. Antigonus was eager that he should take 
service under him, and offered him command and pay. 
These Philopoemen declined, chiefly because he well 
knew that it was naturally unpleasant and hard for 
him to be under another man's orders. Not wishing, 
however, to be inactive and idle, for the sake of 
training and practice in war he sailed to Crete in 
search of military service. In Crete he practised 



dvBpdai [ia%L[jLoi<; fcal TTOIK:L\OI$ 
7ro\e/jLov, ert Be aoo^pocri teal KeKo\ao-/jLevoi<$ rrepl 
BLairav, e7ravf)\dev ovrw Xa//.7Ty009 et9 TOU? 'A^at- 
3 ou9 cocrre evOvs nrTra/r^o? dTroBe^Otjvai. rcapa- 
\a/3a)v Be TOU? /TTTret? (^auXot? yitei^ iTnrapiois 
CK rov 7rpo<TTV%ov'ro$, ore crvjuftaivoi arpareia, 
, avrovs Be ra? TroXXa? TWV 

avff eavT&v, beivrjv & aTreiplav pera 
Trdvrwv ovcrav, Trepiopwvras Be ravra roi)? ap%ov- 
ra? del Bid re TO Tr\el(TTov ev TO?? 'A^atoi 
(TTTret? Bvvacrdat, KOI yU-aXtcrra Kvpiovs elvai 

4 /eal /coXacrew?, ou^ VTrei^ev ovBe dvr/Kev, aXXa 

TroXet? 7ria)V KOI /car 1 avBpa rwv vecov efcavrov 
<$>i\OTiiLiav 0vi'J;opjj,(ov, KOI KciKd^wv TOU? 
Seoyu.ez'ou?, /AeXerat? re /tal rro/jirrais KOL 
7T/009 aXX^Xou9 a/u,tXXat9 %pcoyu,6^o9, OTTOU rr\elcrroi 
OedaOai /j,e\\oiev, ev o\iyw XP V( P ^do-i p&fjLrjv re 

5 6av/J.a(rrrjv fcal rrpodvpiav Trapea-rtja-e /eat, o 
/jLeyMrrov rjv ev rot9 rarcriKols, eXcufipovs real o^et9 350 
7T/J09 re ra9 ar' ov\a^ov errL(Trpo<pas real rrepi- 

/cdi Ta9 Kaff 1 r (mrov e7ri(rrpO(f)d<; KOL 
drreipydaaro, /cdi avveiQivev a>9 evl cra)/jiari, 
eicovcnov eoucevat rr/v o\ov 
rov dvarrjfJiaro^ ev rat9 fJL,erajSo\als ev-^epeiav. 

6 Su<rTa<T^9 Be 77)9 Trepl rov Kdpiacrov avrois 

?r/oo9 AtTa)Xou9 KOI 

o rwv 



himself for a long time among men who were not only 
warlike and versed in many kinds of warfare, but also 
still moderate and restrained in their ways of living, 
and he came back to the Achaeans with such distinc- 
tion that they at once made him commander of their 
cavalry. 1 But he found that the horsemen whom 
he was to command used worthless animals acquired 
at random, whenever a campaign was to be under- 
taken ; that they shirked most campaigns themselves, 
and sent others out in their places ; that they were 
all characterized by a shocking lack of experience, 
together with its resultant cowardice ; and that their 
commanders always overlooked these things because 
the knights had the greatest power and influence 
among the Achaeans and the chief voice in the 
assignment of rewards and punishments. Philo- 
poemen, however, did not yield or give way to them. 
He went round to the different cities and roused the 
spirit of ambition in each young man individually, 
punished those who needed compulsion, introduced 
drills, parades, and competitive contests in places 
where there would be large bodies of spectators and 
thus in a short time inspired them all with an 
astonishing vigour and zeal, and, what is of the 
greatest importance in tactics, rendered them agile 
and swift in wheeling and deploying by squadrons, 
and in wheeling and turning by single trooper, making 
the dexterity shown by the whole mass in its 
evolutions to be like that of a single person moved 
by an impulse from within. 

Moreover, in the fierce battle which they fought at 
the river Larissus against Aetolians and Eleians, the 
commander of the Eleian cavalry, Damophantus, 

1 For the year 209-208 B.C. 




&el;d/jL6vo<; Be TTJV opf^yjv exeivos avrov Kal <f)0dcra<; 

TO) Sopari Traiei teal /cara/^aXXet ro^ Aa/jLocfravTOv. 

7 evOus e TOVTOV rrea-ovTOs e<f)V<yov ol 7ro\e/mioi, /cal 

Xa/i7r/3O9 rjv o <&i\O7roifjLrjv, &>? ovre Kara 

vecov rivbs ovre avveaei TWV 

airo\L7r6fjLi>o<;, a\\a real /jLa-^eaOaL /cal arpa 

VIII. To & KOIVQV TMV 'A^atW^ 7T/960TO? [JbV 

et? d^Lcofjia Kal SvvafjLiv rjpev, e/c Taireivov 
Kara TroXet? crvvayaycov /cal 
*\\i]viKr]V /cal <fri\dv6pwjTOv 

7ro\iTeiav eTreira, wcrvreyo eV roi? v&a<riv, dp^a- 
o\iya)v vtyiaTaaOai Kal [liKpwv aw^aTwv, 
ra eirippeovra rot? rrptoroLs evLa^ofie^a /cal 
TrepiTTiTTTovTa TTTJ^iv icr^vpdv Kal cTTe^eoT^Ta 

2 TTOiel Si d\\ij\(i)v, OVTO) rrjs 'EXXa^o? dcrOevovs 
/cal v8ia\vrov (frepo/jLevqs Kara TroXei? ev rw Tore 

ovcp Trpwrov avo-Tavres ol 'A%aioi, Kal TWI> 

(Jikv K TOV ^Ot]9elv Kal (TWe- 

\evQepovv diro rwv rvpdvvwv VTro\afM/3dvovT$, 
ra? Be o/Jiovoia KOI 7ro\neia Kara/JLiyvvvres t 
eafroiy?, ev aco^a Kal fjiiav Svva/MV KaraGKev 

3 SivoovvTO rr)v YleXoTrovvrjcrov. aXX' 'Apdrov p,e 
^co^ro? ert TOi? Ma/ceSo^co^ OTrXoi? VTreSvovTO rd 
TroXXa, 0pa7T6vovTS II To\/jLa2ov, etr' avOis 'Az/rt- 
yovov Kal <&i\i7r7rov ev yitecrai? dvaaTp6(f)O{Aei>ov<; 

rat? 'EXX^WArat? TrdeGiv eVet 

et? TO irpwrevew 7rporj\0ev, ijSrj Ka6^ eaurou? 

PHILOPOEMEN, vn. 6-vm. 3 

rode out from the ranks and charged upon Philo- 
poemen. But Philopoemen received his onset, was 
first to drive home a spear-thrust, and threw Damo- 
phantus to the ground. Their leader fallen, the 
enemy at once took to flight, and Philopoemen was 
in high renown, as one who yielded to none of the 
young men in personal prowess, and to none of the 
elder men in sagacity, but both in fighting and in 
commanding was most capable. 

VIII. The commonwealth of the Achaeans was 
first raised to dignity and power by Aratus, who 
consolidated it when it was feeble and disrupted, and 
inaugurated an Hellenic and humane form of govern- 
ment. Then, just as in running waters, after a few 
small particles have begun to take a fixed position, 
others presently are swept against the first, adhere 
and cling to them, and thus form a fixed and solid 
mass by mutual support, so the Achaeans, at a time 
when Greece was weak and easily dissolved and 
drifting along by individual cities, first united them- 
selves together, and then, by receiving into their 
number some of the cities round about which they 
had aided and assisted in shaking off their tyrants, 
and by uniting others with themselves in a harmonious 
civil polity, they purposed to form the Peloponnesus 
into a single political body and one power. As long, 
however, as Aratus lived, they were dependent for 
the most part on Macedonian armies, paying court to 
Ptolemy, and then again to Antigonus and Philip, all 
of whom busied themselves in the affairs of Greece. 
But when Philopoemen was advanced to leadership 
among them, 1 they were at last capable of contending 

1 In 207 B.C. ; Aratus had died in 213. 


7r\lcnov oWe? ejrav- 

4 cravro ^pci)fj,voi TTpocrrTai^ eVetcra/cTot?. "Ayoaro? 
ev yap, dpyorepos elvai BOK&V vrpo? TOU? TTO\- 
, 6/uXt'a teal TrpaoTTjri KCL\ <t/\.tat? 
ra TrXetcrra KaretpydcraTO ra)i> irpay- 

O)? V TOi? TTCpl KLVOV yeypaTTTCLl, ^fXo- 

Be dyaQos TroXeyu-tcrrr/? wv KOI Bid rwv 
evepyos, en 8' euTf^r)? real KaropOaiTiKos 
ev rat? Tr^corai? yevo^evo^ /^a^at?, a/xa TT; 
Svvdfiei TO (>povr]/jLa T&V y A%aia)i> rjv^rjae VIKCLV 
/JLCT avrov /cat KarevTV^elv ev rot? 

IX. ripwrof />tei^ oC^ ra Trept ra? ra^et? :at 
07rXt<T//oi)? (pavXax; e^ovra Tot? 

. e^pajuro fj.ev yap Ovpeols pev ev 
Sid XeTTTOTT^ra /cat GTevwrepois rov 7repicrT\\eiv 
TCL crwyLtaTa, Bopaai Be /j.iKpOTepois TTO\V 
(rapi(Ta)V' Kal cid TOVTO 7rXr}/crat /cat 
iroppwOev rjoav VTTO Kov^ortjTos, 
2 Be Tot? TroXe/itot? e\arrov el^ov etoo? 5e 

/cat cr^7/yLtaT09 t? o-Treipav OVK r]v avvrjdes, <f>d\ayyi 
Be %p(t>fjLevoi /Ji^re 7rpo/3o\r/v e^ovcrrj /JLT/TC 
aa7ri(T/jLOv a)? 77 Ma/cc8o^a)^, paSta)? %eO\i 
Kal BieaTTtoVTO. TCIUT& o t&iXoTTOLfMrjv BiBdi;a<; 
tireiaev auTOi/? a^rt /ze^ dvpeov Kal Soparos d(nrica 
\afBelv Kal <rdpiaav, Kpdveau Be Kal 
TrepiKVTj/jilcri 7re(f)pay/jLevov<; povi^ov Kal 
dvrl Bpofj,iKf)$ Kal fre^racrriK^ fjui^v 


PHILOPOEMEN, vin. 3 -ix. 2 

alone with their most powerful neighbours, and 
ceased to rely upon foreign protectors. Aratus, 
indeed, who was thought to be too sluggish for 
warlike contests, accomplished most of his under- 
takings by conference, urbanity, and royal friendships, 
as I have written in his Life ; x whereas Philopoemen, 
who was a good warrior and effective with his 
weapons, besides proving himself fortunate and 
successful in his very first battles, increased not only 
the power but also the courage of the Achaeans, who 
were accustomed to be victorious under him and to 
win success in most of their contests. 

IX. In the first place, however, he changed the 
faulty practice of the Achaeans in drawing up and 
arming their soldiers. For they used bucklers which 
were easily carried because they were so light, and 
yet were too narrow to protect the body ; and spears 
which were much shorter than the Macedonian pike. 
For this reason they were effective in fighting at a 

%/ fj 

long distance, because they were so lightly armed, 
but when they came to close quarters with the 
enemy they were at a disadvantage. Moreover, a 
division of line and formation into cohorts was not 
customary with them, and since they employed a solid 
phalanx without either levelled line of spears or wall 
of interlocking shields such as the Macedonian 
phalanx presented, they were easily dislodged and 
scattered. Philopoemen showed them all this, and 
persuaded them to adopt long pike and heavy shield 
instead of spear and buckler, to protect their bodies 
with helmets and breastplates and greaves, and to 
practise stationary and steadfast fighting instead of 
the nimble movements of light-armed troops. After 

1 See the Aratus, x. 
VOL. x. K 2 77 


3 Tretcra? Be Ka6o7r\Laaa0ai TOt>9 v rj\txla Trpwrov 
fjiev etrrjpe Oappelv 009 a/ta^ou? yeyovoras, eVetra 
ra? rpvtyds avrwv teal ra? TroXfreXeia? apiara 
/uLereKocr/^rjaev. dfyekelv jap OVK TJV 

etc TroXXoO vocrovvTWV rov icevov Kal fidraioi' 

ea-0'rJTas dya7T(*)VTa>v Treptrra? crrpw/ii/a? re 

fjievwv d\ovpyeis KOL Trepl SeiTrva (friXoTifiov/AevGdv 361 

4 Kal TpaTre^as. 6 Se apgd/jLevos eKTpeireiv CLTTO TWV 
OVK avayrcaitov eVl ra xp/jaifjia KOI /ca\a irjv 
(f)L\OKO(TfJiiav, ra'xy Trdinas evreicre KOI 

ra9 K-aff i}/jiepav Trepl crw^aa Scnrdvas 

ev rat? o-TparicdTiKais Kal TroXe/u/cat? TrapacrKev- 

5 at? SiaTTpeTrels opdcrOai KKOO-^ij^ei>ov<;. TJV ovv 
ISelv TO, [lev epyaanjpia yu-ecrra KaraKorrro/jLevcov 
KV\IKWV Kal ripiK\elwv, ^pvaovpkvwv Be OwpaKwv 

l Karapyvpov/jiei'cov Ovpewv Kal xa\ivwv, rd Be 
afjLaojj,6va>v Kal veavi(TKwv OTT\O- 
, ev Be rat? %epcrl rwv yvvaiKwv Kpdvrj 

Ka 7TTp a<at Kovovji Kal LTWVWV ITTTTL- 


6 r) 5' o-v/ri? avrrj TO Odpvos av^ovaa Kal Trapaxa- 
Xoucra TTJV opfi^v eirolei (f)i\07rapdf3o\ov Kai TT/OO- 

7 &V/JLOV eVt TOU? Kivbvvovs. r) [lev yap ev 
aXXoi? Qedfiacn 7ro\vre\eia rpv^v eTrdyeraL 
fjLa\aKiav evBiBwcri rot? xpco^evois, wcnrep VTTO 

Kal yapyd\,i(TfAWV r/}? aiaO^crews avveTTi- 
rrjv Bidvoiav, 7; 8' ei? rd roiavra pavvvai 
Kal fjLeya\vvei rbv &V/JLOV, wcrTrep "Ofirjpos e 
'A^tXXea rcot' Kaiv&v O7r\wv 



he had persuaded those of military age to arm them- 
selves in this manner, in the first place he inspired 
them with confidence that they had thus become 
invincible, and then made most excellent reforms in 
their luxurious and extravagant ways of living. For 
it was not possible to remove altogether their empty 
and idle emulation from a people long addicted to it. 
They were fond of costly apparel, the coverings of 
their couches were dyed purple, and they vied with 
one another in banquets and table array. But he 
made a beginning by diverting their love of show 
from what was unnecessary to what was serviceable 
and honourable, and speedily persuaded and incited 
them all to check their daily expenditures upon 
bodily wants, and to find their chief adornment in 
military and warlike equipments. And so one might 
have seen the workshops filled with goblets and 
Therycleian plate l which were being broken up, with 
breastplates being gilded, with shields and bridles 
being silvered over, while in the places of exercise 
colts were being broken in and young men were 
learning the use of heavy armour, and in the hands 
of women there were helmets and plumes for dyeing, 
and horsemen's tunics or soldiers' cloaks for em- 
broidering. The sight of all this increased men's 
courage, called forth their energies, and made them 
venturesome and ready to incur dangers. For extra- 
vagance in other objects of display induces luxury and 
implants effeminacy in those who use them, since 
something like a pricking and tickling of the senses 
breaks down serious purpose ; but when it is seen in 
the trappings of war it strengthens and exalts the 
spirit, just as Homer represented Achilles, when his 

1 See the Aemilius Paulus, xxxiii. 2. 



VTTO T% oS/reo)? olov opywvTa Kal 
7T/909 Tr]V Bi avrwv evepyeiav. 

OVTCO Be KocrfJiija-as TOU? z>e'ou9 e 
BL7rovL, Tat? KivtJGecri TrpoBvfjiws 
8 /cat (f>L\oTL/jia)S. Kal >yap 77 ra^t? 

TjyaTraTo adpavvrov TI \a/J./3dvetv TrvKva/jia 80- 

Kovaa, Kal Tao7r\a rot9 crco/ma^y e 

Kal KOixfra, fjied' rjSovris Bia \afjL7rp6r^Ta 

/caAAo? aTTTO/nevcov Kal (hopovvrwv, t 

re j3ov\o/j,VGov Kal Biajcpidrjvai ra^to-ra 777)09 

TOL/9 7TO\/jiLOVS. 

X. ^H^ &e Tore T0i9 'Ap^af oi9 o 77/309 
TroXe/ao? TOZ/ Aa/ceSai/jLOViajv rvpavvov, CLTTO 7r 
/cat yU7aX?]9 Sumyu,e&)9 eVt/SofXeiyo^Ta iraaL TTeXo- 

Mavriveiav e 

Kara rao? o 

arpariav eV avrov. eyyvs 
Traperd^avTo vroXXot? fiei/ ^ez/ot9 eKa 
Be O/JLOV TI rat9 7roXtrt/ca?9 
2 yevo/jievov Be TOV dy&vos ev ^epcrip, 6 

TOi9 ^eVot? TOU9 TCW 'A^atOJZ^ 

Kal 'Yapavrivovs rpe^rd/jLevo^ dvrl 

TOV weLV vvs eVt TOU9 ia.oxeVof9 /cat 

Trapapprjyvvvai TO <ru^ecrT>7/co9 e'^eTrecre BICOKWV Kal 
7rapr)\\a^e TTJV <pd\ayya TOOV 'A^atwf eV Ta^et, 
3 fjievovTWV. o Be OtXoTrot/x?;^ TI]\LKOVTOV Trratcr- 

eV dp-^fj yevo/jievov Kal TWV 

?} /cat Bie<pddpdai BOKOVVTMV, 
TOVTO nev o/xa)9 TrpoaeTTOietTo irapopav Kal 


PHILOPOEMEN, ix. 7 -x. 3 

new armour was laid down near him, as exulting at 
the sight and all on fire to get to work with it. 1 

After he had thus arrayed and adorned the young 
men, Philopoemen exercised and drilled them, and 
they eagerly and emulously obeyed his instructions. 
For the new order of battle pleased them wonder- 
fully, since it seemed to secure a close array that 
could not be broken ; and the armour which they 
used became light and manageable for them, since 
they wore or grasped it with delight because of its 
beauty and splendour, and wished to get into action 
with it and fight a decisive battle with their enemies 
as soon as possible. 

X. At this time the Achaeans were carrying on 
war with Machanidas the tyrant of Sparta, who, 
relying upon his large and strong forces, was scheming 
to get control of the whole Peloponnesus. Accord- 
ingly, when word came that the tyrant had invaded 
the territory of Mantineia, Philopoemen quickly led 
his army out against him. They drew up in battle 
array near the city, both parties having many mer- 
cenaries and almost all their citizen soldiery. When 
battle was joined, Machanidas with his mercenaries 
routed the javelineers and Tarantines who had been 
stationed in front of the Achaean line, and then, 
instead of advancing directly against the main body 
of the enemy and breaking up their close array, he 
dashed off in pursuit of the fugitives, and so passed 
by the phalanx of the Achaeans, which remained 
drawn up in position. Then Philopoemen, although 
so great a disaster had occurred at the outset and his 
cause was thought to be utterly lost and ruined, pro- 
fessed to ignore and make light of it, and seeing what 

1 Iliad, xix. 15 ff. 



Seivov, KariSwv be TOU? 7roXe/uoi>9, oaov 
eV rfj Sioo^ei, T?}? <pd\ayyos djrop- 
prjyvv fjievov 9 KOL KevrjV ^wpav SiBovras, OVK aTrrfv- 
Tr)crev ovS* eWcrrT/ <fcepo/Jievoi<s avTols eVt TO?)? 
4 favyovTas, dXX' eacra? 7rape\,0elv KOI 

TT/JO? TOL? OTrXtra? evOvs rj<ye 
, 6p)i> rrjv (f)d\ayya ryvfivrj 
KOL KCLTO, Kepas TTapabpafjiwv eve- 

ap%oi>TOS ainos Trapovros 
/jLa-)(6(r0ai Trpoa&exofAei'ots' viKav yap yyovvro 
KOL Kparelv TravTanraai, SLWKOVTO, rov Ma^a^Sa^ 
5 O/JW^TG?. wcrayue^o? $ rourof? fyovw TTO\\W (Xe- 
yovrai yap vjrep rovs TTpaKia-'%i\,iovs aTroOavelv) 
wp/Arjcrev eirl TOV Ma^awSaz/ e'/c TT}? Sjco^ea)? 
ava(TTpe(f)OVTa /JLCTCL TMV ^evwv. rdcfrpov Se /u,e- 362 
ydXrjs /cal ftaOeias ev jnecrw SieipyovaY) 1 ?, irape^r)- 
\avvov aXX^Xot? e^areputOev, 6 fjiev &ia/3fjvai real 

6 (vev, o e rovro 


ov% &)? crTpaTijywv fLa^ofJievwv, aXX' 
6>jpL(t) 7T/30? a\KrjV VTT dvdyKrjs rpeTro/^evw $ii>ov 
KVVtiyeTOu TOV ^XoTrot/ie^o? crvvecrrayro^. evOa 6 
fjiev rTTTTO? TOU Tvpdvvov /ow^aXeo? wi^ /cat 0u/j,oi<H>r] < $ 
teal TO?? iJivw-fyiv al/jLa^Oel^ eicarepwOev eVeroX- 
[ATjcre rf) Bia/3d<Ji, /cal 7rpO(T/3a\.(t)V TTJ Tacfipq) TO 
arrrj0o<f e/Bid^ero roi? irpocrOiois Trepav epeicracrOaL 

7 CTK\0-IV. V ^ TOVTM 

017T6/3 et TO) oiTofJLGvi 'TTaprdav 

, O^JLOV TrpoarfXavvov d/jL^orepoi 
K\ivavT6<s evavrias. cfrOdvei, Be avrovs 6 
diravTi'ia-as TW Ma^az^&a, /fal ro^ 
ITTTTOV avrov fjierewpl^ovTa Ti]V /ce(f)a\r)v irpb TOV 



a great mistake the enemy had made by going off in 
pursuit, thus breaking away from his phalanx and 
leaving a vacant space there, did not oppose or resist 
their chase after the fugitives, but let them pass him 
by and make a great gap. Then he led straight 
against the Lacedaemonian heavy-armed, seeing 
that their phalanx had been left exposed, and fell 
upon them in a flank attack, while their commander 
was away and they were not expecting to fight ; for 
they thought they were victorious and getting the 
upper hand altogether, since they saw Machanidas 
pursuing. After Philopoemen had routed these with 
great slaughter (more than four thousand of them are 
said to have fallen), he set out against Machanidas, 
who was returning with his mercenaries from the 
pursuit. But a broad and deep ditch stretched 
between them, along which the two leaders rode 
opposite each other, one wishing to get across and 
escape, the other to prevent this. The spectacle 
was not that of two commanders fighting, but that 
of a powerful hunter attacking a wild beast that has 
been forced to turn at bay, and Philopoemen was the 
hunter. And now the tyrant's horse, which was 
vigorous and high-spirited and felt the bloody spurs 
in his sides, essayed to make the leap across, and 
striking against the edge of the ditch with his breast, 
was struggling with his fore-feet to extricate himself. 
At this point Simmias and Polyaenus, who were 
always at Philopoemen's side when he was fighting 
and protected him with their shields, rode up both 
at the same time and levelled their spears at the 
horse. But Philopoemen was before them in attack- 
ing Machanidas, and seeing that the tyrant's horse 
was lifting its head up in front of its rider's body, he 



opcov fjLtKpov eveieXtve TOV iSiov, Kal Bia- 


8 TOV avBpa avveTrepeicras. TOVTO e^cov TO 
ev AeX0ot? ecrTrjKev VTTO TCOV * 

KOL TTJV Trpav avTov KOL 

XI. AeyeTai Se 77)9 TWV 
o-ui^ecTToocr^? 1 a-TparrjjovvTa TOV <&i\07roi/jiva TO 
SevTepov Kal vevLtcriKOTa fjiev ov 7ra\ai Trjv ev 
MavTiveia fid^rjv, rare $e ff^(o\ijv ayovTa Bta 
Tr]v eopTijv, TrpwTov fjiev em^el^ai rot? 

cocnrep ei0i(rTO, 

2 ra^ou? Kal paj/z,???' eVetra Ki6apw&v a 
fjLei'wv i? TO 6earpov irapeXOeiv eyovra rou? 
veavi(TKOV<s cv rat? crTpaTicoTiKals -)(\a/4vcrt Kal 
(j)oiviKol<; vTroSvTctis, aKfjid^ovTas re 

-. 5^^V -\A V ^ V / \ 

/vou?, aido) oe 7roA,A,r)v irpos TOV ap^ovTa Kai 
<ppovr)/j.a veavLKov vTro$aivovTa<; eK TroXXcov Kal 
KO\)v dycovwv cipTi S' avTtov elcre\rj\v9oTWV 

Tvfflv Hu\dBj]v TOV KiOapcpSov aSovTa TOU? 

eov Ylepaas evd 

3 a/jia Se Trj \afjLTT poTrjTi rr}? (frwvr/s TOV Trepl TTJV 
Troitjaiv Ofy/cov (TVfjLTrp^avTo^ e7ti[3\e-^nv yeveaOai 
TOV OeaTpov TravTa^oOev et? TOV Qi'X.OTroi/j.eva Kal 

TCOV ' E*\\iva)V TO Tra\atbv 

Bekker has evto-rwo-Tjs, after Bryan. 

PHILOPOEMEN, x. y-xi. 3 

gave his own horse a little swerve to one side, and 
then, clasping his spear firmly in the middle, pushed 
it home with all his weight and overturned his enemy. 
This is the attitude in which he is represented by a 
bronze statue set up at Delphi by the Achaeans, who 
admired especially both his deed of prowess and his 
generalship on that day. 

XL Moreover, we are told that at the celebration 
of the Nemean games, 1 when he was general of the 
Achaeans for the second time and had recently won 
his victory at Mantineia, 2 but was at leisure the while 
on account of the festival, Philopoemen in the first 
place displayed before the assembled Greeks his 
phalanx, with its splendid array, and performing its 
tactical evolutions, as it was wont to do, with speed 
and vigour. Then, while the minstrels were con- 
tending for the prize, he came into the theatre with 
his young men. They wore their soldiers' cloaks and 
their purple tunics, were all in the prime of their 
strength and of the same age, and showed not only 
great respect for their commander, but also that high 
spirit which young men have after many honourable 
contests. And just as they made their entrance it 
chanced that Pylades the minstrel was chanting the 
opening verse of the Persians of Timotheus 

" Glorious the crown of freedom which he fashioneth 
for Hellas " ; 

whereupon, as the splendid voice of the singer fitly 
sustained the majesty of the poet's words, all the 
spectators turned their eyes upon Philopoemen and 
gave him glad applause ; for in their hopes the 

1 In the summer of 205 B.C. 
8 In the spring of 206 B.C. 



TGU9 eXiricriv avaXafjifBavovTwv KOI rov 
rore (frpov/maros eyyicrra rw Oappelv yivofjLevwv.^ 
XII. Hapd Be Ta? yLta^a? Kai TOU? KivBvvovs, 
wffTrep oi Ttoikoi TOU9 <Jvvr}Qeis iniftdras TTO- 
Oovvres, edv a\\ov fyepwcn, TTTVpovrai KOI %vo- 
OVTOOS rj ^vvafjiLS TMV 'A^atcoi' erepov 

KOI Trpo? eiceivov 

KCU fjiovov ofyOevTos evOvs op6r) Kal 
r)v Sia TO Oappelv, are &rj Kal rou? evavrlovs 
aiaOai'6fjivoL irpos eVa TOVTOV rwv 
dvTi/5\e7Tiv ou Swa/jievovs, d\\a Kal ryv Bo 
avrov Kal Tovvo^a SeSoiKOTas, w? v)v fyavepov e 
2 wv eTTpacrdov. OiXiTTTro? /Jiev yap 6 T&V Ma/ce- 

av eK'Tro&cov 6 


?, erre^ev et? "Apyo? Kpvcfra TOVS 

avrov zm'vuxjBeicn Be 

rcavrrcaaiv ee/jLicrti] Ka ie/??; rrpos rovs 
3 f/ EXX?;^a9. Botwrol Be rro\.LOpKovvre<$ Meyapa Kal 

avrois, 09 OVK 

7roi/j,eva /3or)0ovi>ra rots 7ro\iopKov/j,evois 771)9 
eivau, ra9 KXip-aKas a<pevT<; 178/7 
4 fjievas TOi9 rei"%eGU> a)%ovro (frevyov 

>e rov jjiera Ma^a^t^a^ rvpavvovvros Aa/ceSat- 


wv rore o ^XoTrotiz/ Kal 

Kvpios, errel Be rov crrparrjyovvra rwv 363 
OVK GTreiOe /3oy]6eli> rot9 Me<7- 

Bekkcr after Coraes : yevofj.iv<av. 


Greeks were recovering their ancient dignity, and 
.'n their courage they were making the nearest 
approach to the high spirit of their fathers. 

XII. But when it came to perils and battles, just 
as young horses long for their accustomed riders, and 
if they have others on their backs, are shy and wild, 
so the Achaean army, when someone other *han 
Philopoemen was commander-in-chief, 1 would be out 
of heart, would keep looking eagerly for him, and if 
he but came in sight, would at once be alert and 
efficient because of the courage he inspired. For 
they perceived that he was the one general whom 
their enemies were unable to face, and whose name 
and fame they feared, as was evident from what they 
did. For Philip the king of Macedon, thinking that 
if Philopoemen could be got out of the way the 
Achaeans would again submit abjectly to his sway, 
secretly sent men to Argos who were to assassinate 
him ; but the plot became known, and Philip was 
utterly condemned and hated among the Greeks. 
Again, the Boeotians were besieging Megara and 
had hopes of its speedy capture, when suddenly a 
report reached their ears (and it was a false report) 
that Philopoemen was coming to the aid of the 
besieged and was close at hand ; so they abandoned 
their scaling-ladders, which were already planted 
against the walls of the city, and fled away. And 
once again, when Nabis, who succeeded Machanidas 
as tyrant of Sparta, suddenly seized Messene, it 
chanced that Philopoemen was out of office and had 
no force under his command ; but since Lysippus, 
the commander-in-chief of the Achaeans, could not 
be persuaded by him to go to the rescue of the 

1 A.S a rule, the same man could not be general of the 
Achaean league two years in succession. 




< ye r yovor&v r&v TT oXe {JLIWV ', avros e/Soij 
TOU9 eaurou TroXtra? avaXafioov ovre vbfjiov ovre 
^eiporoviav Trepi/jieivavras, aXX' a>? Sia iravro^ 
ap^ovri TO) KpeiTTOvi Kara ^VGIV 7rofJLevov<;. 
5 7/877 ^' avTov 7rX??crioz/ oVro? aKovcras 6 
], Kaiirep ev rfj TroXet (rrpaTOT 
vs Sia irvXwv krepwv Kara ra 

aTnjyaye rrjv &vva/m,v, evrv^ia %ptjcracr0at SQKCOV 

e ia()v<yoi' KOI 

XIII. TaOra yu-ez^ ovv Ka\a rov 
?; S' 669 K/J^'TT;^ av0is dTroSrj/jiia Toprvvicav 
0evT(0v, a>? ^prjcraLVTo TroXe/jLOVfjievoi err/oar ^70), 
8ia/3o\}jv e(T%ev, on TT}? Trarpi&os avrov TroXe- 
fjiov /jievris VTTO Na/S't8o? airi}v (f)wyo/j.a'%cov rj 
(pi\oTi/jLOVfj.evos aKaipcos 7T/30? ere/^of?. Ka'not 
crvvTovtos OVTCOS 7ro\/j,rf0i]crav 
/cara TOP %povov efcelvov wcrre roi? 
evoiKelv, (nreipeiv Be rou? <TTva>7rovs, 
KO/jLjuevrj? 1 TT}? ^aipa? Aral TCOZ^ 7roXeyu,/a}^ 
2 eV Tat? TruXa/? (TTpaTOTre&evovT&v. o 8e 
r)ViK,a\)Ta KOI 

Trapel^e /caO* eavrov TO?? e'^/oot? a>? 
TOV OIKOI 7r6~\,/jLOV. rjcrav Se rives 
ol \6yovTes, erepovs TWV 'A^atwi/ y pr) fjiev wv 
apxovras, ISiwTrfv ovra rov ^>i\orroLfJLeva 
rrjv eavrov ff^o\rjv e'(/)' riye/jiovia 

eVrjs Coraes and Bekker, with the vulgate : 


PHILOPOEMEN, xn. 4 -xm. 2 

Messenians, because, as he said, the city was utterly 
lost now that the enemy were inside, Philopoemen 
himself went to their rescue, taking with him his 
fellow-citizens of Megalopolis, who did not wait for 
any law or commission, but followed the man whom 
nature had made superior as though he were always 
in command. And when Nabis heard that Philo- 
poemen was already close at hand, he did not wait 
for him to come up, although he was encamped in 
the city, but stole out by an opposite gate and led 
his forces off as fast as he could, thinking that he 
would be fortunate if he should escape ; and he did 
escape, and Messene was set free. 

XIII. All these things,, then, made for the honour 
of Philopoemen ; but his going away to Crete again 
at the request of the Gortynians, who wanted him 
to be their general in their war, brought calumny 
upon him, and it was said that when his native city 
was at war with Nabis, he was away, either to avoid 
fighting or to show kindness out of all season to 
others. And yet so continuously were the Megalo- 
politans under hostile attack all that time that they 
lived upon their walls and planted their grain in the 
streets, since their fields were ravaged and the 
enemy were encamped almost in their gates. Philo- 
poemen, however, was waging war in Crete all that 
while, and serving as general across the sea, and so 
afforded his enemies a chance to accuse him of run- 
ning away from the war at home. But there were 
some who said that since the Achaeans chose other 
men as their generals and Philopoemen was without 
public office, he merely put the leisure which belonged 
to him at the service of the Gortynians when they 



3 Toprvviois. rjv jap d\\6rpio<> 0-^0X779, KaGdrrep 
aXXo TI KTrj/jia TT)Z> aTparrjyiKTjv Kal 

dperrjv %eiv Bia rravTos ev ^ptjaei, Kal 

, a>9 KOI T&> irepl XlToXeyLtatou Trore 
TOV ^acriXeco? a7reSr;Xa)cre^. eicelvov 'yap 
TIV&V a>9 ev p,ev e^acrKovvra TO 
^ rj/jtepav, ev 8e ^v^vdtpvra KOI 

a TO)V O7T\(t)l> TO (TWfJia, " Kal Tt? 

aV," (p7j, "/SacrtXea Oavfjidaetev ev TOVTW 
rjXiKias /JLT) eTri&eiKvvjJLevov, aXXa yLte 

4 XaXeTrw? 8' ovv ol M.eya\07ro\lTai 
errl TOVTW Kal Trpo&eSocrQai, vofiL^ovTe 

avTov ol S' 'A^atoi BiKO)\vcrai> ' 
fJi^ravTe^ et9 MeYaXr;^ Tro\iv crTpaTrjyov, 
o? KaLTrep wv $id<f)opo<; TO> O^XoTrot 
7ro\iTLav t OVK elacre T\e(rQfjvat TTJV 

5 etc Be TOVTOV rrapopwfjLevos VTTO TWV rro\iTcov 6 

jv dTrecrTrjcre TroXXa? TWV 
, \eyew Si8dj;a<? a>? ov avveTe\ovv 

dp%f)<; efceivcov, Kal \eyovcrai,<; 
a'vvTj'ywvia'aTo Kal o'vyKaTeaTacriacre 
rroXiv eVl TWV y A.%aiwv. TavTa fjiev ovv varTepov. 

6 'Ez^ Be TT) }Lpr)Tr] <TVV7TO\/jLt. TO?? TopTVVlOL?, 

ov% to? Tle\OTroi>vtf(no<; dvrjp Kal 'Ap/ca? drrXovv 
rtva Kal yevvaiov TroXefAOv, dXXa TO KptiTitcov 
evBv? Kal Tot? eteeivmv crofiia-tiacrt, Kal 0X049 



asked him to be their leader. For he was averse to 
inactivity, and wished to keep his skill as a commander 
in war, like any other possession, all the while in use 
and exercise. And he made this evident by what he 
once said about King Ptolemy. When certain persons 
were extolling that monarch because he carefully 
drilled his army day by day, and carefully and 
laboriously exercised himself in arms, " And yet 
who," said Philopoemen, "can admire a king of his 
years for always practising but never performing 
anything? " 

The Megalopolitans, nevertheless, were displeased 
at this absence, and looking upon it in the light of a 
betrayal, undertook to make him an exile ; but the 
Achaeans prevented this by sending to Megalopolis 
Aristaenus, their commander-in-chief, who, although 
politically at variance with Philopoemen, would not 
suffer sentence of condemnation to be passed upon 
him. In consequence of this displeasure, Philo- 
poemen was ignored by his fellow-citizens, and 
therefore induced many of their outlying villages to 
secede from them, instructing them to say that they 
did not belong to the city and were not under their 
rule ; and when they made this plea, he openly 
supported them in their contention and helped 
them to raise a faction against the city in the 
assembly of the Achaeans. This, however, was at a 
later time. 

In Crete he waged war in the service of the 
Gortynians ; not the straightforward and honourable 
warfare of a Peloponnesian and Arcadian, but one in 
which he adopted the Cretan practices, and turning 
their tricks and wiles and stolen marches and am- 
buscades against themselves, speedily showed them 




tSa? aTreSe^ez' di'orjra /cal icevd TT/JO? 
d\r)0ivr)v iravovpyovvras. 
XIV. 'E-Trt Tovroi? Se 6 } av p-aa 'eW KOL Xa/xTrpo? 
Trapd TMV eVet Trpd^ewv dvaKOf-iicrOels et? IleXo- 
7r6i>v>i<TOV evpe rov {lev Qiknnrov VTTO rov TLTOV 
KaTa7re7ro\iJirf/j,evov, rbv Se Na^i^ VTTO 

KOI rwv 

ov ei)9vs aipeOels ap^wv KOI vav/jLa^la 7rapa/3a- 
TO roO 'EiTra/jLeivaivSov TTaOelv eSoe, TTO\V 

Trepl avrov ayoerr}? /cal So^/;? eV 

2 KaKiov aywvidd^evo^. ir\i]v ' 

evioi \eyov(nv OKVOVVTCL yevcrai ra)i> Kara 6d\acf~ 
aav w(p\LMV TOf? TToXtra?, OTTW? avra) /jirj 
\dO(O(TLV dvrl fJbovijJLwv OTT\LTWV, Kara HXdrcova, 364 

yevo/Jievoc, teal SiacfrdapevTes, drrpaKrov K 

'A<Tta9 /cat Tft)^ fr/crcoz' djreKdelv ei 
3 <&i\O7TOL[jir)v Be TT)^ eV rot? Tre^ot? eTricrr^iJLTjv KOI 
Sid Oa\drr^<; dp/tecreLV avrw vrpo? TO 


yu.e/30? e'cTTt T% dperij^ teal 
Trdvra Tot? .QiaQel<Ji Bvva/niv TrpocTTlOiiaiv. ov 

Sid Tr 

yap [Aovov e T vav/jia^ia i Trjv 

, d\\d Ka\ vavv Tiva, r jra\aidv 
Be, Bi erwv Tea-crapaKovra Kara- 



1 In the battle of Cynoscephalae, 197 B.C. See the 
Flamininus, xiii. 


PHILOPOEMEN, xni. 6-xiv. 3 

that they were children opposing foolish and vain 
mischievousness to genuine military experience. 

XIV. Having thus won admiration, and having 
come back to Peloponnesus with a brilliant re- 
putation from his exploits in Crete, he found that 
Philip had been defeated and subdued by Titus 
Flamininus, 1 and that the Achaeans and the Romans 
were waging war upon Nabis. He was at once 
chosen general against Nabis, and by hazarding the 
issue on a naval battle would seem to have fared as 
Kpaminondas once did, since he fought on the sea in 
a manner which fell far short of his great reputation. 
Epaminondas, however, as some say, was reluctant to 
give his fellow-citizens a taste of the advantages 
accruing from naval superiority, in order that they 
might not surprise him by becoming, instead of 
" steadfast hoplites," to use Plato's words, 2 degenerate 
mariners ; and therefore he purposely came back 
from Asia and the islands without achieving any- 
thing. 3 Philopoemen, on the other hand, was per- 
suaded that his skill in handling land forces would 
suffice to give him success in fighting also on the sea, 
and therefore learned to his cost how large a part of 
superior excellence consists in practice, and how 
much additional power it gives to men who have 
accustomed themselves to all methods of fighting. 
For not only was he worsted in the sea-fight, owing 
to his lack of experience, but he actually launched 
an old but famous ship after forty years of disuse, 
and manned her, the result being that her seams took 
in water and her crew came into peril of their lives. 

' Laws, iv. p. 706. Cf. the Themistocles, iv. 3. 

3 In 364 B.C., two years before his death, Epaminondas 
successfully inaugurated a naval policy for Thebes, which 
enabled her to cope with Athens on the sea. 

2 93 


4 II/)09 ravra yivwaKan' Karcuppovovvras avrov 
Tot/9 TroXe/utof? ft)? TravTaTracn Trefyevyoros e'/c TT}? 
, /eat iroXiopKovvra^ inrepiifydvws TO 
, evOvs eTTeTT\evcrev avrois ov Trpoa 

XX' K\\VjLVOl<$ Slfl T1V VlK1l'. KOL 

TOVS ffrparicoTa^ Ka Trpocrajaycov, 
Trvp evfj/ce rat? aKijvais Kal TO (nparoTre^ov Kare- 
5 Kavae Kal TroXXou? &ie$6eipev. oXiyais 8' varepov 



K TOTTWV ^aeTTWi' /cat yeyovorcov 

Tot? TroXeyut'ot?, 6\iyoi> ^povov eTriara^ Kal 


iiv TWV a.Kpayi> T?}? 7ro\p,iKrfi re^m^v ovcrav 
ovrw /.uKpa Kivi'jaa^ Ti]i> eavrov <f)d\a i yya Kal TT/JO? 
Ta Trapovra /neOap/jLoaas aOopv/SfOS Kal pa$La)<$ 
bieKpovcraro Tr]V airopiav, Kal TrpocrftaXwv TO?? 
6 TroXe/ztoi? rpOTrrjv la-^upai^ G7TOLT](rev. eVet $ ov 
rrjv TroXiV eiapa <j)evyoi>Ta<$, aXXa TT}? ^co 
aXX?; SiaaTreipofjLei'O^ (uXcoS?;? 8e /cat Tr 
i)v Tracra, /^at Svcmnros VTTO peiOpcov Kal 

rrjv {lev SLM^IV eVeo-^e /cat 

TOTreSevaev eri <^)WT09 ovro?' TK/naip6/jivos 


7T/509 T^P TToXiv vird^eiv aKoraiovs, e'XXo^t^et TOt9 

7T/)l TO U(TTV pL0pOlS Kal \6<f)OlS TroXXOL/9 I^OVTa? 

7 eyxetpiBia rwv \\*)(aiwi>. evravOa TrXeuarov^ ano- 
Oavelv <Tvve/3> rwv rod 


PHILOPOEMEN, xiv. 4-7 

Understanding that in consequence of this disaster 
his enemies despised him, thinking that he had 
altogether given up activity on the sea, and that 
they were insolently besieging Gythium, he promptly 
sailed against them when they did not expect it and 
were careless because of their victory. He landed 
his soldiers by night and led them to the attack, set 
fire to the enemy's tents, burned down his camp, and 
slew many of his men. A few days afterward, as he 
was marching through a rough country, Nabis came 
suddenly upon him and threw the Achaeans into a 
fright ; they despaired of saving themselves from a 
position which was difficult and already commanded 
by the enemy. But Philopoemen waited a little 
while, surveyed the nature of the ground, and then 
demonstrated that skill in drawing up an army is the 
crowning feature in the art of war. For by changing 
his order of battle a little and adapting it to the 
present exigency, with no confusion and no trouble 
he evaded the difficulty, and charging upon the 
enemy put them to utter rout. Then, observing 
that they were not fleeing towards the city, but 
scattering themselves hither and thither through 
the region (which was woody, entirely surrounded by 
hills, and impracticable for cavalry owing to water- 
courses and ravines), he checked his pursuit and 
encamped while it was still light. But judging that 
the enemy after their flight would steal back to the 
city by ones and twos under cover of the night, he 
placed large numbers of his Achaeans armed with 
swords in ambush among the water-courses and hills 
about the city. Here very many of the followers of 
Nabis met their death ; for since they did not make 



dOpbav TTOLOvuevoi TTJV dva^coprjaii', dXX* o>? e/cd 
crroi? al (fruyal a-vve'rvy")(avov, waTrep 
r)\,L<TKovTO irepl rr)z> irb\iv et? ra? rwv 

XV. 'E-TTfc TOVTOIS dya7T(t)/JL6J>O<S KOl 

VTTO TWV ' \L\\t jvcov ev rot? 
ovra rov TLTOV ^a-v^fj 7rape\v7ri. KOL 
jap 009 'PCO/JLCILMV U7raro9 dvSpbs 'A^aSo? rj^Lov 
OavfJid^eaOai, fjid\\ov virb T&V y A%aiwv, teal rat? 
euepyecriais V7r6p/3d\\eiv ov Trapd fjurcpov ij 

KOL Ma/ceSocrtz; eSov~\,Vcrev. 

2 'Eye Be TOVTOV Kara\vrat, p,ev o Ttro? TCO 

e//,oy, diroOv^fTKei Se o Na^t? LTTO 
80X0^)0^77^66?. TTapay/j.vrjs Be rfj? 
6 <&i\O7roi[jLr)v dpTrdaas TOP Kaipov em- 
d Bvvd/jieo)?, teal TWV i^ev CLKQVTWV, rou? 
Be av/jLTreia-a? Trpoayjydyero Kal /JLereKOfjucrev et? 

3 rou? 'A^atou? rrjv 7rb\iv. ov yevofjievov Qav^a- 
crrw? /nev evBoKL^a'e nrapd rot? 'A^a^ot?, Trpoa- 
KTrja-d/uevos aurot? d^L(t)fj,a TroXea)? 

/cal Svva/JLtv (ov yap r\v /jLLKpbv 'A^oua? 
yevevOai Trjv ^Trdprrfv}, dveKafte Be /cal Aa/ceBai- 
IJLOVLWV rou? apiffTOVS, (j)v\aKa rrjs e\ev@epia<; 

4 eicelvov eX-TrlcravTas e^eiv. Bib Kal rrji> 
oiKiav Kal ovcriav e^apyvptcrOelcrav Kal 

1 Cf. the Flaminimw, chapter x. 

2 Cf. the Flamininus, ix. 5. 


PHILOPOEMEN, xiv. 7 -xv. 4 

their return in a body, but as the chances of flight 
disposed them severally, they fell into the hands of 
their enemies and were caught like birds about the 

XV. In consequence of this exploit Philopoemen 
was beloved by the Greeks and conspicuously 
honoured by them in their theatres, thus giving 
secret umbrage to Titus Flamininus, who was an 
ambitious man. For as Roman consul he thought 
himself more worthy of the Achaeans' admiration 
than a man of Arcadia, and he considered that his 
benefactions far exceeded those of Philopoemen, 
since by a single proclamation he had set free all 
those parts of Greece which had been subject to 
Philip and the Macedonians. 1 

After this Flamininus made peace with Nabis, 2 
and Nabis was treacherously put to death by the 
Aetolians. 3 Sparta was therefore in a state of con- 
fusion, and Philopoemen, seizing his opportunity, 
fell upon the city with an armed force, and partly 
by compulsion, partly by persuasion, brought it over 
to his purposes and made it a member of the 
Achaean league. This achievement brought him an 
amazing repute among the Achaeans, since through 
his efforts they had acquired a city of so great 
dignity and power (and indeed it was no slight 
matter that Sparta had become a member of the 
Achaean league) ; moreover, Philopoemen carried 
with him the principal men among the Spartans, 
who hoped to have in him a guardian of their 
liberties. Therefore, after they had confiscated the 
house and property of Nabis and obtained thereby a 

3 In 102 B.C. Nabia had called in the Aetolians to help him 
against the Achaeans and Romans (Livy, xxxv. 35-37). 



Kal eKarov Takdvrwv tyr)$>i,a-avro Swpeav 
avTw bovvai, IT peer fteiav virep TOVTCOV Tre/r^a^Te?. 
evOa T) teal Sietydvrj /caOapw? eVeu'O? o dvrjp ov 
SOKWV fjiovov, d\\a Kal &v apiaro?. irpwrov /j.ev 
<yap ovtiel? e/3ov\ero TWV ^TrapnaTwv av&pl TOI- 365 
ovr(D SiaXeyeaOai irepl ScopoSoKLas, a\\a Se&oi/co- 
T? Kal ava$v6(jivoi TrpoeftaKovro TOV 
6 TijjioXaov. eTreira Se ai)ro? 6 TtytioXao?, ft)? rj 

e^d\riv TroXiv, eariaOels Trapd TW <&I\OTTOL- 
Kal TTJV cre/jivoTTjTa T?)? oyitfXta? aurov Kal 
d(>e\eiav T^? $iaiT>is Kal TO ?}^ 
TTpocriTov ovSe evdK.wrov iiiro 

direan^'mrjae Trepl Trjs Scopeds, erepav 
& Tiva Trpotyaaiv TTJS 77/309 avTov o&ov Troirjad- 
ar^ero dTTicov. Kal 7rd\tv CK Bevrepou 
ravrbv eirade. Tpirrj Be 68w yu,o\t? 
e$r)\wcre rrjv TTpoOvjJiiav rr}? TroXtw?. 6 
be QiXoTroi/jL^v rjBecos dKovcras fjKev avro? ei? 
AaKe&aifjiova, Kal o'vvJBov\evaev avrot? fj.rj TOU? 
(f)i\ov$ Kal dyadovs SeKa^eiv, wv irpolKa rr}? 
dperris e^eaTiv diroKaveiv, d\\d rot/? Trovrjpov? 
Kal rrjv Tr6\iv ev TOO avveSpicp KaTaa-r 

Kal biafyOelpeiv, tva ru> \a/3eiv e 

TJTTOV evo-)(\olev avrol?' fte\,riov yap 
elvai TWV e~)(9pwv irapaipelcrOai rrjv irapprjcriav 

1 See the Aristides, iii. 4. 


hundred and twenty talents, they voted to make a 
present of the money to Philopoemen, and to send 
an embassy to Megalopolis on the matter. Here, 
indeed, it became perfectly clear that Philopoemen 
not only seemed to be, but actually was, a most 
excellent man. 1 For, to begin with, no Spartan was 
willing to confer with a man of his character about 


the acceptance of a gift, but they were all so reluc- 
tant and afraid to do it that they entrusted the 
business to a guest-friend of his, Timolaiis. And in 
the second place, Timolaiis himself, when he came to 
Megalopolis, having been entertained at the house 
of Philopoemen, and having learned thoroughly how 
dignified he was in his converse with others, how 
simple his ways of living, and how his character 
was nowhere to be approached and much less easy 
to be overcome by bribes, held his peace about 
the gift of money, and after giving some other 
excuse for his visit to him, went back home. And 
when he was sent a second time on the same errand, 
he did as before. On his third visit, however, he at 
last got so far as to acquaint Philopoemen with the 
earnest desire of his city. Then Philopoemen, who 
was pleased by what he heard, went in person to 
Sparta, and counselled the people there not to try 
to bribe good men who were their friends, and by 
whose virtues they could profit without payment of 
money, but rather to buy up and corrupt the bad 
men who were ruining the city by their factious 
conduct in the assembly, to the end that such might 
have their mouths stopped in consequence of their 
venality, and so be less annoying to their fellow- 
citizens ; for it was better, he said, to take away 
freedom of speech from their enemies rather than 




XVI. 'E-Trel Be 7rd\iv TOU? 

dtcovcras 6 crTaTo^ TMV 

ej3ov\eTo /coXd^eiv, ol Be et? 

voi Birdpa(T(Tov rrjv 
erretpciro TrpaiiveLV /ecu Kcnairaveiv rov 
rr}? opyrjs 6 ^C^oiroi^v, Si$d(TKa)V TOV Kaipov, 
a>? 'At'Tfo^oL' roO /SacrtXew? at 'PcofMaiwv ev TTJ 

K6Lcre xprj TOV ap^ovTa T?/Z' yvw/j.ijv %eiv, ra 

oliceia fjur) rciveiv, d\\a KOI irapi&elv TL teal Trapa- 

2 Kovaai TMV aaTavoevwv. ov 

TOV Aioffrdvovs, aXX' et? T^ AaK(i)vi/cr]v fj./3a- 
Xoi'ro? aytta T&) Ttrco /cal /3a8i6i>TO)v evdvs fVt 
rr/i^ 7r6\Lv, dyavarcT/ja'as 6 ^i^OTToifji^v, epyov ov 


fjie'ya teal ^ie<yd\(D (frpovijjutaTi To\/n,i]cra<;, 6i? TTJV 
AaK6$aifj.ova 7rapr)\0e KCU TOV re <TTpaTr)yov TMV 

'A^aiMV KOl TOV VTTdTOV TMV '^M/JLClitoV i'SiCOT?/? 

MV aTretfXe^cre, ra? 5' ev TTJ 7ro\ei rayoa^a? eiravae 
Kal KaTeaTrj<j6 rou? AaxeSaL/jiOVLOvs 7rd\tv 6i? TO 


3 XpoVw Be vGTepov e<yKa\ea-as TL rot? AafceBai- 
)aTi]<yMv o <&i\O7roi/j,r]V ra? /xev (pvyd? 

645 TrfV 7TO\tV, OyBoiJKOVTCL B ^TTap- 

aTreKTeivev, a>5 IToXuySi05 fyrjaLv, co? Be 

1 Philopoemen was for the sixth time general in 188 B.C. 

PHILOPOEMEN, xv. 6-xvi. 3 

from their friends. Such was his splendid spirit in 
matters of money. 

XVI. Soon, however, Diophanes, the general of 
the Achaean league, hearing that the Lacedaemo- 
nians were once more agitating for a change, deter- 
mined to punish them, and the Lacedaemonians 
determining upon war, were throwing the Pelopon- 
nesus into confusion. Here Philopoemen tried to 
mollify Diophanes and put a stop to his wrath, 
showing him what the occasion demanded, and that 
since King Antiochus and the Romans were hovering 
about in Greece with armies so great, it behoved the 
general of the league to pay attention to them, and 
not to stir up domestic troubles, but even to be 
somewhat oblivious to the transgressions of his 
colleagues. Diophanes, however, paid no heed to 
this advice, but invaded Laconia along with Titus 
Flamininus, and marched directly upon the city of 
Sparta. Incensed at this, Philopoemen ventured 
upon an act which was not lawful, nor even exactly 
just, but great and prompted by a great spirit. He 
went on past them into Sparta, and, private man 
though he was, shut out therefrom both the general 
of the Achaean league and the Roman consul, put 
an end to the disorders in the city, and brought the 
Lacedaemonians back again into the league, as they 
were at the outset. 

At a later time, however, when he had some 
ground for accusation against the Lacedaemonians, 
as general of the league l Philopoemen brought 
back its exiles to the city, and put to death eighty 
Spartans, according to Polybius, 2 or according to 

2 In a passage not extant. Livy gives the same number 
(xxxviii. 33). 



4 piaroKpaTtj^, Trei'TJKOvra KOI TpiaKO&ovs 
Be rei^rj KaOel\e, %oopav Be 7roXX?)i' d 
TrpOGeveLfie T0i9 Me7aXo7roX//ra9, ocroi Be rjaav 
VTTO T&v rvpdvvcov aTToBeBeLy/Aevoi TroXmu TJ/9 
^TrdpTf]^, /jLeTaiKi^ev CLTfavTa^ aTrdjwv et? 'A^ 
7r\r]V rpio-^iXiwv TOVTOVS Be aTTeiOovvTas /cal 
/3ov\o/j.ei>ovs aTre\9elv e/c T?}? 

\i]crev, eW* olov ecfiv /3 pl^wv CLTTO TWV 
TOVTWV ev Me7aX?7 TroXet aToav 

5 e'yu,7rj7rXa,uez'09 ^e TCOV Nafce&aifJLOviwv KOI Trap* 
d^iav 7r67rpa%6(TLV tTre/nftaii'wv, TO rrrepl TI-JV TTO\I- 
reiav ep<yov ayfjioraroi' e^eipyuaaro KOI TrapavoiJ.(i)- 
rarov. dveTKe <yap KOI Biecf)0ipe rrjv AvKovpyeiov 

ava^Kaaa^ TOL/? TratSa? avrwv /cal TOI)? 
rrjv *A%alici}V avri r>}? nrarpiov TraiBeiav 
, co? ovBeTrore fAi/cpbv ev rot9 Avxovpyov 

6 Tore jjiev ovv VTTO av^opwv fieydXtov 

vevpa TT}? vroXew? KTjJiiv TW ^tXoTroiyaew irapa- 

eyevovro xeipoSjOeis KOI rcnreivoi, 
B' vorrepov alr^crd/jLVOL Trapa 'Pa>fj.aicov TJ]V 

ecfrvyov TroXtreia^, dve\a(3ov Be teal 
rrjv Trdrptov, w? r^v dvvaTov e/c 
KOLKWV KOI <p0opd$ T^Xt/cauTT;?. 

XVII. 'Evrel ^e f Pct>/iatot9 o 77/309 'Avrloxov ev 366 
EXXa&t avvea'TTj ?roX6yuo9, ^ /xe^ IBicoT-rjs 6 
, opwv Be TOV 'AvrLo^ov avrov ev 
jrepl <yd[jLOvs KOL 7rapOeva)v 

1 In 184 B.C. (Livy, xxxix. 34). 

PHILOPOEMEN, xvi. 4 -xvn. i 

Aristocrates, three hundred and fifty. He also tore 
down the walls of the city, and cutting off a large 
part of its territory, annexed it to Megalopolis ; 
moreover, in the case of those who had been made 
citizens of Sparta by the tyrants, he removed them 
all into Achaia, with the exception of three thousand 
who would not obey him and were unwilling to go 
away from Sparta. These he sold into slavery, and 
then, as if in mockery of their fate, erected a portico 
in Megalopolis with the money which they brought. 
And now, glutting his anger at the Lacedaemo- 
nians and unworthily trampling upon them in their 
misery, he treated their constitution in the most 
cruel and most lawless fashion. For he took away 
and abolished the system of training which Lycurgus 
had instituted, and compelled their boys and their 
young men to adopt the Achaean in place of their 
hereditary discipline, being convinced that while 
they were under the laws of Lycurgus they would 
never be humble. 

For the time being, then, owing to their great 
calamities, the Spartans suffered Philopoemen to 
cut away, as it were, the sinews of their city, and 
became tractable and submissive ; but a while after- 
wards, 1 having obtained permission from the 
Romans, they abandoned the Achaean polity, and 
resumed and re-established that which had come 
down from their fathers, so far as was possible after 
their many misfortunes and great degeneration. 

XVII. When the Romans went to war with 
Antiochus in Greece, 2 Philopoemen was without 
command, and seeing that Antiochus himself was 
sitting idly down in Chalcis and spending his time 

1 In 191 B.C. Cf. the Flamininus, xv. 



ov /m$' wpav a"%o\d^ovTa, rou? Be 
ev ara^ia rro\\y Kal %co/?t? tY/e^tovwv ev rat? 
a^o/xe^ou? Kal Tpvfiwjnas, ij%0eTo yu,?; 
rore TWV J A^aiMv, /ecu 'Pco/Aauois e\eje 
' " crrpa- 

ev rot? Ka7rrj\LOi^ /careKO^a TOUTOU? 
2 Trai'Ta?." eVei e ViKiiaavres ol 'Pw/naloi rov 
'AvTioxov evefyvovro rot? f EXX?;w:ot 
l 7repie/3a\\ovTO Trj Swajjiei, T0i>9 


eVl Trai'Ta 7ro\\r .era rov 

Kal TO reXo? eyyvs rjv et? o TT)^ T^7;i^ e'Set 

<^epofJLevr]v e^iKeaOai, KaOdirep dyaOos 

TT/OO? KVfia &iepi$6fA6vo<? 6 ( &i\O7roi/jL'rjv ra 

evSi&ovai Kal irapeiKeLV rjvayKa^ero T 

Trepl &e TMV TrkeiffTwv Sia(f)ep6/jii>o<; TOU? TO> \eyeiv 

Kal Trpdrreiv ur^uoz/ra? avriairav eTreiparo 

T^ eXevBepiav. 

3 ^ApLcrraLvov $e rov M6ya\o7ro\iTov 
fjilv eV rot? 'A^euot? ^eyiarov, TOU? 8 

ael OepairevovTos Kal TOU? 'A^aiou? //,?; olo/Aevov 
&eiv evavnovcrOai /jLtjSe d^apicnelv eiceivoLS, ev 
TW crvveSpiw \eyerat, rov <&L\o7roifjiva aiwrrav 
dtcovovra Kal (Bapecos fyepew, re/V.0? Be VTT* opyrj? 
Bvaavacr^erovi'Ta TT/JO? TOZ^ 'Apicnaivov eiTrelv 
" O avOpwTre, rL aTrevBeis TT/V TTCTT /?&> /jLevrjv r>}? 

4 'EXX,a8o? eVt^eti/;" Mawou ^e roi) 'Pco/^aiwv inrd- 


PHILOPOEMEN, xvn. 1-4 

in a courtship arid marriage which were not suited 
to his years, 1 while his Syrian troops, in great dis- 
order and without leaders, were wandering about 
among the cities and living luxuriously, he was 
distressed because he was not general of the 
Achaeans at that time, and kept saying that he 
begrudged the Romans their victory. " For if I had 
been general," he said, " I would have cut off all 
these fellows in their taverns." But soon the 
Romans, after conquering Antiochus, applied them- 
selves more closely to the affairs of Greece. They 
encompassed the Achaean league with their power, 
since the popular leaders gradually inclined to their 
support ; their strength, under the guidance of the 
heavenly powers, grew great in all directions ; and 
the consummation was near to which the fortunes 
of Greece must come in their allotted revolution. 
Here Philopoemen, like a good helmsman contend- 
ing against a high sea, was in some points compelled 
to give in and yield to the times ; but in most he 
continued his opposition, and tried to draw to the 
support of freedom the men who were powerful in 
speech or action. 

Aristaenus the Megalopolitan 2 was a man of the 
greatest influence among the Achaeans, but he 
always paid court to the Romans and thought that 
the Achaeans ought not to oppose or displease them 
in any way. As this man was once speaking in the 
assembly, we are told that Philopoemen listened to 
him a while in silent indignation, but at last, over- 
come by anger, said to him : " My man, why art 
thou eager to behold the fated end of Greece ? ' 
Again, Manius, the Roman consul, after his victory 

1 Cf. the Flamininus, xvi. i. a Cf. chapter xiii. 4. 



Trapd TWV 'A^atwv OTTW? edcrwcri TOU? Aa/ceBai- 
ffrvydSas KaTe\6elv, KOL T/TOU TCLVTO TCO 
ft) Tre/oi TCO^ (pvydScov afyov 
o ( ) Xo7roi y u7;y ov Tot? (pvydcri 
/3ov\6fjLevo$ St' avrov Kal ra)v 'A%ai(t)v, aXXa /JLT 
Tirov jLtBe 'Patjiaicov diri TOVTO 

KCU crrparTiywv et9 TOVTTLOV auro? Karjyaye TOU? 
s. OUTW? et^e Ti Trpo? ra? e^ot'crta? UTTO 

XVIII. "H8?7 Se 7670^0)9 ero? e/3 

Se rwv 'A%aia)v crrpar^ycoi', ?i\iri^V ov 
exeivrjv TIJV dp^v aTroXe/zw? $id%iv, aXXa 
l TOU /3/ou TO \OLTTOV avTw [160^ fi<rv)(la<i 

r irpdy/JLara irape^eiv. co? yap a VQGOI 
rat? TWV (Tcofj^drcov pa)/AaL<$ 

, ovrws ev rat? 'EXX^z^/crat? 7r6\e(riv CTTI- 

2 \eLTTOvcn]s r/)? Sfmyuea)? 6X7776 TO <pi\6veiKov. ov 

aXXa NeyLteo't? Ti? wcnrep ddXfjrrji' evSpo- 
7T/3O? rep/jiacrt rov ftuov KareftaXe. \6yerai 
yap ev TIVI crv\\oyw TWV Trapovrwv eTraivovvrwv 
dvSpa Seivov elvai SoKovvra Trepl cnparriyiav 
elirelv TOV QiXoTroLfj-eva, " Kat TTW? dlfiov etceivov 
\oyov "x elv r v dvopos, ocms ?'/Xco t^wv VTTO 

3 TT o\ [Jiiwv ;" fjieO* i]/jLepa^ Se o\[ya<? 
o Meo-cr?;i^o?, avOpwjros i&ia re TM 

Kal TO?? aXXot? eira^Orj^ Bid 
Kal aico\acriav, njv re M.effO'iyvrjv avre- 

1 Cf. chapter xiii. 3. 

PHILOPOEMEN, xvn. 4 -xvm. 3 

over AntiochuSj asked the Achaeans to permit the 
exiles from Sparta to go back home, and Titus 
Flamininus joined Manius in making this request. 
But Philopoemen successfully opposed the request, 
not out of hostility to the exiles, but from a desire 
that they should owe this favour to himself and the 
Achaeans, and not to Flamininus and the Romans; 
indeed, as general for the following year he restored 
the exiles to their city. 1 To such a degree did his 
lofty spirit lead him to strive and contend against 
men in power. 

XVIII. But being now seventy years of age, 
and for the eighth time general of the Achaeans, 2 
he hoped not only to pass that year of office without 
war, but also that affairs would permit him to spend 
the rest of his life in peace and quiet. For as our 
diseases seem to lose their virulence as our bodily 
strength declines, so among the Greek cities the 
spirit of contention lapsed as their power waned. 
Nevertheless, some divine displeasure threw him 
down, like an all but victorious runner, at the very 
goal of his life. For it is recorded that at some 
conference, when others present were lavishing 
praise upon one who was reputed to be a redoubtable 
general, Philopoemen contemptuously said : " Yet 
why should any account be made of this man, who 
has been taken alive by his enemies ? ' And a few 
days afterwards Deinocrates the Messenian, a man 
who had a private quarrel with Philopoemen 3 and 
was obnoxious to everybody else because of his 
baseness and unbridled life, induced Messene to 

2 In 182 B.C. Plutarch passes over the years 187-183, 
during which the Achaean league and Philopoemen came 
increasingly into collision with the Roman power. 

8 Cf. the Flamininus t xvii. 3. 



rwv 'A^a^wy, teal Kcofirjv TIJV KO\OV /jLe 

6 Be ^>L\oTCoLfJL^v eru^e /nev ev "Apyei 
rrvOofJievo^ Be ravra o-vvereivev et<? M.yd\i]v TTO\IV 
i}/jiepa fJLia crraStou? 7rXeioz/a9 f) rerpa/coaiov^. 

4 KaKeWev evOvs JBot]6ei rou? lirirel^ avaXaficov, 
o'lirep rjcrav eVSo^oraroi fJiev TWV Trokir&v, vkoi 8e 
KO/jLi&f), Si evvoiav TOV <&i\oTTOi/j,evos KOI ^\ov 
e6e\ovral ava-rparevovre^. iTTTracrdfjievoi Se TT/OO? 
rr)v Mecrcnjvrfv Koi Trepl TOV HLvdvSpov \6<$>ov 

5 aTravrwvTi TW Aeivorcpdrei avjATreaovTes eicelvov 367 

ev erp&lravro, TMV Be TrevraKocriwv, 01 rrjv 



ov, avOis ava TOV? Xo(/>ou5 aOpoL 
Beicras 6 <&i\07roL/nriv icvK\a>6f)Vat KOL TWV i 
^eL^ofJLevo^ ave^pei Bia TOTTWV %a\7ra)v, 
ovpaywv real 7ro\\dfci$ avTe%\avvd)V rot? TroXe- 
fcal oXw? 7ri(T7ra>iJLVO<i e'(/>' eavrov, ov 
VTWv dvT/A/3a\,elv eKGLvwv, a\\a Kpavyais 

6 tea Trepibpofjials xpwuevwv airoOev. a^>i(TTd^evo^ 
ovv 7roXXa/a? Sia rou? veavi<T/cov<5 /cal KU& eva 
TrapaTre/uLTTtov e\a6ev ev TroXXoi? aTToiAovwOels 
TroXe/itoi?. teal trvvatyai fiev els %et/5a? ovoelf 
T6\fJ>r](j-ev avrti), iroppwOev Be fia\\6/Jievos real 
ftia&^evos 7T/30? %a)/ota TrerpwBrj /cal TrapdiepTjfjLva 
vaXeTrco? /u,T%e/)t^6TO /cal Kare^aive TOV 'ITTTTOV. 

, r\\\ \ ~ r\> / A^" 

7 avTO) oe TO fiev 7>;pa? VTTO afffcrj&eaxi TroAA-r;? 
\a(f)pov ty teal Trpbs ovBev ejjiTroBiov t? TO 


PH1LOPOEMEN, xvm. 3-7 

revolt from the Achaean league, and was reported 
about to seize the village called Colonis. Philopoe- 
men at the time lay sick of a fever at Argos, but 
on learning these facts, he hastened to Megalopolis 
in a single day, a journey of more than four hundred 
furlongs. From there he at once set out for the 
rescue, taking with him the horsemen. These were 
the city's most prominent men, but altogether 
young, and serving as volunteers under Philopoemen 
out of good will and admiration for him. They rode 
off towards Messene and encountered Deinocrates, 
who came to meet them at Evander's hill. Him 
they put to flight; but the five hundred men who 
were guarding the open country of Messene suddenly 
attacked them, and when those who had before 
been worsted saw this, they collected together along 
the hills. Then Philopoemen, fearing that he would 
be enveloped, and trying to spare his horsemen, 
withdrew over difficult ground, bringing up the rear 
himself and frequently riding out against the enemy, 
and trying to draw their attacks entirely upon him- 
self. They did not venture, however, to return his 
attacks, but merely shouted and threatened his 
flanks. Withdrawing from the line frequently, then, 
to spare his young men, and sending them one by 
one into safety, before he was aware of it he was 
left alone among numerous enemies. Even then no 
one ventured to come to close quarters with him, 
but he was pelted with missiles from a distance and 
forced upon rocky and precipitous places, so that he 
had difficulty in managing his horse and kept tearing 
him with the spur. His age, owing to his generous 
exercise, was not burdensome, and in no way 
impeded his escape ; but at that time his body 

VOL. x. T 39 


i, Tore 8e KOI 8ia TTJV dppw&riav TOV 
cr(t)/j,aros eVSeoO? yeyovoTos /cal Sid Trjv O&OITTO- 
piav KdTaKOTTOV, ftapvv ovra /cal 



Oova-ifi 6KtTO TTO\VV y^povov avavo'os, wcrTe teal 
Tou? TroXe^ou? TtBvavai So^a^Ta? CLVTOV 
8 peiv o-rpe(f)iv TO awjjia /cal (TKV\eveii>. eVei 

aTrecTTpe^ov avTov ra? %elpas OTTicra) /cal 
fjyov, vfipei ^pco/jLevoi 7ro\\fj teal \oi8o- 
pia /car' dv$po<; ovbe ovap av TTOTC iraOelv VTTO 

XIX. Ol 8' eV TTJ TroXef TTJ fjLev ajyeXia 

(TTCO? 67rap0VTS TjOpOL^OVTO TTCpl Ta? TTu 

e elSov e\KOp.vov TOV <>i\O7roi/Aeva Trap 
T)}? re So^? /cat TWV e/HTrpoaOev epywv /cal Tpo- 
Traiwv, ri\e>]crav ol TrXeicrrot /cal crvvrjX'yricrav, 
cocrTe real Satcpvcrai /cal TIJV avOpwiriin^v e/c(j)\av- 
picrai ^vva/jLtv &>? CLTCIGTOV /cal TO /jLySev ovcrav. 
2 ovTo) Se KaTa /JLt/cpov et? TroXXou? <^L\di'Opwrro<; 
Xoyo? co? /JiviifjiOvevTeov eii) TWV TrpocrOev 
/cal T^}? e\ev6epias rjv direo'coKev 
^ e^eXacra? TOV Tvpai>vov. oXijoi Se 

L TU> 

TOV avSpa /cal KTeuvetv e/ce\vov w? fiapvv vroXe- 
real Sva/j-eiXiKTov, ai>T(o re Aeivo/cpaTei 
el Siatyvyoi Ka&u/Bpio-jLievos VTT 

3 avTov /cal eovcbs atiaXwro?. ov 

avTov et? TOV /caXov/^evov 
KaTa i yeioi> OVTG Trvevjjia \a/ji{3dvov OVTG 


PHILOPOEMEN, xvm. y-xix. 3 

was enfeebled by sickness and worn out with 
a long journey, so that he was heavy and stiff, 
and at length his horse stumbled and threw 
him to the ground. His fall was a heavy one and 
his head was hurt, and he lay for a long time 
speechless, so that his enemies thought him dead 
and tried to turn his body over and strip it of its 
armour. But when he raised his head and opened 
his eyes, they threw themselves in a throng upon 
him, tied his hands behind his back, and led him 
away, treating with great insolence and contumely 
a man who could never have even dreamed that he 
would suffer such a fate at the hands of Deinocrates. 
XIX. The people of Messene, wonderfully elated 
at the news, gathered in throngs at the gates. But 
when they saw Philopoemen dragged along in a 
manner unworthy of his fame and of his former 
exploits and trophies, most of them were struck with 
pity and felt sympathy for him, so that they actually 
shed tears and spoke with bitterness of the incon- 
stancy and vanity of human greatness. And so, 
little by little, many were led to say humanely that 
they ought to remember his former benefactions, 
and especially how he had restored to them their 
freedom by expelling the tyrant Nabis. But there 
were a few who, to gratify Deinocrates, urged that 
the captive should be tortured and put to death as 
a stern and implacable enemy, and one more than 
ever to be feared by Deinocrates himself in case he 
made his escape after having been taken prisoner 
and loaded with insults by him. However, they 
carried Philopoemen into the Thesaurus, as it was 
called, a subterranean chamber which admitted 
neither air nor light from outside and had no door, 

3 11 


evcf) Karafc\io/jL6vov, evravda 
teal TOV \idov 67rippdj;avTes av&pas 
KVK\U> Trepie<TTi]crav. 

Ol 8' tTTTret? TWV 'A%aiwv eV TT}? <pv<yr)$ dva\a- 
avrovs, &>? ovSa/nov (fravepbs TJV o 
, a\X* e&oicei TeOvdvai, TroKvv p.ev 

avaKa\ovfJievoi TOV avSpa 
\6yov &)? ala"%pav crtorijpiav Kal aSitcov 
Trpoe/jievoi, rot? TroXe/A/ot? TOI 
5 d<j)i&i]O'avTa rov ^r/v &i? avrovs, erreiTa 

KOL TroXvTrpayfjLOvovvTCS eTrvOovro TVJV 
avrov ical 8iijyye\\ov et? ra? TroXet? 
01 Se av/j.(j)opav TroLovfiev 
f^ev eyvwaav TOV avBpa Trapa rwv 
Trpecrfieiav 7re///v/rai>T65, avrol 8e Trape- 

XX. Ouroi yLtez^ oui^ ravra eTrpaTrov. 'O Se 
keLVOKpdrrjs /xaXicrra TOI^ %pbvov co? crcoTijpiov ru> 
<&i\o7ro[fjLVi BeBoiKa)? Kal (j)0daai, TCL irapd TWV 
'A^a^wi/ y8ouXo/xe^o5, eVel 1/1;^ errijXOe Kal TO 
7rX?}#o? dTre^coprjcre ra)v MecrGrjvioov, dvoi%a<$ TO 
Bea/jtwrrfpiov elcre-nefji'^re ^yuocrtoz/ OLKerrjv (pdp/jia- 
KOV KopL^ovTa, TrpoaeveyKeiv Kal TrapaaTrjvai 368 
2 H-t'X.pi' av eKTrirj K\evcras. erv^e p,ev ovv ev TO) 
^Xa/^vSiO) KaTaKL/ji6vos, ov KaOevSwv, aXXa \v7rrj 
Kal dopvftw Karexojjievos, l&aiv Se ^>w? Kal Trape- 


TOV (papfjiaKOv, a-vvaya<ya)v yuoXt? eavTov VTT 

xal ^eatei^o? rwTrcrev el 


PHILOPOEMEN, xix. 3 -xx. 2 

but was closed by dragging a huge stone in front of 
it. Here they placed him, and after planting the 
stone against it, set a guard of armed men round 

Meanwhile the horsemen of the Achaeans re- 
covered themselves after their flight, and when 
Philopoemen was nowhere to be seen, but was 
thought to be dead, they stood for a long time 
calling aloud upon their leader and reproaching one 
another for having won an unlawful and shameful 
safety by abandoning to the enemy their general, 
who had been prodigal of his life for their sakes. 
Then they went forward in a body, and by diligent 
effort learned of his capture, and sent word of it to 
the cities of the Achaeans. The Achaeans felt that 
they had suffered a great calamity, and determined 
to send an embassy and demand Philopoemen from 
the Messenians, while they themselves prepared an 
expedition against the city. 

XX. The Achaeans, then, were thus engaged. But 
Deinocrates, who feared that delay was the one 
thing most likely to save Philopoemen, and wished 
to forestall the efforts of the Achaeans, when night 
came on and the multitude of Messene had dis- 
persed, opened the prison and sent in a public 
official with poison, ordering him to give it to Philo- 
poemen and to stand by his side until he had drunk 
it. Now, Philopoemen was lying down wrapped in 
his soldier's cloak, not sleeping, but overwhelmed 
with trouble and grief. When, however, he saw a 
light and a man standing by him holding the cup of 
poison, he pulled himself together as much as his 
weakness permitted and sat up. Then taking the 
cup he asked the man if he had heard anything 



TI Trepl TWV iTTTrecov KOI /uLa\,i(Tra AvKopra 
3 a/jievos eariv. elTrovros & rdv0p(*)7rov St,a7re<j)ev- 
yevai TOVS TTO\\OV^, eVeWucre rrj rceffiaXf), real 


el r navra 


avrov cnreicX.ivev, ov TroXXa TrpdyjjiaTa rco 
O) Trapacr^cov, aX,V aTroaftecrOeis TCL%V bid 

XXI. '!<; ovv o Trepl TT}? reXefr^? \6yos rjftev 
TOU? *A%aiov$, ra? /xei; TroXe*? CLVTWV Koivrj 
Karr)(f)ia real 7rev0o<$ el^ev, ol &' ev r)\iKia 

ovS* TIVTIVOVV dva(3o\ijv eTronjaavro 

a\X' e\6/u,i>oi crrpaTTj'yov Av/coprav et? rr/z^ Mecrcr?;- 

z^ta^ eve/3a\ov KOI KCIKWS ejroiovv rqv ^wpav, d^pi 

2 ov &v/j,<f)povrj(7avTe<; eSe^avro rou? 'A^a^ou^. KOI 

auro? avrov (f)0daas 

Si? CLVTWV l drreOvriGKOv, ocroi? Be teal 
TOVTOVS eV aliciais airoKov^kvov^ 
ev o Av/copras. TO 8e (rwfAa xav- 
avTov fcal TO, \eityava GwOevres et? 
v$piav dve^evryvvcrav, OVK draKTCOs ovSe co? 6 


3 fjil^avre^. rjv /J,ev jap eVre^ayw/ueVou? IBeiv, 
Se TOL>? avrovs /cal Satcpvovras, ?]v Be TOU? e"j(j9povs 
Secr/j-iovs dyofJLevovs. avrrjv Se Tr]v vSpiav VTTO 
7r\.r)9ov<; raivi&v re /cal cne<pdvo)v 
6 rov (TTpaTijyov rwv 

OJV Bekker and Blass have 5t* OWTW^ (died &y their 
own hands), with Stephanus. 

PHILOPOEMEN, xx. 2 -xxi. 3 

about the horsemen, and particularly about Lycortas, 
and on being told by him that the greater part of 
them had escaped, he nodded his head, and with a 
kindly look at the man said to him : " That is good 
news, if we have not wholly lost." Without another 
word and even without a sigh he drained the cup 
and laid himself down again. He did not give the 
poison much to do, but breathed his last speedily, so 
weak was he. 

XXI. Accordingly, when the report of his death 
reached the Achaeans, their cities were filled with 
general dejection and grief, and the men of military 
age, together with the members of the council, 
assembled at Megalopolis. With no delay whatso- 
ever they proceeded to take revenge. They chose 
Lycortas general, invaded Messenia, and ravaged 
the country, until the Messenians with one consent 
received them into their city. Deinocrates antici- 
pated their vengeance by making away with himself, 
but all the others who had voted to put Philopoemen 
to death they slew, and as for those who would have 
had him tortured also, these Lycortas seized and 
held for a more excruciating death. Then they 
burned Philopoemen's body, collected his ashes in 
an urn, and set out for home, not in loose or pro- 
miscuous order, but with a blending of triumphal 
procession and funeral rites. For their heads were 
wreathed with garlands while their eyes were full of 
tears, and they led their foes along with them in 
chains. The urn itself, almost hidden from sight 
by a multitude of fillets and wreaths, was borne by 
Polybius, the son of the Achaean general, and about 



IIoXu/:?to9 KCU Trepl CLVTOV ol irpwroi, TWV ' 
ol Be a-Tpanwrai, ft)7rXfcr//,eVot JJLGV avrot, rot? B* 
K6Koa-/ji,r)/jLvois eTrrjKoXovQovv, ovre, olov 
ei TOCTOUT&), KaTij^els ovre rfj viicy 
4 yavpicovT<s. K Se TWV Bia jjiecrov Trokewv KCU 
aTTavTwvres, wcnrep avrov UTTO 

e-jraviovra Se^iovftevoi, TT}? vSpias efaJTrrovro, KOI 
6t? MeyaXrjv iroXiv. o>9 ovv avvave- 
vTols ol TrpecrftvTepoi jmera yvvai/cwv 

/cal TraiSayv, oXo^>f/)/zo? ijSrj Sta TTOLVTOS e^wpei 


av&pa KOI ySa/oeo)? ^epovaav, oio/jLvrjv avvairo- 
/36/3\r)/cevai TO Trpwreveiv ev 

fiev ovv, a>? etVo?, eVSo^ft)?, real Trepl TO 

ol TWV Mecr<r?^t&)^ 

ovawv Be TTO\\WV fJLev eiKovwv avrov, 
/jLeya\o)v Be TifJLMV, a? at 7roXe^9 


ave\elv cnrdcras KOI 

avroi', ev$eiKi>i>iJL6vos, wcnrep eri ^COVTCI, 
6 f P&)yiiatoi9 TToXe/ztoi' /cat KaKovovvyeveaOai. \6ywv 
Be \^6evTwv /cal Ho\v/3iov Trpos TOV 

6 Moyu/it09 ouTe ot' 
avBpos evBo^ov Tifias atyavlcrai, 
OVK o\l<ya T0t9 7Tpl TLTOV /cal Mdvtov evavnco- 
, d\\a T^9 %peta9 rrjv dperrjv efcelvoi KOI TO 

1 In 146 B.C., at the close of Rome's war with the Achaean 


PHILOPOEMEN, xxi. 3-6 

him were the chief men of the Achaeans. The 
soldiers followed after, in full armour themselves, 
and with their horses decorated ; they were neither 
dejected in view of their great affliction nor exultant 
over their victory. Moreover, the people from the 
cities and villages on the way came to meet them, 
as if receiving Philopoemen on his return from an 
expedition ; they laid their hands upon his urn, and 
accompanied him to Megalopolis. And so when 
they had been joined by the old men and by the 
women and children, a lamentation at once spread 
through the entire army and into the city, which 
longed for the presence of Philopoemen and was 
grievously cast down at his death, feeling that with 
him it had lost its supremacy among the Achaeans. 

He was buried, then, as was fitting, with con- 
spicuous honours, and at his tomb the captive 
Messenians were stoned to death. Many statues of 
him were erected and many honours decreed him by 
the cities. All these a Roman, in the disastrous 
days of Greece following the fall of Corinth, 1 
attempted to have removed, and he attacked the 
memory of Philopoemen himself, accusing him, as if 
still alive, of having been a malevolent enemy of the 
Romans. After the proposal had been discussed 
and Polybius had spoken in opposition to Philopoe- 
men's detractor, neither Mummius nor the members 
of the commission 2 would consent that the honours 
paid to an illustrious man should be obliterated, 
although he had made no little opposition to Flami- 
ninus and Manius. These judges distinguished, as 

2 A commission of ten, appointed by the Roman senate to 
settle the affairs of Greece. It was before this body that 
Philopoemen's memory was attacked and defended. 



Ka\6v, &>9 eoirce, rou 

KOI TrpocrijKovTws rot? jjiev a)(j)\ov(n, fJiicrOov /cal 
Trapa TWV ev TraOovruiV, rot? 5* a 
6(f)L\(T0ai Trapa r&v dyad&v del 

Tavra irepl 


it would appear, between virtue and necessity, 
between honour and advantage. They rightly and 
fitly considered that benefactors ought always to 
receive reward and gratitude from their beneficiaries, 
and good men honour from the good. 
So much concerning Philopoemen. 



I. *Ov Be 7rapa/3d\\o/jLv avrw, TITO? KOIVTIOS 369 
QXafjiLvlvos, IBeav p,ev OTTOIOS rjv Trdpecm Oedcra- 
crOat, TO?? /3ov\.OfJLvois airo r^9 ev 'Pco/Ay ^aXfc^ 
elicovos, T) Keircu irapa rbv /jLeyav 'A7r6\\cova rov 
K Kap^Sovos avTLKpv rov iTTTroSpo/jLOV, <ypd/jL/jLa- 
aiv ( E^\\rjviKol<; eTriyeypa/jL/Aevi], TO Be i]0os o^u? 
\eyerai yevecrOat KOI TT/JO? opyrjv Kal TT^O? 
2 ov /JLTJV o/toto)9, aXX' e\a(f)po<f /iiev ev TO) K 

KOL OVK eirifjiovos, TT/DO? Se ra? ^ 

01^/370? rat rot? evepyeTrjflela-i Std Trai^ro? wcnrep 

evvovs, teal TrpoOvnos, a>5 

TOU? ei^ TreTrovOoras UTT' avrov 

ae\ KOL 

dpl(J'TWV KCU 

trpd^ewv avrovpyos elvai, KOI rot? Seo- 
v 7ra0eii> ^a\\ov r) rot? ev Troifjcrat, Svva- 
fyaipe, TOV? [lev v\r)v r>}? apery?, TOU? B 
axnrep a^TtTraXou? TT^O? $6av f)yov^evo<^. 
3 Tlai$ev0el<> Be TrcuBeiav TTJV Bia TOU> edwv TWV 
arTpaTi(t)TLK<>)v, TroXXoi;? Tore teal ^eyd\ov<{ 



I. IN parallel with Philopoemen we shall put 
Titus Quintius Flamininus. What his outward 
appearance was may be seen by those who wish it 
from the bronze statue of him at Rome. It stands 
by the side of the great Apollo from Carthage, 
opposite the Circus, 1 and has upon it an inscription 
in Greek characters. As to his disposition, he is 
said to have been quick to show anger as well as to 
confer favours, though not in like extent. For he 
was gentle in his punishments and not persistent, 
whereas in his favours he was unremitting, always 
well disposed towards his beneficiaries as though 
they were his benefactors, and eager to protect at all 
times and preserve those who had ever met with kind- 
ness at his hands, as though they were his choicest 
possessions. But since he was covetous of honour 
and fame, he desired that his noblest and greatest 
achievements should be the result of his own efforts, 
and he took more pleasure in those who wanted to 
receive kindness than in those who were able to 
bestow it, considering that the former were objects 
upon which he could exercise his virtue, while the 
latter were his rivals, so to speak, in the struggle for 

From his earliest years he was trained in the arts 
of war, since at that time Rome was carrying on 

1 The Circus Flamininus is meant, which was erected in 
221 B.C. by the censor Flamininua Nepos. 



ttya)i/<bjU,eV?7? dywvas Kal TWV vewv 
ev TW (TrpaTevecrOai crTparrjyeiv BiBacrKo- 

TTpO)TOl> fJLeV V TO) 7T/30? 'AwifidV 7TO\Uq) 

VTrarevovn M.apfce\\w o-vvecrrparev- 
4 craro. Kal Map/ce\Xo? /j,ev eveSpa 

^T\.6VTr)CT, TtTO? & T>}? 7Tpl 

KOI Tapavros avTov TO Sevrepov r)\w KOTOS e 
evSoKLfMtjcrev ov% fjTrov eVt rot? 
Kara rrjv crrpaTeLav. Sib Kal 
airoLicwv et? Svo 7roXei9, Ndpveidv re KOI K&vaav, 


II. ToOro 8e avrbv eTrfjpe /jLaXiara rav 3ia 
/uLaov Kal crvvtjdeis rot? i^eoi9 ap^a? vTrepfSavra, 
Sr]fjiap%iav Kal aTpaT^yiav Kal dyopavo/niav, evOvs 
avrov uTrare/a? d^iovv Kal Karyei TOU? djrb rwv 
K\ripov%iwv %a)V TrpoOvfJiovs. rcov $e irepl 
<f>ov\/3iov Kal Wdviov Brj/jidp^cov I 
Seivbv elvai Xeyovrcov avbpa veov e/? Tr)v 
dp^rjv icrlBid^e(TOai irapa TOU? vouovs, olov are- 
\eGTOv en, TWV TrpcoTwv lepwv Kal avcrrrjpiaiv 
2 TroXireta?, 77 jmev av^K\7)To^ drreScoKe TM 

TrjV -fyrifyov, o Be Brjuos aTreBei^ev avrov viraiov 
aera ^e^rov Al\iov, Kalirep OVTTO) TpiaKOvra errj 
r/eyovora. K\r)pw Be \ayxdvei TOV TT/OO? 
Kal Ma/ce^o^a? Tr6\e/Jiov, evrv^ia Tivl TWV ' 
cov av\\a')((jL>v Trpdyuaai Kal avQ p^ir oi<$ ov iravra 
{Siq %pa) pevov 



many great contests and her young men from the 
very outset were taught by service as soldiers how 
to command soldiers. To begin with, then, he 
served as military tribune in the war against 
Hannibal under Marcellus the consul. Marcellus 
tell into an ambush and lost his life/ but Titus was 
appointed governor of the country about Tarentum 
and of Tarentum itself, now captured for the second 
time. Here he won a good name, no less for his 
administration of justice than for his conduct in the 
field. For this reason he was also chosen director- 
in-chief of the colonists sent out to the two cities of 
Narnia and Cosa. 

II. This success more than anything else so 
exalted his ambition that he ignored the intervening 
offices which young men generally sought, the offices 
of tribune, praetor, and aedile, and thought him- 
self worthy at once of a consulship ; so he became a 
candidate for that office, with the eager support of 
his colonists. But the tribunes Fulvius and Manius 
opposed his course, and said that it was a monstrous 
thing for a young man to force his way into the 
highest office contrary to the laws, before he had 
been initiated, as it were, into the first rites and 
mysteries of government. The senate, however, 
referred the matter to the votes of the people, and 
the people elected him consul 2 along with Sextus 
Aelius, although he was not yet thirty years old. 
The lot assigned him to the war with Philip and the 
Macedonians, and it was a marvellous piece of good 
fortune for the Romans that he was thus designated 
for a field of activity where the people did not 
require a leader relying entirely upon war and 

1 In 208 B.C. Cf. the Marcellus, xxviii. f. a In 198 B.C. 



aXXa ireiOol teal 6/J,i\Ca /taXXoi> aX&>cr///,o9. 
3 ^XtTrTrco yap rjv (TTo/J.a)/j.a /JL6V et9 nd^rjv CLTTO- 

T) MaKeB6vO)V dp%1J, P^/^ 1 ! Be 7TO\/JLOV 

rpifirjv expVTOS Kal xoprjyia /cal Karat^uyrj fcal 
opyavov oXco? T^? fyakaryyos rj rwv 
^vvajjiis, wv fjirj Sta\vdei>TO)V CLTTO rou 
/.ua? /JLO,^!^ V K *) v epyov 6 777109 avrov 
4 77 S' 'EX\a9 ouTTco vroXXa crvvevrjveyjLievr) ' 
a\\a Tore Trpcorov eTTLfiLyvv^evr] ra?9 
el ^i fyvcrei, re xprjarbs rjv o ap^wv KOI ~\.6ya> 
/jid\\ov rj 7ro\/Jiw ^/?co / ae^o9, evTvy%dvovTi re 370 
Trpo&fjv TTiOavoTris Kal TrpaoTTjs Iviv'^'^avo^vw 
l roz^09 7rXet<TT09 vTrep TWV SiKalwv, OVK av 


rjydTTijcre. ravra fj,ev ovv eVl TWV TTpd^ewv avrov 

III. HvvOavoj^evos Be 6 Ttro9 TOi;9 Trpb eavrov 
<TTpar 77701^9, rovro /uez/ ^OV^TTLKIOV, rovro &e 
otye 7779 co/oa9 /i/3aXo^ra9 et9 Ma/ce- 
iav Kal rou TroXe'/aof /5 j paSea)9 d 

2 7T/909 TOl^ ^>L\i7T7rOV, OVK O)6TO 

OIKOI rbv eviavrbv ev Tip,ai<$ Kal 
vcrrepov e^u>p/JL^cra 
oura)9 /cat auTO9 eviavrbv eTriKepSdvai rrj 

TOV fj,ev vTraTevaas, rq> Be 7roX6ya7;cra9> aXX' O 

TITUS FLAMININUS, n. 2-111. 2 

violence, but were rather to be won over by per- 
suasion and friendly intercourse. For the realm of 
Macedonia afforded Philip a sufficiently strong force 
for actual battle, but in a war of long duration his 
phalanx was dependent for its vigour, its support, 
its places of refuge, and in a word for its entire 
effectiveness, upon the states of Greece, and unless 
these were detached from Philip, the war with him 
would not be a matter of a single battle. Greece, 
however, had not yet been brought into much 
contact with the Romans, and now for the first time 
was drawn into political relations with them. Unless, 
therefore, the Roman commander had been a man of 
native goodness who relied upon argument more 
than upon war, and unless he had been persuasive 
when he asked an audience and kind when he 
granted one, ever laying the greatest stress upon 
what was right and just, Greece would not so easily 
have been satisfied with a foreign supremacy instead 
of those to which she had been accustomed. How- 
ever, this will be made clear in the story of his 

III. Titus learned that the generals who had 
preceded him in this field, first Sulpicius, and then 
Publius Villius, had invaded Macedonia late in the 
season, had prosecuted the war slowly, and had 
wasted time in manoeuvring for position or in long 
range skirmishes with Philip to secure roads and 
provisions. These men had squandered the year of 
their consulship at home in the honours and political 
activities of their office, and afterwards had set out 
on their campaigns. But Titus did not think it 
right to imitate them and thus add a year to his 
term of office, acting as magistrate during one, and 

3 2 7 


Trapao"%eiv, ra<; fiev ev ry TroXet Tf^ia? Kai rrpo- 

3 eS/ota? d<j)7jKev } airier d/ievo? Be rrapd T?}? /3ov\f)<? 
TOV dBe\(f>bv avra) Aev/ciov ap^ovra vewv crva-rpa- 
Teveiv, KOI T&V fjierd ^KyjTriutvo^ ev 'l/Brjpia pew 
'AaBpovfiav, ev Aifivrj Be 'AvvLftav avrov fcara- 
fjLe^a^rifjievwv rou? aK^a^ovra^ en real 7rpoQvjJ,ovs 
dva\a/3cov wcrTrep <TTOyita>/ia, Tpia"%i\iov$ yevo- 
yu-eVou?, et? rrjv "Hireipov acr^aXco? SieTrepa^e. 

4 Kai TOV IIoTrXfoi' evpwv yu-era TT}<? Svvd/j,ea>s avri- 

TW ^>iXt7T7r&) ra? rrepl TOV 
TTOTa/jibv e'^oXa? real TCL crTevd (pv\aT- 
TOVTI TcoKvv r;S?; xpovov, ovSev Be TrepalvovTa 
Bid Trjv o^vpoT'rjTa TWV ^copicov, 7rape\a/3e TO 
Kai TOV HorrXiov aTTOTreyU^a? KO,T- 
TOU? TOTTOVS. elcrl Be o%vpol /nev oi>% 
TMV rrepl ra Te/^mj, aXX?; Be BevBpcov, a)? 
exeivoi, Kai ^Xwyoor^ra v\r)<; Kai StaT/06y3a5 

5 \ei/uwva<; rjBels OVK e^ovaiv. opcov Be 
Kai v^j-)\a)v KaTepa)0ev i? fiiav 
yicrTrjv Kai (SaOelav (JVfjL^epo^ev 

6 "A-v/^o? Kai cr^r/fjia Kai ra^o? e^o/jLOtourai 
TOV Tltjveiov, Trjv JLLCV d\\Tjv drracrav d 
VTTaipeiav, CKTO/jirjV Be KprjfAvcoBr) Kai aTevijv rrapd 
TO peWpov dTTO\ei7rwv aTpaTrov, ovBe aXX&)9 pa- 
Biav aTpaTevjmaTi Bie\Qelv, el Be Kai (f)v\dTToiTo, 
Traz^reXw? arropov. 

IV. 'H<rai/ fjiev ovv ol TOV TLTOV djeiv KVK\W 
Bid TT;? &aa-(rapiJTiBos fcaTa AVKOV eurropov 


TITUS FLAMININUS, m. 2 -iv. i 

as general for a second. On the contrary, he was 

ambitious to prosecute the war at the same time 

that he served as consul, and therefore renounced 

his honours and special privileges in the city, and 

after asking the senate that his brother Lucius 

might accompany him on his expedition as naval 

commander, he took with him as the main part of 

his force those of Scipio's soldiers who were still in 

full vigour of body and spirit after conquering 

Hasdrubal in Spain and Hannibal himself in Africa 

(they were three thousand in number), and crossed 

safely into Epirus. He found Publius Villius 

encamped with his forces over against Philip, who 

for a long time now had been guarding the narrow 

passes along the river Apsus. Publius was making 

no progress, owing to the strength of his adversary's 

position, and Titus therefore took over his army, 

sent Publius home, and began an examination of the 

ground. It has no less natural strength than the 

Vale of Tempe, but is without the beautiful trees, 

green woods, agreeable haunts, and pleasant meadows 

which there abound. Great and lofty mountains on 

either side slope down and form a single very large 

and deep ravine, and through this the Apsus dashes 

with a volume and speed which make it the equal 

of the Peneius. Its water covers all the rest of the 

ground at the foot of the mountains, but leaves a 

cut, precipitous and narrow, for a path along past 

its current ; this path would not be easy for an army 

to traverse at any time, and when guarded, it would 

be utterly impassable. 

IV. There were some, therefore, who tried to have 
Titus lead his forces by a roundabout way through 



ooov xal paoiav 7ri^eipovvTe<;. o Be BeBoiKws 
TToppo) 6a\dr r T7]^ efif3a\a)v eavTov els TOTTOU? 
y\iO"Xpov<; Kal cnreLpOfjievovs Trovrjpws TOV <&i\i7r- 
TTOV <f>v f yofj,a'%ovi>TO<; aTroprjarj cnriwv Kal Trd\iv 
aTrpa/cros, wcrirep o frpo avrov arpar'rjjo^, dva- 
'^wpelv dvayfcacrOf} TT/OO? rrjv OaKacrcrav, e<yvw 
7rpoo-/3d\cbi> dva /cpdros Sta rwv a/cpwv ftidcra- 
2 aQai rrjv TrdpoSov. eTrel 8e ra oprj TOV ^tXtTTTrou 
ayyi Kare^oi'ro^, etc rcov 7T\ayiwv Travra- 
ejrl TOVS f Pa)yu,atou? dfcovr'itov KOL ro^ev- 
(frepo/juevcov, 7r\ijyal fJLev eyivovro 

ywves oei? Kal veKpol Trap" 
ovbev $e rov TTO\/ULOV Trepan efyaivero, Trpo(Trj\.Oov 
avOpwjroi TWV avToOi vefjibvTwv (f)pdovTe<s Tiva 
KVK\waiv dfj,e\ov/j(vrjv VTTO T&V 7ro\/jiia)v, rj TOV 
GTpaTov a^eiv viriayyovvTo Kal KaTaa-Tijcreiv 
3 fjid\io'Ta TpiTalov eirl TWV ctKpcov. ryvuHTTirjv Se T^9 
Trapei^ovTO Kal ftefiaicoTTjV Xapovra TOI^ 
, TrpaiTevovTa fJLev 'H7ret/o&>Tft)^, evvovv Be 
oz/ra Kal Kpvfya <f)6/3q> TOV 
u> TTLo-Tevcras o Ttro? 
eva TTG^OU? 
tTTTret? T/ota/coo-tou?. rjyovvTO 8e ol 

Kal ra? /j,ev rjfiepas dveiravovTO 
KOL\OVS 7rpo/3a\\6fjivoi, KOI uXcoSef? TOTTOU?, 
Be vvKTCop TT/JO? TTJV ff\qvi]V Kal yap rjv 

'O Be Ttro? TOVTOVS drrocTTei\a<; Tas fiev aXXa? 371 

Biaveirave TOV GTpaTov oo~a /nrj TrepiGTrav 
aKpo/3o\io-/jLois TOW? TToXe/itou?, KaO' TfV Be 
V7rep(j)avija'(T0ai TWV aKpwv ol jrepi'iovTe?, 



Dassaretis towards Lycus, a safe and easy road. But 
he was afraid that if he went far away from the sea 
and got into regions that were poorly tilled and 
barren, while Philip avoided a battle, lack of pro- 
visions would compel him to come back again to the 
sea with his task undone, like the general who had 
preceded him. He therefore determined to attack 
with all his might, and force his passage through the 
heights. But Philip was occupying the mountains 
with his phalanx, and on the flanks of the Romans 
javelins and arrows came flying from all directions 
against them. Sharp encounters took place, men 
were wounded and men fell dead on both sides, and 
no end of the war was in sight. But at last some 
herdsmen of the vicinity came to Titus and told him 
of a roundabout path which the enemy was neglect- 
ing to guard ; over this they promised to lead his 
army and bring it, in three days at the farthest, to 
a position on the heights. As surety and voucher 
for their good faith they brought Charops the son 
of Machatas, a leading man in Epirus, who was well- 
disposed to the Romans and was secretly co-operating 
with them through fear of Philip. In him Titus put 
confidence, and sent out a military tribune with four 
thousand foot-soldiers and three hundred horsemen. 
They were conducted by the herdsmen, who were in 
bonds. By day they rested under cover of caves or 
woody places, and they travelled in the night, by 
the light of the moon, which was at the full. 

After sending off this detachment, Titus kept his 
army quiet for two days, except so far as he drew off 
the enemy's attention by skirmishes ; but when the 
day came on which the enveloping party were ex- 
pected to show themselves on the heights, at daybreak 



rjuepa Trdv /j,ev jBapv, irav 8e 
oir\ov eKivet,' Kal Tpi%f) veiuas rrjv Svva/jLiv avrbs 
aw et? TO arevooTarov Trapd TO peWpov op6ia<s 
dvrjye ras (nreipas ySaXXo/te^o? VTTO T&V Mare- 


5 ra? SvcrxcopLas, rwv be a\\a)v e/carepwtfev a 

Kal Tat? rpa-^vr / rja-ii> 

O TG ?)'X/O9 aV(7^ KOI 

KCLTTVOS ov ySe/9aO?, a\\ J olov opeios o/u^X?; TTO/O- 
pa)0V avareXXwv /cat BicKfraivofievo? TOU? 

e\dv9ave, Kara VMTOV yap r)v 
TWV aicpwv e'xpjjievwv, ol Se 'Pcn/jiaLoi 
ea")(ov afJL^>i^6\ov ev dywvi Kal TTOVM rrjv e 

6 TT/JO? TO /3ov\6{jivov \a/jL/3dvovTes. eVel Be 
\ov av^avo/Jievos Kal Sia/j,e\aiva)v rov depa 
TroXL*? avo) xcopwv e&r)\ovTO TTU/OO-O? clvai 

ol /jiV aXaXaaz>T6? efreftaivov eppwfjLevws KOL 
(Tvve(TTe\\ov et? ra rpa^vrara TOU? TroXe/utoi/?, ot' 


V. O^^ yLte^ o5z> ^f evBvs o^eia Trdvrcov, eVe- 
Se Si(T%i,\ia)v ov TrXetou?- dfyrjpovvTO yap at 
Sva%oopiai, rrjv Sicofyv. xprjuara 8e Kal a-Krjvds 
Kal Oepdirovras ol 'Pco/jiaioi Siapirdo-avres Kpd- 
TOVV TWV O-TGVWV, Kal Siobo'evov rrjv "HTret/ooi/ OVTCO 


Kal rrjs 0a~\.daa"r)<; [laKpav 6Wa? avrovs, 

TOP 7Tlp,r]VlOV CTiTOV flf] 

TITUS FLAMININUS, iv. 4 -v. i 

he put all his heavy-armed and all his light-armed 
troops in motion. Dividing his forces into three 
parts, he himself led his cohorts in column formation 
up into the narrowest part of the ravine along the 
stream, pelted with missiles by the Macedonians 
and engaging at close quarters with those who con- 
fronted him at each difficult spot ; the other 
divisions, one on either side, strove to keep pace 
with him, and grappled eagerly with the difficulties 
presented by the rough ground. Meanwhile the 
sun rose, and a smoke not clearly defined, but re- 
sembling a mountain mist lifted itself and came into 
view from afar. The enemy did not notice it, for it 
was behind them, where the heights were already 
occupied, and the Romans were of doubtful mind 
about it, but as they struggled and laboured on, 
they let their wishes determine their hopes. Fut 
when the smoke increased in size and darkened the 
air, and ascending in great volume was clearly seen 
to be a fire-signal from their friends, then the 
Romans below raised shouts of triumph and dashed 
upon their foes and crowded them together into the 
roughest places, while the Romans behind the enemy 
sent down answering shouts from the heights. 

V. At once, then, the enemy fled precipitately, 
but not more than two thousand of them fell ; 1 for 
the difficulties of the ground made pursuit impossible. 
However, the Romans made spoil of their money, 
tents, and slaves, mastered the pass, and traversed 
all parts of Epirus, but in such an orderly manner 
and with so great restraint that, although they were 
far from their fleet and the sea, and although their 
monthly rations of grain had not been measured out 

1 So Livy, xxxii. 12. 



ypops, aTre^ecraL T?? %a)pa<; /n- 
a)(j)\ia<f e'Xpvcfrjs. 6 yap TITO? TTVV- 
rov Qi^nnrov, oo? o/jioia tpevyovri rrjv 


T&V iroKewv dvia-Trjffiv et? ra oprj, ra? Se 
KaTairifjLirpricri, TWV Be ^prff^arcov TO, \ei7r6fieva 
Sta 7r\,7}$o? 77 ftdpos dpTrayijv TrpoTL&erai, rpoTrov 


\OTi/jieiTO KOI irapeicd\ei rou? o-Tpar^coTa? wcnrep 
ol/ceias teal 7rapaK6)^cop7j/uivrj<; KqSofievovs ftaSi- 

3 ^eiv. KCU fJLGvroi teal irapel-^ev aurot? ra 

rr}? eura^'a? aiadrjcriv ev0v<$. irpoa-e^opovv 
yap at 7ro\ei9 a-v^a/zei^oi? erraXta?, ot 8' 
X^^e? eirodovv fcal BICTTTOI-IVTO 
Trpo? TOV TLTOV, 'Amatol Se 
aTrenrdiJievoi TroXe/^el 

4 ytiera 'P&fiaiwv TT/JO? avrov. 'Qirovvnoi Be, tcai- 
Trep AtrwXwi/ Tore 'PwyLtatoi? <rvva^{wvi'C l o^kvwv 
Trpodufjiorara teal TTJV TTO\I,V d^iovvrayv irapa\a- 
ftelv real <pv\dTTiv, ov Trpoaecr^ov, aXXa yLteTavreyCt- 

ro^ Ttroy GKCiv SieTria-revarav eavrov? 


TLvppov fjiev ovv \eyovaiv, ore TrpwTOv diro 

TO crrpdrevfia TWV 'PwfLaiwv 
, elireiv ov ftapfiapiKrjv avry 
$avr]vai rrjv T&V [Sapftdpwv irapdra^iv ol Be 
Ttro) Trpwrov evTV<y%dvovT<; rjvayKd^ovro Trapa- 
5 TrX^crta? d<pievai (frcovd?. dtcovovres yap TWV 
MafceBovwv a)? avO PWTTOS dp-^wv ftap/3dpov (rrpa- 



to them and they could buy little, they nevertheless 
refrained from plundering the country, which offered 
abundant booty. For Titus had learned that Philip, 
in passing through Thessaly like a fugitive, was 
driving the inhabitants from their cities into the 
mountains, burning doAvn the cities, and allowing 
his soldiers to plunder the wealth which was too 
abundant or too heavy to be carried away, thus in a 
manner ceding the country already to the Romans. 
Titus was therefore ambitious, and exhorted his 
soldiers accordingly to spare the country in march- 
ing through it, and to treat it as though it had been 
handed over to them and were their own. And 
indeed the results showed them at once the advan- 
tages of this orderly conduct. For as soon as they 
reached Thessaly the cities came over to them, the 
Greeks south of Thermopylae were all eagerness and 
excitement to find Titus, and the Achaeans, renounc- 
ing their alliance with Philip, voted to join the 
Romans in making war upon him. The Opuntians, 
moreover, although the Aetolians, who were at that 
time righting most zealously on the side of the 
Romans, asked permission to take Opus in charge 
and protect the city, would not grant the request, 
but sent for Titus and gave themselves with the 
fullest confidence into his hands. 

Now, we are told that Pyrrhus, when for the first 
time he beheld from a look-out place the army of 
the Romans in full array, had said that he saw 
nothing barbaric in the Barbarians' line of battle j 1 
and so those who for the first time met Titus were 
compelled to speak in a similar strain. For they 
had heard the Macedonians say that a commander 

1 Cf. the Pyrrhus, xvi. 5. 



5t' 07T\(DV 

Kal SovKovfievos, elra arcavrwvres dvBpl rr\v re 
rfKiKiav vkw Kal rrjv O-^TLV <f>i\av0pa)7rq), 
re Kal Bid\6Krov r/ 'Ei\\ijvi> KOI ri/j,r)<? 
epacnfj, davjjbacriws eKrjXovvro, Kal ra? 
aTribvres ve7rifjL7r\acrav evvoias rrjs TT/JO? avrbv 
6 a>9 e^oucra? t^je/JLOva Trjs eKevOeplas. eirel 8e Kal 
<&L\,i7r7ry Sofcovvri, crvfJiftarLKWs e^eiv et? rav-rov 
e\6aov rrpoineLvev elpijvrjv Kal <>i\i,av eVt ry TOU? 
"EXX^i^a? avrovofiovs edv Kal ra? (frpovpas aira\- 372 
\drreiv, 6 Be OVK eBe^aro, iravrdiraaiv ij^ij rare 
l rot? 6epa r jrevov(TL ra rov QiXiTTTrov Trapearr) 


VI. Ta fjiev ovv a\\a Trpode^copet, 
avrti), rrjv Be ^oiwrLav a 
Qrjftaioov a7nf)vrr)a-av ol Trpwroi, (frpovovvres JJLZV 
ra rov MaKeBovos Bta 
Be Kal rifjLwvres rov Ttroz>, &)? (friXias Trpbs 

2 repovs VTrap^ovarj^. 6 S* evrvj(a)v aurot? (f)i\,av- 
6p(i)7ra)s Kal Be^iwcrdjAevos Trporjyev fj&vxy Ka@* 
6B6v, ra [iev epwrcov Kal nrvvdavoiJLevos, ra Be 
Birjyov/jievos, Kal irapdywv eTrirrjBes a^pt, TOU? 

3 crr/xxTtcora? dva\aftelv eK rfjs Tropeta?. ovray Be 
7rpod<yci)v crvveicrrjkOe TO?? rj/3aioi<; et? ryv TTO\,IV, 
ov Trdvv /J,ev r)ofievoi<s, OKVovcn Be Kw\veiv, errel 


TITUS FLAMININUS, v. 5 -vi. 3 

of a barbarian host was coming against them, who 
subdued and enslaved everywhere by force of arms ; 
and then, when they met a man who was young in 
years, humane in aspect, a Greek in voice and 
language, and a lover of genuine honour, they were 
wonderfully charmed, and when they returned to 
their cities they filled them with kindly feelings 
towards him and the belief that in him they had a 
champion of their liberties. After this Titus had a 
meeting with Philip (who seemed disposed to make 
terms), and proffered him peace and friendship on 
condition that he allowed the Greeks to be indepen- 
dent and withdraw his garrisons from their cities ; 
but this proffer Philip would not accept. Then at 
last it became quite clear even to the partisans of 
Philip that the Romans were come to wage war, not 
upon the Greeks, but upon the Macedonians in 
behalf of the Greeks. 

VI. Accordingly, the other parts of Greece came 
over to the side of Titus without any trouble ; but as 
he was entering Boeotia without hostile demonstra- 
tions, the leading men of Thebes came to meet him. 
They were in sympathy with the Macedonian cause 
through the efforts of Brachyllas, but welcomed Titus 
and showed him honour, professing to be on friendly 
terms with both parties. Titus met and greeted 
them kindly, and then proceeded quietly on his 
journey, sometimes asking questions for his own 
information and sometimes discoursing at length, 
and purposely diverting them until his soldiers 
should come up from their march. Then he led 
them forward and entered the city along with the 
Thebans, who were not at all pleased thereat, but 
hesitated to oppose him, since a goodly number of 



arpanwrai ye /^erpioi, TO 7rX/}$o? GLTTOVTO, /ecu 
/j,VTOi 7rap6\0a>v 6 Tiros, co? OVK e~)(wv TJJV iroKiVy 
eireiOev ete(rdat ra 'Pai/jLaicov, ' A.rrd\ov TOV fiacn.- 
Xeo>9 crvvayopevovTos avrco Kal avve^op/AOJVTOS 
Tot 1 ? 0?;^3atou?. aXX' "ArraXo? /ni>, a>? eoLKe, 
rov y>]ph)$ TTpodv^iorepoi' eavrov TU> TLTCO p/jropa 
7rapao-%eiv (f)i\OTifj.ov/j.vos, Iv CIVTW TO) \e<yeiv 

v 7ri\t](f)&el<; eVecre, /ecu JJLCT ov iroXv 
vavcrlv ei<$ ' * Kcriav aTroKOp.i<j9ei$ 6T\evTt]cr6V' ol 
8e Bofwrol 7rpoo-%(*)p)]crav 
VII. <t>i\iinrov &e 

Aral o TtVo? Trap' aurov 
OTTO)? eTTL^rrj^icnirai fj 
avrw rov TroXe/tou yu-eVorro?, et Se 
erceirov ryv elp^vrjv yereuOai. <f)i\6n/20$ jap wv 
la^vpa)^ eSeBiei ire^Oevro^ eVl TOI/ 7roXe/u,oz^ 
2 erepov crrparrjyov rr)V Sogav d<paip0)jvai. Bta- 
Se rcof ($)i\(t)v avrw /cu/re T 

v^elv Kal rov 

exeiveo (^>v\a^d}}i'ai, Be^d/j.vo<; TO Soy /ACL 
KOI rat? \7rlffiv Trap6el<$ evQvs e/? erra\iav 
eVt rov <&i\i7T7rov rroXe/JiOv cop /At] (rev, virep e^atcicr- 


Alru)\ol Tre^ou? e^aKLa-^L\iov^ Kal Irrrrel^ rerpa- 
Trapel^ov. r)v Be Kal TOV QiXLTTirov TO 
fjia TO> Tr\j']0ei Trapa r iT\ii]a'iov. 
3 'E?rel Be /SaSt^o^re? eV aXX?;Xof? /tal yevo/uLevot 
jrepl Ti]v ^Korovcrav evravOa BiaKLvBvveveLV 6/ieX- 

1 Cf. Livy, xxxiii. 1 f. 
3 So Livy, xxxiii. 4. 


TITUS FLAMININUS, vi. 3 -vn. 3 

soluiers were in his following. Titus, however, just 
as though the city were not in his power, came before 
their assembly and tried to persuade them to side 
with the Romans, and Attalus the king seconded 
him in his appeals and exhortations to the Thebans. 
But Attalus, as it would appear, in his eagerness to 
play the orator for Titus, went beyond his aged 
strength, and in the very midst of his speech, being 
seized with a vertigo or an apoplexy, suddenly fainted 
and fell, and shortly afterwards was conveyed by his 
fleet to Asia, where he died. The Boeotians allied 
themselves with the Romans. 

VII. Philip now sent an embassy to Rome, and 
Titus therefore dispatched thither his own repre- 
sentatives, who were to induce the senate to vote 
him an extension of command in case the war con- 
tinued, or, if it did not, the power to make peace. 
For he was covetous of honour, and was greatly 
afraid that he would be robbed of his glory if another 
general were sent to carry on the war. His friends 
managed matters so successfully for him that Philip 
failed to get what he wanted and the command in 
the war w r as continued to Titus. On receiving the 
decree of the senate, he was lifted up in his hopes 
and at once hastened into Thessaly to prosecute the 
war against Philip. He had over twenty-six thousand 
soldiers, of whom six thousand infantry and four 
hundred cavalry were furnished by the Aetolians. 1 
Philip's army also was of about the same size. 2 

The two armies advanced against each other until 
they came into the neighbourhood of Scotussa, and 
there they proposed to decide the issue by battle. 3 

8 On the same battlefield Pelopidas had been defeated and 
slain by Alexander of Pherae, in 364 B.C. Cf. the Pelopidas, 



\ov, ov%, OTrep ettfo? rjv, TT/JO? Seou? 6\afiov ol 
arparol TTJV aXX?;'Xa>j> <yeiTViacriv, aXXa Kal /naX\ov 
o/9/i/}? KOI <tXoT ifjiias eirK^povvro, 'Prwynatot jnei>, 
el Ma/ceSo^wi/ KpaT^aovGiv, wv ovo^a BL 'AXe^- 
avbpov aX/cr}? KOL Swdfjiews f ir\ei(j'Tov rjv Trap" 
, Ma/eeSoz'e? Se f P&)//,atou? Tlepcrwv rjyov- 
SicKpepeiv ijXTri^ov, el Trepiyevoivro, 
4 repov aTrobei^eiv 'A\edv$pov Qiknnrov. o 
ovv Ttro? irapeKciXei, TOU? <rr par LU>T a<; 
d<ya0ov<? yevecrOai teal 7rpoQv/AOv$, 0)9 ev rco 
Oedrpw rf) 'EXXaSt yLteXXoi^ra? dycovi,- 
Trpbs TOU? dpicnov^ T&V avraycoi'io-TCov o 
& <E>tXi7T7ro9, etre diro rv^^ etre UTTO (TTrouS?}? 
irapa rov /caipov dyvotfcras, r)v yap rt 7ro\vdvSptov 

TOU a?a/co?, eVi TOUTO 

v, ola Trpb fJid 
/cat TrapopfJiav, aQvpias Se Seivrjs vryoo? TOI' olwvov 

VIII. T^ 8' vcrrepaLa irepl TOV opOpov, e/c 
*-al voriov VVKTOS, ei? ofJii^(X.rjv 

TO TreSiov, /cal /caTrjei 7ra%u? e'/c TCOZ^ atcpwv 
drjp 64? TO /jiera^v TWV GTpaTOTre&wv, eu^u? d 
/jLevrjS rjfjiepas d'jroKpv'jrTWv TOU? TOTTOU?. ot 
UTT' d/jL<f)OTep(i)v aTrocrTaXei'Te? etyeSpeias eveica 
/caTacr/coTTT}? eV iravv ^pa^el TrepnTecrovres aXX?;- 
Xoi? /jid^(ovTO Trepl TO,? /caXouyCie^a? Kuz^o? tcetya- 
Xa?, at \6(f)0)V ovaai TTVKVWV Kal 7rapa\,\t]\a)i> 


TITUS FLAMININUS, vn. 3 -vm. i 

Their mutual proximity did not inspire them with 
fear, as might have been expected ; on the contrary, 
they were filled with ardour and ambition. For the 
Romans hoped to conquer the Macedonians, whose 
reputation for prowess and strength Alexander had 
raised to a very high pitch among them ; and the 
Macedonians, who considered the Romans superior 
to the Persians, hoped, in case they prevailed over 
them, to prove Philip a more brilliant commander 
than Alexander. Accordingly, Titus exhorted his 
soldiers to show themselves brave men and full of 
spirit, assured that they were going to contend 
against the bravest of antagonists in that fairest of 
all theatres, Greece ; and Philip, too, began a speech 
of exhortation to his soldiers, as is the custom before 
a battle. But, either by chance or from ignorance 
due to an inopportune haste, he had ascended for 
this purpose a lofty mound outside his camp, beneath 
which many men lay buried in a common grave, and 
a dreadful dejection fell upon his listeners in view of 
the omen, so that he was deeply troubled and refrained 
from battle that day. 

VIII. Towards morning on the following day, after 
a mild and damp night, the clouds turned to mist, 
the whole plain was filled with profound darkness, a 
dense air came down from the heights into the space 
between the two camps, and as soon as day advanced 
all the ground was hidden from view. The parties 
sent out on either side for purposes of ambush and 
reconnaissance encountered one another in a very 
short time and went to fighting near what are called 
the Cynoscephalae, or Dog's Heads. These are the 
sharp tops of hills lying close alongside one another, 

VOL. x. 34 * 


atcpai \6irral oY o/AOiorrjra rov 0"%tf/jt,aro$ oimy? 37 

2 u>vo\Ji,acrQr)crav. yevo/uievwv Be olov el/cbs ev 
(r/c\i)pOLs fj,eraj3o\wv Kara ra? fyvyas Kal 
e/cdrepot rot? TTOVOVCTIV del real vTro^wpovo'iv eVi- 
TreyCtTTO^re? [BorjOeiav CK TMV arpaTOTreSwv, Kal ijSrj 
rov de/QO? ava/caOcupofjievov KaOopMvres TO, 741/0- 

T&) {lev ovv e%iM irepirjv 6 ^tXtTTTro?, CK TOTTWV 
o\r)v eVepetcra? rrjv (frdXayya rot? 
iois, TO ftdpos rou avvacrTria/jLOV Kal r^v 
rpa^vrrjra rr}? 7TyOo/9o\^? rwv (rapicrcov ov% VTTO- 
3 fJ,civdvT(i)V rou 8' evwvvfjiov Siacnracrjjibv ava TOU? 
Xo</>oi>5 :al TrepiKXacriv \a{A/3dvovTos, 6 TITO?, TO 
uef r]TT(t)/j,evov diroyvovs, TT/^O? Se OaTepov o^e 
TrapeXdcra?, TrpocreftaXe T0i9 

d\fcrj T?}? exevcov Swaged)?, KW\VO- 
Bta Trjv avw^a\lav Kal Tpa%vrr)Ta 


4 (Bapei Kal Bvcrepyo) 

77 (f>ci\ay^ eoiKev afAdftcp Tr)v Icr^vv, eco? eV ec 

rrjpe rov o~vi>aa-7rt(Tuv ev 


rayv jjLa^o^evwv e/icacrTo? Bid re rov rpoTiov 
OTrXtVea)? Kal on, iravros o\ov rois Trap* a\,\ij\wv 
fiepecri fJbahXov r) Bi avrov lo"\(yei. rpaTrofjievoiv 
Be rovrwv 01 uv eBiwKOv TOI>? (pevyovras, ol Se 

r&v MaKeBovajv 



and got their name from a resemblance in their shape. 
As was natural on a field so difficult, there were 
alternations of flight and pursuit, each party sending 
out aid from their camps to those who from time to 
time were getting the worst of it and retreating, until 
at last, when the air cleared up and they could see 
what was going on, they engaged with all their 
forces. 1 

With his right wing, then, Philip had the advantage, 
since from higher ground he threw his entire phalanx 
upon the Romans, who could not withstand the 
weight of its interlocked shields and the sharpness 
of its projecting pikes ; but his left wing was broken 
up and scattered along the hills, and Titus, despair- 
ing of his defeated wing, rode swiftly along to the 
other, and with it fell upon the Macedonians. These 
were unable to hold their phalanx together and 
maintain the depth of its formation (which was the 
main source of their strength), being prevented by 
the roughness and irregularity of the ground, while 
for fighting man to man they had armour which was 
too cumbersome and heavy. For the phalanx is like 
an animal of invincible strength as long as it is one 
body and can keep its shields locked together in a 
single formation ; but when it has been broken up 
into its parts, each of its fighting men loses also his 
individual force, as well because of the manner in 
which he is armed as because his strength lies in the 
mutual support of the parts of the whole body rather 
than in himself. This wing of the Macedonians 
being routed, some of the Romans pursued the fugi- 
tives, while others dashed out upon the flank of the 

1 For a fuller description of the battle, cf. Livy, xxxiii. 7- 
10 (Polybius, xviii. 20-27). 



K Tr\ayiwv e/ereivov, cocrre ra^u teal TOU? 
7repia"7rd(rdai KOI cfrevyeiv ra orr\a Kara/3d\- 
5 \OVTCLS. eTrecrov fiV ovv ofCTaKia'^LKiwv OVK 
e'XttTTOi'?, a\waav Be irepl TrevTaKKT%i\iOv<$. TOV 
Be TOV <>i\i7T7roi' ttcr</)aXco? a7T6\6elv TTJV alriav 
e\a/3ov Airco\oi, irepl dpTrayijv yevo/nevoi, KOI 
TTopQijcriv TOV %dpaKO<; en TWV 'Pwjjiaiwv Sico- 
KOVTWV, cocrre fjirjOev evpelv etceLvovs eTraveXdovras. 
IX. Tlp&Tov /jLev ovv eyevovTO \OL$oplai KOI 
l Trpo? aXX^Xou? avrois- CK Be TOVTOJV 
ae\ TOV TLTOV eXvTrovv eavTols a 

TO VLKrifJLCL KOi TTf (j))]^T} 7TyOO/faTaXa/i/3aj'O^T69 

"EiXXrjvas, wcTTe KOL ypd<peo'@aL KOI aSeaOat TCpo- 


2 T(ov TO epyov. wv fJLaX.LO'Ta &ia <7TO / aaro9 rjv TOVT\ 

* 'AK\aVO~TOl KOl ddaTTTOl, oBoiTTOpe, T&)S' 7Tt VCOTM 

ecrcraXt^? Tpicrcrai K6i/jLe0a fiv places, 
AlTco\(ov $ fJLir]6 evres VTC 1 "Apeo? ?}Se AaTivcov, 
ou? Ttro9 evpeiris j'jyay' air 

7rr//jLa. TO & Opacrv Kelvo 
Oowv e\d(j)(t)v &> 

3 ToOro eVo^cre fjiev ' A\Kaios etfrvftpifov 
Kal TOV apidjjiov TO)V drroOai'OVTcov e 
\eyo/i,evov B TroXXa^oO KOI VTTO TTO\\WV 
rjvia TOV TLTOV ff TOV <&i\LTnrov. o jmev yap a 
TOV * &.\Kalov TO) 


TITUS FLAMININUS, vm. 4 ix. 3 

enemy who were still fighting and cut them down, so 
that very soon their victorious wing also faced about, 
threw away their weapons, and fled. The result was 
that no fewer than eight thousand Macedonians were 
slain, and five thousand were taken prisoners. Philip, 
however, got safely away, and for this the Aetolians 
were to blame, who fell to sacking and plundering 
the enemy's camp while the Romans were still pur- 
suing, so that when the Romans came back to it they 
found nothing there. 

IX. This, to begin with, gave rise to mutual 
quarrels and recriminations ; but afterwards the 
Aetolians vexed Titus more and more by ascribing 
the victory to themselves and prepossessing the 
minds of the Greeks with the fame of it, so that 
they were mentioned first in the writings and songs 
of poets and historians who celebrated the event. 
Of these the one most in vogue was the following 
epigram in elegiac verses : 

" Unwept and without graves are we, O traveller, 
who on this ridge of Thessaly lie dead, in number 
thirty thousand, subdued by the sword of the 
Aetolians, and of the Latins whom Titus led from 
spacious Italy, Emathia's great bane. And the bold 
spirit that Philip had displayed was gone ; it showed 
itself more agile than swift deer." 

This poem was composed by Alcaeus in mockery 
of Philip, and its author exaggerated the number of 
the slain ; however, being recited in many places 
and by many persons, it gave more annoyance to 
Titus than to Philip. For Philip simply made fun of 
Alcaeus with an answering elegiac distich : 



Kal a(jE>t>XXo9, o&oiTTope, TwS' errl 
to) aravpos Tnjyvvrai r)\i/3aro<; 

TirOV <j)L\OrilJ,OV/JlVOV 7T/309 TOU9 " 

Trapoo^vve ra roiavra. Bio Kal ra 

TWV 7T payflCiTQiV 6TTpaTT KCL0* eCtVTOV, 

ra>i> AtrwXco^. ol Se 
Xoyovs avTov Kal 

7rl o-v/jL^daeai irapa rov MaAre^o^o?, rovro 
Kivoi l Trepilovres eVt ra? aXXa? 7r6\et$ 
TrcoXelcrdat, TTJV elpijvrjv ^CkiTnrw, irapov 
rov TroXe/xoy ap^v Kal ave\eiv dp%r)v vfi 
5 TrpcoT?;? e&ov\to0r) TO 'EiX^tjuiKov. rav-ra 
\eyovrcov Kal Siaraparrovrwv 

at'TO? o ^tTuTTTro? \0a>v TT/JO? Ta? 374 
Sia\vcr6i,<> dvel\e rrjv viroiffiav, 

/cat wuaot? Ta /ea avTov. Ka ovrw 


KaraXverai rov 7ro/Ve/uoz> o TtVo?' /cat 
a7re$wK6v avrw ftacrikeia 
Trpocrera^fv dTroar^vaL, %t\ioi<; Be. ra- 
e^rjfjiicocre, ras 8e vavs vracra? 7Tapel\ero 
7T\rjv SeKa, ra)v Be Tralbcov rov crepov, Arj^Tptov, 
ofjMjpevcrovra \a/3ot)v et9 f Pcoyu,?/y aTrecrreiXev, cipiara 
rw Kaipw Xprjcrd/jLevos Kal Trpo\a(Bojv TO fj,e\\ov. 
6 'Avviftov yap rov At/9f09, dvBpos iyQlcrrov re 
'P&) / aatot9 Kal (frvyddos, ijBrj rore 7T/909 'Avrio^ov 
r\Kovro<$ rov /3acri\ea Kal rrapo^vvovros avrbv et9 

1 TOVTO ^/ceTfoi Coraes, with the MSS. : TOI/TO e/cel^o after 



" Leafless and without bark, O traveller, on this ridge 
A cross is planted for Alcaeus, and it towers in the 

sun " ; 

but Titus was ambitious to stand well with the 
Greeks, and such things irritated him beyond 
measure. For this reason he conducted the rest of 
his business by himself, and made very little account 
of the Aetolians. They on their part were displeased 
at this, and when Titus received an embassy from 
the Macedonian king with proposals for an agree- 
ment, they went round to the other cities vociferously 
charging him with selling peace to Philip, when it 
was in his power to eradicate the war entirely and 
destroy a power by which the Greek world had first 
been enslaved. While the Aetolians were making; 


these charges and trying to make trouble among the 
Roman allies, Philip himself removed all grounds for 
suspicion by coming to terms and putting himself 
and his realm in the hands of Titus and the Romans. 
And in this manner Titus 1 put an end to the war; 
he returned to Philip his kingdom of Macedonia, but 
ordained that he should keep aloof from Greece, 
exacted from him an indemnity of a thousand talents, 
took away all his ships except ten, and taking one of 
liis sons, Demetrius, to serve as hostage, sent him off 
to Rome, thus providing in the best manner for the 
present and anticipating the future. 

For Hannibal the African, a most inveterate 
enemy of Rome and an exile from his native country, 
had already at that time 2 come to the court of King 

1 Rather, the ten commissioners sent from Rome to settle 
the affairs of Greece (chapter x. 1). Cf. Livy, xxxiii. 30 
(Polybius xviii. 44). 

2 In 196 B.C., according to Nepos, Hannibal, vii. 6. 
According to Livy (xxxiii. 47), it was in the following year. 



TO irpoaOev TTpoievai rp Ti^y?; TT)? Suva pews ev- 
poovo~ri<s, J'jBrj KOL KaO^ eavTOV VTTO rrpay/idrwv 
/jLeydXcov, a KaTepyacrdfjievos yueya? eTrwvofj.daO^, 
7T/J09 Trjv aTrdvrwv rjye/JiovLav aTroftXeTTovra, /za- 
7 \Lcrra Be Kara 'P 'fa {JLCLIMV dvicrrd/jievov, el pr) 
TOVTO Trpoi&cov 6 Ttro9 e/jicjipova)? eveSwtce TT/>O? 
ra? $id\.vaei<;, d\\a TOV QiXiTTTTiKOv 6 'Ai/rto- 
ijfai TToXe/zo? eV rfj 'EXXaSt, KOI 
VTT airiwv afjL^orepoi KOIVWV ol 
TWV rore teal SwaTMraroi fiacrCkewv eVt 

av dwvas et virar^ KOI 

8 KIV&VVOV? TWV 7T^09 ' 'AvViftaV OVK 6/\aTTOl/9. VVV 

&e TWV TToXe/jicov /jLea-Tjv Kara /caipbv efji/3a\wv rrjv 
elpi]vrjv 6 Ttro?, /cal jrplv aptaaOai, TOV fieX\oi>ra 
Sia/co^a? TOV irapovra, TOV fjiev TTJV 
eX-TTiSa, TOV &e Trjv TrpwTijv v(fiei\ev. 
X. 'Evret Se ol Be/co, Trpeafteis, ovs 77 

T& Ttrw, GvveftovKevov rou? fjiev a\\ov<$ 
e\ev9epovv, }Lopiv6ov Be KOI Xa\KiBa KOI 
&r)/nr)TpidBa BiaTrjpetv e/A<ppovpovs eveica rr}? TT/OO? 
dcrtfiaheias, evTavOa Brj rai? /caTrjyo- 
\afjLrrpol \afJLTrpws ra9 7ro\ei<; d 


f EXXaSo9 \veiv (OVTW yap 6 < t > tXt7T7ro9 el(*)9ei 
2 Trpoeipv)[Jievas vroXe^ ovofid^et-v}, TOVS B' r/ 
e/30)rw^T69 el K\OIOV e^orre? flapvTe 
\eiOTepov Be TOV rrdXai TOV vvv, ^aipovcri, teal 
6avfjL(i^ovcri TOV TLTOV a>9 evepyeTrjv, OTL TOV 7roSo9 
Xu<ra9 T^V 'EXXa^a TOV Tpa^\ov BeBeKev. e'0 1 
Oi9 d^do/jievo^ 6 T/TO9 KOI /3a/o&>9 (frepwv, teal 
Beo/Jievo? TOV evveBpiov, reXo? e^eTreta-e teal 



Antiochus, and was trying to incite him to further 
achievements while fortune gave his power successful 
course. Antioclms himself also, in consequence of 
the magnitude of his achievements, by which he had 
won the title of Great, was already fixing his eyes on 
universal dominion, and had a particular hostility to 
the Romans. Therefore, had not Titus, in view of all 
this, made favourable terms of peace, and had the war 
with Antiochus in Greece found the war with Philip 
still in progress there, and had a common cause 
brought these two greatest and most powerful kings 
of the time into alliance against Rome, that city 
would have undergone fresh struggles and dangers 
not inferior to those which marked her war with 
Hannibal. But as it was, by interposing an oppor- 
tune peace between the two wars, and by cutting 
short the existing war before the threatening war 
began, Titus took away the last hope from Philip, 
and the first from Antiochus. 

X. And now the ten commissioners, who had been 
sent to Titus by the senate, advised him to give the 
rest of the Greeks their freedom, but to retain Corinth, 
Chalcis, and Demetrias under garrisons, as a safeguard 
against Antiochus. Thereupon the Aetolians stirred 
up the cities with the most vociferous denunciations, 
ordering Titus to strike off the shackles of Greece 
(for that is what Philip was wont to call these three 
cities), and asking the Greeks whether they were 
glad to have a fetter now which was smoother than 
the one they had worn before, but heavier; and 
whether they admired Titus as a benefactor because 
he had unshackled the foot of Greece and put a 
collar round her neck. Titus was troubled and dis- 
tressed at this, and by labouring with the commission 



T&9 TroXet? aveivai TJ}? (frpovpas, OTTO)? oXotfX>7/)o? 
77 %ayO9 VTrdp^rj Trap' avrov TO49 "EXX^cni/. 

3 'Ia0jjii(ov ovv dyofji&vwv 7rX?}#o9 /xez^ av6pu>7rwv 
ev T) crraSico KaOrjaro rov yvfivitcov dywva 0ew- 
fjievuH', ola &r) &ia ^povwv TreTrauyueVT/? /ue^ TroXe- 
/xft)^ TT}? 'FAXa'So? eV e\iri(Tiv e\ev6epias, cra<pel 
Be elpijrr} Travrfyvpi^ova"!^' ry a"d\7riyyL $ aiw- 

4 TT/}? ei? airavTas $iaSo&icrris, 7rpoe\9u>v et? fieaov 
o Krjpv avelrrev oil Pw/^aicov rj avyK\i]TO<; fcai 
TITO? Koi'imo? crrpaTrjyos viraTOS Kara7ro\/Jir)- 

/9acriXea Qfanrirov KOI 

ovs KOI e\vOepou<; KOI d 
vocals xpw/jievovs roi? 

. TO 


ovv Trpwrov ov TTCLVV Tra^re? ov 
-ni]KOV(Tav, aXX' ai>M/jLa\o<$ KOI @opv{3o)?)r]<$ Ki 
cr/9 ?^ eV TW crraStw Oavjua^ovraiv KOI ^Lanrvv- 
5 Oavo/Jievwv Kai 7rd\LV dveiTreiv /ceXevovrwv w? S' 
ta9 yevo/^evt]? dvayayoov 6 rcr/pv^ Trjv 
v t? diravTas eyeywvei fcal 
TO K/jpvyfAa, xpavyij fJLev aV^<7TO9 TO /^eye- 
Sia %apdv e%Q>pei ^XP 1 GaXdm]^, bp9ov Se 
dvi<TT)JKi TO 9ea,Tpov, oi)Sei? Oe Xoyo? r;z 
evwv, ecnrevSov Se Trdvres d 

KCU irpoaeLirelv rov acorjjpa TT}? 375 


6 To Se 7roXXa/c^9 \ey6/jLevov els v 

teal /jieyedos w(f)0t] Tore. KOpaKG? yap 



finally persuaded it to free these cities also from their 
garrisons, in order that his gift to the Greeks might 
be whole and entire. 

Accordingly, at the Isthmian games, where a great 
throng of people were sitting in the stadium and 
watching the athletic contests (since, indeed, after 
many years Greece had at last ceased from wars 
waged in hopes of freedom, and was now holding 
festival in time of assured peace), the trumpet 
signalled a general silence, and the herald, coming 
forward into the midst of the spectators, made procla- 
mation that the Roman senate and Titus Quintius 
Flamininus proconsular general, having conquered 
King Philip and the Macedonians, restored to free- 
dom, without garrisons and without imposts, and to 
the enjoyment of their ancient laws, the Corinthians, 
the Locrians, the Phocians, the Euboeans, the Achae- 
ans of Phthiotis, the Magnesians, the Thessalians, 
and the Perrhaebians. At first, then, the proclamation 
was by no means generally or distinctly heard, but 
there was a confused and tumultuous movement in 
the stadium of people who wondered what had been 
said, and asked one another questions about it, and 
called out to have the proclamation made again ; but 
when silence had been restored, and the herald in 
tones that were louder than before and reached the 
ears of all, had recited the proclamation, a shout of 
joy arose, so incredibly loud that it reached the sea. 
The whole audience rose to their feet, and no heed 
was paid to the contending athletes, but all were eager 
to spring forward and greet and hail the saviour and 
champion of Greece. 

And that which is often said of the volume and 
power of the human voice was then apparent to the 



V7T6 pirerofjievoi Kara rv^rji> errevov els TO GrdBiov. 

atria Be rj rov depos pr/t^w orav yap rj 

Kal fjieyakri (freprjrai, Biacnrco/jLevos 
OVK dvrepeiBei, rot? rrerofjievois, aA.V o\L- 

rroiei KaOdrrep Kevepfiarovaiv, el 
Ata rrKrjyr) TIVI /jiaX\.ov a>? vrro /3eXof 

Trirrrei Kal arcoQvi]GKGi. Svvarai Be Kal 
elvai rov aepos, olov eXtyyuoy ev 

Kal rra\ippvp / r)v rov crdXov Bid 

XI. 'O 8' ovv TtVo?, el firj rd^iara TT}? 
Bia\v0eLar]<$ vm^ofjievo^ rrjv cfropdv rov 
Kal rov Bpo/jiov e%eK\.ivev, OVK av 

roo~ovrwv 6/j.ov Kal rrdvroOev avrw 
&>? S' drreKa/jLOv rrepl rr^v (TKrjvrjv 
avrov y3ow^T69 7/S?; vvKros OL'CT?;?, av0L^ ovanvas 
IBoiev T) (f)i\ov^ rj vroXtra? dcnra^6/j,i>oi Kal rcepL- 
7T\Ko/iLevoi, TTyOo? tielrrva Kal TTOTOU? erpzrrovro 

2 /ACT' d\\ij\a)v. ev co Kal /nd\\ov, &)? ei/co?, rjBo- 
uevois ercyet, \oyL%ecr0ai Kal Bia\eye<j0ai irepl 
'EA,\a&o?, ocrof? Tro\fj.)ja-aaa rro\ep,ov^ Bid 
eXevfleplav ovrcw rv-^ot, ftefiaibrepov ovBe 

ereptov rrpoaywvia'afjLevtov oXiyov Beiv 
avrrj Kal drrevOr]? (f)epofj,evr) TO Ka\- 
\Larov Kal rrepifJia'^rorarov dO\ov. rjv S' dpa 
andviov fjiev dvBpeia Kal (frpovijcris ev di'6pu>rrois, 
(TTraviwrarov Be rcov d\\u>v dyaOwv 6 

3 ol yap y Ayrfcri\aoi Kal A.vaavBpOL Kal ol 



eye. For ravens which chanced to be flying overhead 
fell down into the stadium. The cause of this was 
the rupture of the air; for when the voice is borne 
aloft loud and strong, the air is rent asunder by it 
and will not support flying creatures, but lets them 
fall, as if they were over a vacuum, unless, indeed, 
they are transfixed by a sort of blow, as of a weapon, 
and fall down dead. 1 It is possible, too, that in such 
cases there is a whirling motion of the air, which 
becomes like a waterspout at sea with a refluent flow 
of the surges caused by their very volume. 

XI. Be that as it may, had not Titus, now that the 
spectacle was given up, at once foreseen the rush 
and press of the throng and taken himself away, it 
would seem that he could hardly have survived the 
concourse of so many people about him at once and 
from all sides. But when they were tired of shouting 
about his tent, and night was already come, then, 
with greetings and embraces for any friends and 
fellow citizens whom they saw, they betook them- 
selves to banqueting and carousing with one another. 
And here, their pleasure naturally increasing, they 
were moved to reason and discourse about Greece, 
saying that although she had waged many wars for 
the sake of her freedom, she had not yet obtained a 
more secure or more delightful exercise of it than 
now, when others had striven in her behalf, and she 
herself, almost without a drop of blood or a pang of 
grief, had borne away the fairest and most enviable 
of prizes. Verily, they would say, valour and wisdom 
are rare things among men, but the rarest of all 
blessings is the just man. For men like Agesilaiis, 
or Lysander, or Nicias, or Alcibiades could indeed 

1 Cf. the Pompey, xxv, 7- 



KCU ol *A\Kij3id8at TroXe/zou? /JLCV ev Sierrew KOI 
fid^as VIK.CLV Kara re yrjv KOI QaKacraav ap^ov- 
res r)7TLcrrav70, Xprjo-Oai Be Trpbs %dpiv evyevij 
real TO KCL\OV ols Karwpdovv OVK eyvaxrav, dXX' 
el TO hlapa8a)vi6v Tt? epyov d<pe\oi KOA, 
ev SaXayatw vav^a^iav real HXaraias KOL 
yuoTTuXa? :at TO, ?r/)o? 1&vpv/j,e8ovTi KOL ra irepl 
Kvirpov KL/AWVOS epya, Tracra? Ta? yLta^a? 77 
'EXXa? eVt 8ov\ia /LLe/uid'^'rjTat Trpo? avnjv, Kal 
TTCIV TpoTTCtiov avrrjs (Tvj^<popa Kal oveibos eV 
avrrjv ecrrrjKe, ra TrXelcrra KaKia Kal 

4 TWV rjyovjuevwv TTepirparreio'^^. d\\6<pv\oi 
, evavcr/mara /jiiKpa KOI <y\i(T%pa 
Tra\aiov ryevovs e^eiv SoKovvres, d<$* wv 
l \6yw re Kal yvai/jir] ra)i> ^prjo-i/jiw 
rfj 'EXXaSt OavfJiacrrov fjv, OVTOI Tot? 

Kal rrovoL? ef;e\6/jLvoL rrjv 'EXXaSa 
%a\e7ru)V Kal rvpdvvwv e\ev6epovcn. 
XII. Tavra Srj rov<$ ''EXX^i^a? vTrrjei' Kal ra 
rwv epycov o/jboXoyovvra Tot? Kr)pvy/jL,acriv. a/za 
yap e^eTre^LTrev 6 TITO? Aevr\ov fjiev els 'A<7/az> 
J&apyvXirfra? e^evOepwaovra, ^reprivtov Be els 
pd/crjv ras avrofli TroXet? Kal VIJGOVS drca\\d- 
%ovra rwv <&t\L7nrov fypovpwv. IIoTrXio? Be 
QVL\\IO$ eVXei Bia\e^6aevos 'Avri6%q) rrepl TT}? 

2 T6'i> UTT' avrov 'EXX^co^ e\v6epia<$. avros Be o 
Tiros els XaXtSa rrape\9(jL>v, elra rr\everas 
KeWev errl Mayvrjcriav, e^rjye rds (fipoupds Kal 
rds iro\LTeias aTreBiBov rols B)j/j.ois. dywvoOerrjs 
Be Ne/jieiwv aTroBet^ftels ev "Apyeu rr)v re iravij- 
yvpiv aptcrra Biedi)Ke, Kal rrd\iv eKel rots 
f/ EXX>/crt rrjv e\evdepl,av VTTO tcrjpvKOS dvelrrev. 


TITUS FLAMININUS, xi. 3 -.\n. 2 

conduct wars well, and understood how to be victori- 
ous commanders in battles by land and sea, but they 
would not use their successes so as to win legitimate 
favour and promote the right. Indeed, if one excepts 
the action at Marathon, the sea-fight at Salamis, 
Plataea, Thermopylae, and the achievements of Cimon 
at the Eurymedon and about Cyprus, Greece has 
fought all her battles to bring servitude upon herself, 
and every one of her trophies stands as a memorial of 
her own calamity and disgrace, since she owed her 
overthrow chiefly to the baseness and contentiousness 
of her leaders. Whereas men of another race, who 
were thought to have only slight sparks and insignifi- 
cant traces of a common remote ancestry, from whom 
it was astonishing that any helpful word or purpose 
should be vouchsafed to Greece these men under- 
went the greatest perils and hardships in order to 
rescue Greece and set her free from cruel despots and 

XII. So ran the thoughts of the Greeks ; and the 
acts of Titus were consonant with his proclamations. 
For at once he sent Lentulus to Asia to set Bargylia 
free, and Stertinius to Thrace to deliver the cities 
and islands there from Philip's garrisons. Moreover, 
Publius Villius sailed to have a conference with 
Antiochus concerning the freedom of the Greeks who 
were under his sway. Titus himself also paid a visit 
to Chalcis, and then sailed from there to Magnesia, 
removing their garrisons and restoring to the peoples 
their constitutions. He was also appointed master of 
ceremonies for the Nemeian games at Argos, where 
he conducted the festival in the best possible manner, 
and once more publicly proclaimed freedom to the 



3 eTTifyoirwv re Tat? 7r6\eaiv evvo^iav a/j,a teal 
Siterjv 7ro\\r)v Ofiovoidv re KOI <j)i\o(f)pocrvvr)v 
Tr/90? d\\ij\ov<; Trapel^e, KaraTravwv /j,ev Ta? 

, Kardywv e TO? fyvyds, a/yaAXoyuei/o? &e 
7T6L061V Kal ^La\\d(TcreLV Tou? f/ EXX?^a? ov% 
rjrrov rj rw KeKparrficevai TWV Marcebovcov, (bare 
fjiLKporarov ?;S?; rrjv e\ev0epiav Sofceiv wv evepye- 

4 B.evofcpdrrjv /JLCV ovv rov (^ikocrofyov, ore Av- 376 
Kovpyos avrbv 6 ptfrap VTTO rwv re\wvwv 0,70/1,6- 

vov 7T/30? TO ^eroiKiov d(j)ei\ero Kal Tot? ayovcriv 
7T0r}K ^>iKt]v TT}? d(T\yia<s, Xeyerai TO?? rraicrlv 
diravnjcyavra rov Av/covpyov, " KaXijv ye v/j.cov, 


rear pi, 

rcdvrzs yap avrov irraivovcnv efi ot? 
TtTW 5e Kal f Po)/^atoi? a)V TOL? f/ EXX?;^a? evepye- 
rrjvav OVK et? eTraivov? fiovoi', d\\d Kal rcianv 
ev TTCLCTLV dvO pctyTrois Kal Svi'a/miv r) %/oi? diryvra 
5 Strata)?. ov ydp irpocr^e^ofjievoi {JLQVOV TOU? 
7776/101/0? avrwv, d\\a Kal 

Ka\ovvre<; eve-eii^ov atTou?. ovSe 

'-\-\V v/i > " r ' f / >pv / 

, aX\a Kai pacri\eLS v<p erepwv aoi.Kov- 
(3acTL\wv Karefyevyov et? Ta? 
, ware ev /Spa^el ^povw, rd%a TTOV 
deov (TweffraTTTOfievov, rcdvra avrols 
yeveaOai. Kal avros Be /JLeyicrrov e<^povr](rev errl 
6 rf) T?7? 'EXXa'So? eXevOepweeL. dvariOels yap et? 
i/? d(TTTL$a<$ dpyvpds Kal rov eavrov Ovpeov 



Greeks. Then he visited the different cities, estab- 
lishing among them law and order, abundant justice, 
concord, and mutual friendliness. He quieted their 
factions and restored their exiles, and plumed himself 
on his persuading and reconciling the Greeks more 
than on his conquest of the Macedonians, so that their 
freedom presently seemed to them the least of his 

Xenocrates the philosopher, as the story runs, was 
once being haled away to prison by the tax-collectors 
for not having paid the alien's tax, but was rescued 
out of their hands by Lycurgus the orator, who also 
visited the officials with punishment for their impu- 
dence. Xenocrates afterwards met the sons of 
Lycurgus, and said : " My boys, I am making a noble 
return to your father for his kindness towards me ; 
for all the world is praising him for what he did." 
In the case of Titus and the Romans, however, 
gratitude for their benefactions to the Greeks brought 
them, not merely praises, but also confidence among 
all men and power, and justly too. For men not only 
received the officers appointed by them, but actually 
sent for them and invited them and put themselves 
in their hands. And this was true not only of 
peoples and cities, nay, even kings who had been 
wronged by other kings fled for refuge into the hands 
of Roman officials, so that in a short time and 
perhaps there was also divine guidance in this 
everything became subject to them. But Titus him- 
self took most pride in his liberation of Greece. 
For in dedicating at Delphi some silver bucklers 
and his own long shield, he provided them with this 
inscription : 



a) Kpanrvalcn ryeyaores iTTrocrvvaia't, 
Koupoi, LCD ^Trdpras TvvSapiSai /3acrtXet5, 
A.ivedSa<5 Tiro? V^LJJLIV vireprarov WTracre Swpov, 
rev^a^ iraicrlv e\ev6epiav. 

7 ai>0rjK Se KOI ^pvaovv ry 'A7roXXa>j^ 

TovSe rot, d/jbjSpocrioKTiv eVl TrXoKafioicriv eoi/ce 1 

KeicrOai, AaroiSa, ^pvao^aij arefyavov, 
ov* Tropev AiveaSdv ra^o? 

TOO Oeiu) /cvBo? oira^e TLTW. 

8 Tfj S' ovv 5 KopivOiteV 7ro\ei Trpo? TOv<$ r 'E\\r]vas 
TO auro ^t? rjSrj crv/ji/3/3r)K6' KOL <ydp Ttro? ev 
\\opiv6w rore KOI Nepwv avflis Kad' 7/yU.a? eV 

\v6epov<$ KOI O-VTOVO/JLOV? dfprjKav, o 
ev bid Krjpvfcos, w? eip^rai, Nepwv Be auro? eVl 
a/yopa? aTro /Sr^taro? eV TW 7rX?;$et 

aXXa ravra p,ev varepop. 
XIII. 'O ^e Tiro? Tore Ka\\icrrov KCLI 

rov Tr/oo? Na/9^ dp^djjievos iroKe/JLOV, TOV 
ifjioviwv e^w^ararov /cal 7rapai>o/jLa}TaTOV 
rvpavvov, ev rro re\CL BietytixraTO rav T/}? 'EiXXaSo? 

Trapacr^ov OVK e^eX?;(ja9, aXXa 

$ov\vovcrav, eire Cetera? /it^/ TOI) TroXe^ou 

Xa/i jSdvowros a'XXo? a?ro 'Pw/Lt?;? eVeX^w^ arpa- 

an anonymous correction adopted by Sintenis 2 and 
Blass ; Corae's and Bekker retain the vulgate 

2 Sv Bekker corrects to 8s, after Jacobs. 

3 3' oSy Bekker and Blass : 


TITUS FLAMININUS, xn. 6-xm. i 

"O ye sons of Zeus, whose joy is in swift horse- 
manship^ O ye Tyndaridae, princes of Sparta, Titus, 
a descendant of Aeneas, has brought you a most 
excellent gift, he who for the sons of the Greeks 
wrought freedom." 

He also dedicated a golden wreath to Apollo, and it 
bore this inscription : 

' This will fitly lie on thine ambrosial locks, O 
son of Leto, this wreath with sheen of gold ; it is 
the gift of the great leader of the children of 
Aeneas. Therefore, O Far-darter, bestow upon the 
god-like Titus the glory due to his prowess." 

It follows, then, that the city of Corinth has twice 
now been the scene of the same benefaction to the 
Greeks ; for it was in Corinth that Titus at this time, 
and at Corinth that Nero again in our own times in 
both cases at the Isthmian games made the Greeks 
free and self-governing, Titus by voice of herald, but 
Nero in a public address which he delivered in person, 
on a tribunal in the market-place amidst the multi- 
tude. This, however, came at a later time. 1 

XIII. Titus now began a most honourable arid 
righteous war, the war against Nabis, that most 
pernicious and lawless tyrant of Sparta, but in the 
end he disappointed the hopes of Greece. For though 
it was in his power to capture the tyrant, he refused 
to do so, and made peace with him, thus leaving 
Sparta to the fate of an unworthy servitude. He was 
led to this step either by his fear that a protraction 
of the war would bring another general from Rome 

1 In 67 A.D. 



os dve\i]Tai T///; Sofav, et're <f>l\oveifcia teal 

2 ^7/XoTfTrur. TO)/' ( l>\o7rot/A6;'Ov Tf/zo)/', ov cv re TO is 
aXXot? ("(Tra(Tti> civBpa 8eiVOTdTOV TO)/' Ei\\r)VQ)V 
o/'Ttt teal TTCpl GKWOV TOV fTO\fJiOV epyCt OaVfuHTTa 

K(U BeiVOTTJTOS aTTO^ei^ii fitvov laa TO") TtTO) 
'A^aiol /cal TifJiwvTes ev TO?V Oedrpots 

Kcil>Ol>, oiiff UftOVVTCl PcOfJLCLLCOV UTTdTtp 

? avBpCOTTOV 'AjO/Cafittj 

/cal 6/j.opfoi' 7TO\t/JL(i)V (TTpanjyoi', OfJLOtct 

3 6av/J,d%O'6ai Trap auTOtv. ov fJLijv aXX' auTov o 

VTTt : p TOVTCOV a7T\oylTO, KQi 

a)v e(i)pa avr KdKy /ueyaXft) TOJ/' (f' 
a7ro\ovfjievoi> TOV TVpCtVVOV. 





V TO) 

wvioi ^/cvofjivoi /rat 
ev Se T^ EvXXaOf %i\i()i KCLI oiatcoffioi 

TO 7rXr}<9o? fjaav, del fJ&V olrcrpol T//V fJLeTa/3o\fj? t 
Tore Be /cal /j,a\\ov, wv el/cos, lvTvy%dvovT$ ol 
fj,ev viol?, ol $e aoeXf^otv, o/ Se <rvwr)dea'iv ) iKevOi* 
5 pot? SovXoi KOL viK&triv al%fj,d\coTOt. TOVTOVS o 377 
ei> TtVo? OUA: a(j>ei\ero TO>/> KSKTvjfievcov, fcatirep 
tV avroiv, OL Be \\%<tiol \VTpd) ffdfJLfVOl 

1 Cf. the Philopoemen, xv. 1-3. 



to succeed him and rob him of his glory, or by his 
jealous displeasure at the honours paid to Philopoe- 
men. For in all other matters Philopoemen was a 
most capable man among the Greeks, and in that war 
particularly he displayed astonishing deeds of ability 
and daring, so that lie was extolled by the Achaeans 
as much as Titus, and equally honoured in their 
theatres. This annoyed Titus, who thought it out of 
keeping that a man of Arcadia, who had held com- 
mand in small border wars, should receive just as 
much admiration from the Achaeans as a Roman 
consul, who was waging war in behalf of Greece. 1 
However, Titus himself had this to say in defence of 
his course, namely, that he put an end to the war 
when he saw that the destruction of the tyrant would 
involve the rest of the Spartans also in serious 
disaster. 2 

The Achaeans voted Titus many honours, none of 
which seemed commensurate with his benefactions 
except one gift, and this caused him as much satis- 
faction as all the rest put together. And this was 
the gift : The Romans who were unhappily taken 
prisoners in the war with Hannibal had been sold 
about hither and thither, and were serving as slaves. 
In Greece there were as many as twelve hundred of 
them. The change in their lot made them pitiful 
objects always, but then even more than ever, natur- 
ally, when they fell in with sons, or brothers, or 
familiar friends, as the case might be, slaves with 
freemen and captives with victors. These men Titus 
would not take away from their owners, although he 
was distressed at their condition, but the Achaeans 

2 Titus offered this defence of his course to the congress of 
Greek states at Corinth (Livy, xxxiv. 48 f.). 



7revT6 JJLVWV eKaarov civSpa tcai crvvayayovres 
ravTO Trdvras ijBtj irepl TT\OVV OVTI TO> TLTW irape- 
, wcrre avTov evfypaLvofjitvov airoirXelv, CLTTO 
epycov Ka\a$ d/jioifias /cal 7rp7rovaa<? dvbpl 
6 yueyaXw teal (j)i\07ro\iTrj KeKO^La^vov o STJ 
7T/30? TOV Opia/JL^ov avru) Trdvrwv virdp^ai 
TdTOV. ol yap az^Syoe? ovroi, KaOdrcep e9o$ earl 
TO?? al/cerais orav e\ev9epw9wcrLV, ^vpecrdau re 
ra? KetyaXds teal TTiXia (ftopeiv, Tavra 
avrol Opia^/BeuovTL ra> TYrco TrapeiTrovro. 

XIV. KaXXtco Se /cal TO. \d(pupa 7ro/JL7rev6/Jieva 
O^TLV, 'Ej\\r)viKd Kpdmi KOI 
teal adpiaai,. TO re ra)V ^ 
ov/c o\L<yov TJV, co? avaypdtyovcriv ol Trepl 
TovSiravbv ev TG> 


Be/carpeis, dpyvpov Se 
SiaKO&ias efiSo/JujfcovTa, 

OK area a-a pas, X^pls Se TOVTWV rd 
^tXtTTTTO? w<^etXe^. aXXa ravra ^v varepov 
7reLcr0r]a'av f Pa)yua40f, ^taX^crra TOV Tirov avfiTrpd- 
^avro^, dfyelvai TW QiXiTTTra), KOL av^^a^ov 
d\lri](f)iaavTO, Kol TOV viov d r TTi]\\a^av aura) rT/9 

XV. 'E-Trel be 6 'Ai/Tto^o? et? Trjv 'EXXa8a 
vaval TroXXat? /cat arpaTfo TrepaicoOels d^icrT^ 
ra? TroXej? /cat bieaTacria^ev, AtVwXwz^ avT& 

KOI TraXat 8iaKifjLeva)v 

1 The mina was one sixtieth part of a talent, or one 
hundred drachmas. 


TITUS FLAMININUS, xm. 5 -xv. i 

ransomed them all at five minas l the man, collected 
them together, and made a present of them to Titus 
just as he was about to embark, so that lie sailed for 
home with a glad heart; his noble deeds had brought 
him a noble recompense, and one befitting a great 
man who loved his fellow citizens. This appears to 
have furnished his triumph with its most glorious 
feature. For these men shaved their heads and wore 
felt caps, as it is customary for slaves to do when 
they are set free, and in this habit followed the 
triumphal car of Titus. 

XIV. But a more beautiful show was made by the 
spoils of war which were displayed in the procession 
Greek helmets and Macedonian bucklers and pikes. 
Besides, the amount of money exhibited was large. 
Tuditanus records that there were carried in the 
procession three thousand seven hundred and thirteen 
pounds of gold bullion, forty-three thousand two 
hundred and seventy pounds of silver, and fourteen 
thousand five hundred and fourteen gold coins bear- 
ing Philip's effigy. 2 And apart from this money 
Philip owed his fine of a thousand talents. 3 This 
fine, however, the Romans were afterwards persuaded 
to remit to Philip, and this was chiefly due to the 
efforts of Titus ; they also made Philip their ally, and 
sent back his son whom they held as hostage. 

XV. Presently, however, Antiochus crossed into 
Greece 4 with many ships and a large army, and 
began to stir the cities into faction and revolt. The 
Aetolians made common cause with him, a people 
which had long been most inimically disposed towards 

2 These "Philips" were nearly equivalent to sovereigns. 
Of. Livy's description of the triumph (xxxiv. 52). 

3 Cf. chapter ix. 5. 4 In the autumn of 192 B.C. 

3 6 3 


rov 'Pay/jiaiwv BIJJULOV ej^Opw^ fcal TroXe/u :&>?, viro- 
Oecriv rov rro\e^ov Kal Trpcxfracriv SiSovrwv e\ev- 
Oepovv TQVS "EXX^m? ovbev Beopevovs (e\ev9epoi 
2 yap r)aav\ aXX' evTrpeTrearepas alrlas airopla ru> 
fca\\L(TTa> TWV OVO/JLCLTWV xprjaOai 
Kal a(j)6$pa beiuavTes ol 'Pw/j-aioi TTJV a 
l &o%av avrov TT}? Su^a/zew?, crpar^ybi' 

rov TroXe/zou Mdviov ' AKL\LOV KaTeirefJi'^rav, 
rriv Be Ttrov Sia TOW? f/ EXX?;z;a?, wv TOU? 
ev0v<f o^^el? ejroirjae /SefiaLorepov?, TOL? Be 

vocreiv wairep n l ev /caipw 
rrjv irpos aurov evvoiav ecrr^cre real 

3 SiK(t)\vcr6i> e^a/Liapreiv. oXf/yot Se CLVTOV ^(j) vyov 

TrpoKareiX.rf/ufjievoi /cal $ie(f)0ap[jievoi. Travrd- 
VTTO rwv AlrajXcov, 01)9 Ka'nrep opyicrOels 
l Trapo^vvOels OJJLW^ //era r^v fAafflv Trepie- 
ifTtV^o? jap rjrT^Oels ev ep/JLOTrv\ais 
v@v$ et? 'Acrtai/ dTriifkevcre, Mai/to9 
8' o inraTOS TOL>? ytte^ auro? eVtcoz/ 
e7ro\iopK6i, TOU? Se rw {3acTL\ei 

4 priaev e^atpelv. dyo^evwv 8e Kal <^epo^ei>wv VTTO 
rov Ma/eeSo^o? rovro fiev AoXoTrcoz; /cal Ma7^?;Tft>^, 
rovro Be 'AQafJidvcov Kal *Krrepavrwv, avrov Se 
rov Martou T?)^ fjLev'HpaKXeiav Bia7re7rop0^Koro<; ) 
rr)V Se NaJTra/tTOt' A/TfoXcoz^ e^ovrwv 7ro\iopKOVv- 
T09, oiKreipcov 701)9 f/ EXX?;z^a9 o Ttro? 

Ti Coraes, Bekker, and Blass, after Stephanus : 



the Romans, and they suggested to him, as a pretext 
that would account for the war, that he should offer 
the Greeks their freedom. The Greeks did not want 
to be set free, for they were free already; but for 
lack of a more appropriate ground for his action the 
Aetolians taught Antiochus to make use of that fair- 
est of all names. The Romans, greatly alarmed by 
reports of defection among the Greeks and of the 
power of Antiochus, sent out Manius Acillius as 
consular general for the war, but made Titus his 
lieutenant to please the Greeks. The mere sight 
of him confirmed some of these in their loyalty to 
Rome, while to others, who were beginning to be 
infected with disloyalty, he administered a timely 
medicine, as it were, in the shape of good will 
towards himself, and thus checked their malady and 
prevented them from going wrong. A few, however, 
escaped his influence, having been already won over 
beforehand and totally corrupted by the Aetolians, 
but even these, in spite of his vexation and anger, 
were spared by him after the battle. For Antiochus 
was defeated at Thermopylae l and put to flight, and 
at once sailed back to Asia; while Manius the consul 
went against some of the Aetolians himself and 
besieged them, leaving others to King Philip to 
destroy. And so it came about that the Dolopians 
and Magnesians here, the Athamanians and Aperan- 
tians there, were harried and plundered by the 
Macedonians, while Manius himself, after sacking 
Heracleia, was engaged in the siege of Naupactus, 
which the Aetolians held. Then Titus, out of pity 
for the Greeks, sailed across from Peloponnesus to 

1 In 191 B.C. For a description of the battle, cf. Livy, 
xxxvi. 14-21. 



IJLCV eTreTiurjaev el veviKi]Kcbs auro? ra eTraO\a TOV 
7ro\e/jiov QfaiTTTTOv ea c^epeadai, KOI rpifio/jievos 
Trepl p.i(i vroXet KdOrjTai Si opyr/v, Wvr] Be OVK 
5 6\iya Kal /SacrtXeta? Ma/ce5of6? aipovauv. eVetra 
TMV 7ro\iOpKovfJLevwv, w? elbov avroi', UTTO TOV 
Ter^ou? avatca\ovvTCi)v KOI %et/;a? 
8eo/julv6)v t Tore n*.v ovoev eLTrwv, a\\ 

vcras d7rtj\0ev, va"repov oe 
tw Kal KaraTravffas TOV OvfJiov avTov 
rot? AtVwXo?9 a/^o^a? So0ffvai, Ka 
eV w TrpefT/BevaavTes et? 'Vw^v jieTpiov 

XVI. IlXetcrToi> ^e tvywva Kal TTOVOV avTw 378 

<u Trepl XaX/aSew*' Se^'crci? TT/JO? TO^ 
, eV 0/97^ yeyovoTwv &ia TOV yd/iov ov Trap 1 

, 01) a(9 ajpav ovtie KCLTCI Kaipoi>, aXX* 
epaffdels dvtjp 7rpeo-/3vTepo$ Koprjs, v) QvyaTrjp fjiev 
r/v KXeoTTroXe/xof, /caXXicrr^ 8e Xe^/erat TrapOevMV 
2 yevecrffai,. TOVTO rou? XaX/aet? eTroirjae fjaai\l- 
crai TrpoOv/jsOTaTa Kal TTJV Trukiv avTM Trpus TOV 
7ro\eaov oparjTrjpioi> Trapafr^clv. i/eewoq uev ovv 
(09 Ta^icrTa ueTci Tr]V fjid^v (f)evya)v Trpocreui^e 
Trj XaX/a'Sf, rryi^ re Koprjv dvaXafioiv Kal TO, 
Xptff&aTa Kal TOU9 <j)i\ovq et9 'Acrtaz 
TOV ce Mdviov evBvs ejrl 701/9 XaAvaoet? 

TITUS FLAMININUS, xv. 4 -xvi. 2 

the consul. At first he chided Manius because, 
although the victory was his own, he was permitting 
Philip to carry off' the prizes of the war, and to 
gratify his anger was wasting time in the siege of a 
single city, while the Macedonians were subduing 
many nations and kingdoms. Then, when the be- 
sieged citizens caught sight of him from their walls 
and called aloud upon him and stretched out their 
hands to him imploringly, he turned away, burst into 
tears, and left the place, without saying anything 
more at the time; afterwards, however, he had an 
interview with Manius, put an end to his wrath, and 
induced him to grant the Aetolians a truce, and time 
in which to send an embassy to Rome with a plea for 
moderate terms. 

XVI. But the hardest toils and struggles fell to 
Titus when he interceded with Manius in behalf of 
the Chalcidians. They had incurred the consul's 
wrath because of the marriage which Antiochus had 
made in their city after the war had already begun, 
a marriage which was not only unseasonable, but 
unsuitable for the king's years, since he was an elderly 
man and had fallen in love with a girl (the girl was 
a daughter of Cleoptolemus, and is said to have been 
most beautiful among maidens). 1 This marriage in- 
duced the Chalcidians to take the king's side most 
zealously and allow their city to be his base of opera- 
tions for the war. Antiochus, therefore, fleeing with 
all speed after the battle at Thermopylae, came to 
Chalcis, and taking with him his girl-wife, his 
treasure, and his friends, sailed back to Asia ; but 
Manius immediately marched against Chalcis in a 
rage. He was accompanied, however, by Titus, who 

1 Cf. the Philopoemen, xvii. 1. 



Tropevop-evov 6 Tiro? 7rapaico\ov6u)v eyitaXarre real 
7rapr)TLTo /cal TeXo<? eTrei&e fcal /careTrpdvvev, 
avTov re KOI rwv ev T\i 'Vw^a'iwv Seo^^o?. 

3 OI/TW $ia(ra)@evTS ol XaX/a8et? TO, 

teal fjiejiara rwv irap aurois avaffrj^drcov 
Ttrw KaOiepay&av, MV emypa^a^ ecrri 
a%pi vvv opav "'O S^/zo? Ttrw /cat 'Hyoa^Xet TO 
yv^i'dcriov," erepwOi Se 7ra\n>, " 'O BijjjLOs Ttrw 

4 /cat ' A TTO XXwzu TO &e\<$>iviov" eri $e /cal /ca$' 
?;/ua9 icpevs %eipOTOvr]Tbs aTreSeiKwro TLTOV, teal 
Ovcravres avrw TWV (nrovBwv jevo^evwv a 

eTTOL^p.evov, ov ra\\a Sia //,/}/co? 
dveypdtya/jiev a 'jravofJievoi TT)? 

e 'Pco/naitov c 
i/ /jLeyaXevKTOTarav op/cots <pu\d(rcriv 

fJL\7TT KOVpCtl, 

/jteyav 'Pco/iiav re Tirov 9' dfia *J?(QfjLai(OV 


> / 

.. -ft / ? rr\r 

(6 LLaiav, a) Lire 

XVII. "*Hcrav 3e real irapa rcav a 
yual TrpeTrovcrai, KOI TO Ta? 

TTOIOVV, evvoia dav/jLacrrr) SS 7Ti6L/ceiavr)0ovs. /cal 
yap ei riaiv e/c Trpajp.drwv r) 0tXoTt/ita? eveica, 
KaOaTrep QiXoTroifjLeiJL /cal 7rd\iv Aicxfidvei o-rparr)- 
yovvn TWV ' A-%aiwi>, TrpcxjeKpovGev, ov/c rji> ftapvs 
ouS' ei? ep7a cjiaTelvwv o 0u/n6s, aXX' eV 
TrapprjaLav rtvd 7ro\t,Tirc>jv eyowri 
2 TTi/cyoo? yu-ez/ OL>^ ovbevi, TroXXoi? 8e o^u? eSo/cei /cal 

ajy a.\\cat> 'EXA^vwi/ Coraes and Blass, after Biyan : 

TITUS FLAMININUS, xvi. 2 -xvn. 2 

tried to mollify and intercede with him and at last 
won him over and calmed him down by entreaties 
addressed both to him and the other Romans in 

Having been thus saved by Titus, the Chalcidians 
dedicated to him the largest and most beautiful of 
the votive offerings in their city, and on them such 
inscriptions as these are still to be seen : " This 
gymnasium is dedicated by the people to Titus and 
Heracles," and again in another place, " This Del- 
phinium is dedicated by the people to Titus and 
Apollo." Moreover, even down to our own day a 
priest of Titus is duly elected and appointed, and 
after sacrifice and libations in his honour, a set hymn 
of praise to him is sung: it is too long to be quoted 
entire, and so I will give only the closing words of 
the song : 

"And the Roman faith we revere, which we 
have solemnly vowed to cherish ; sing, then, ye 
maidens, to great Zeus, to Rome, to Titus, and 
to the Roman faith : hail, Paean Apollo ! hail, 
Titus our saviour ! " 

XVII. He also received from the rest of the 
Greeks fitting honours,and these were made sincere by 
the astonishing good will which his equitable nature 
called forth. For even if the conduct of affairs or 
the spirit of rivalry brought him into collision with 
any of them, as, for instance, with Philopoemen, and 
again with Diophanes the general of the Achaeans, 
his resentment was not heavy, nor did it carry him 
into violent acts, but when it had vented itself in 
the outspoken language of free public debate, there 
was an end of it. However, he was never bitter, 

3 6 9 


elvau Trjv fyvcriv, aXXco? Sc 


T77TO?. 'A^afou? /JLev yap (rtyeTepi^o/JLevovs TT)I> 

, av 

at %\wvcu Troppwrepco rrjv K(ba\,rjv 
T]e\07rovvijcrov irpoTeivuxri* QiXiTTTrov Be, 

7Tpl CTTTOvStoV Kal iprfvr)S TO 

, etTro^ro? //era TTO\\WV IJKCIV etceivov, 
avrbv e fjiovov, V7ro\a/3a>v 6 TITO?, " Avrbv 7"p," 
efyr], " fjiovov CTrolrjcras aTTOKTelvas rou? <pi\ov<; 

3 Kal crvyyevels" eVet Se Aetz/o/cpar?;? o Mecro-?;Vi09 
eV 'Pcoyu// Trapa TTOTOV fjLeOvadeis cop^ijaaro \afBwv 
i/jLariov yvvaiKelov, rfj 5' varrepaia TOP Tirov rjj;iov 
fio^Qeiv avTto &iavoov/j[vy rr)V 

crrdvai TWV 'A^a/wf, ravra pew 

OavjjLa^eiv Se e/celvov, el 

pr)/ca)<; irpd^ea-LV op^elcrOai Svvarat Trapa TTOTOV 

4 KOI aSeiv. TT^O? 8e TOU? 'A^aiou? rwv Trapa 

KaTa\ey6vTa>v real KaTapi9fJLovp,i><i)i> 
TroXXa? TrpO(Tr)<yopias, o Ttro9 etp^ &iTTVOvvro<$ 
avrov Trapa TO) evw Kal /ne/jL^ofiei^ov TO Tr\r)9o<s 
TMV Kpewv Kal Oavfjid^ovTOS iroOev OVTO> Trot/ctX);? 
dyopds evTroprjcrev, elrreiv TOV %evov, co? veia iravra 
ecrrl TT; aKevao-ia Sia(f)epovTa Kal rot9 ^v 
5 " M^ roivvv" ecfrrj, " /J,T)$ t/xet?, co avSpe? ' 

Ti Coraes and Bekker have TrAfjflos re, after 



although many imputed hastiness and levity to his 
nature, and in general he was a most agreeable 
companion and able to say a graceful thing with 
force. For instance, when he was trying to dissuade 
the Achaeans from appropriating the island of Zacyn- 
thos, he said it would be dangerous for them, like a 
tortoise, to stick their head out of its Peloponnesian 
shell. 1 Again, when he held his first conference 
with Philip concerning a truce and peace, and Philip 
remarked that Titus had come with many attendants 
while he himself had come alone, Titus answered, 
(e Yes, thou hast made thyself alone by slaying thy 
friends and kindred." 2 Again, when Deinocrates 
the Messenian, who had taken too much wine at a 
drinking-party in Rome, and after putting on a 
woman's robe had executed a dance, on the following 
day asked Titus to assist him in his plan to separate 
Messene from the Achaean league, Titus said he 
would consider the matter ; " But I am amazed," said 
he, " that when thou hast matters of so great moment 
in hand, thou canst dance and sing at a drinking- 
party." 3 And once more, when an embassy from 
Antiochus was recounting to the Achaeans the vast 
multitude of the king's forces and enumerating them 
all by their various appellations, Titus said that once, 
when he was dining with a friend, he criticised the 
multitude of meats that were served, wondering 
where he had obtained so varied a supply ; where- 
upon his host told him they were all swine's flesh, 
and differed only in the way they were cooked and 
dressed. "And so in your case," said he, "men of 

1 Cf. Livy, xxxvi. 32 ; Plutarch, Morals, p. 197 b. 

2 Cf. Morals, p. 197 a (Folybius, xviii. 7). 

3 Cf. the Philopoemen, xviii. ff. (Polybius, xxiii. 5). 



0av/nd%T Tr]V 'Azmo^ou Bvva/\oyxo<t>6povs teal 
gucrrotyopovs /cal rre^eTaipovs dtcovovTe?' rrdvTe? 
yap OVTOL 2vpoi elcrlv 6rr\apioi^ SicKpepovres. 

XVIII. Mera Be ra? 'EXXyvi/cas rrpd^e^ teal 379 
TOP 'AvTioxifcbv rroXe/AOv a 

evrlv apxrj fj,eji(rrri /cal rporrov Tiva TT? 

Tta? eVtTeXetcDO-f?. ral avvripx* pev avru) Map- 

K6\\ov TOV 7TVTaKL<; vTTciTevcravTOS u/ 

Be TT}? /rfofX?)? TWZ^ ov/c a7^ ein$>av)V Te 

TTpoa-eSe^avro Be TroXtra? aTroypafyofJie 

ocrot, yovecov e\ev0epa)v r]<rav, dvayKaadevres VTTO 

TOV Brj/^dpxov TepevTiov Kof Xew^o?, o? e 

rot? dpia-TOKpariKots eireKre TOV BTJJAOV 

Se yvwpifjifj)TdTwv KCLT CIVTOV avBp&v Kal 
ev Trj TToXei Bia(f>epo/jieva)v TT/CIO? aXX?;- 

lKai'OV ^KrjTTLMVOS KOi MdpKOV KttTft)^09, 

TOI^ yw-ev Trpoejpa^e TT}? /3ouA,?}9, a>9 apidTOv civBpa 
Kal TrpwTOi', KaTwvi & et? e^Opav r)\6e av^opa, 
TOiavrr) -%pYi<rdiJLVO<$. a8eX(/)o? ^ Ttrw Aev/cios 
<$>\afJLivlvo<s, OUTE TO, aXXa rrpocreoiKtos eice'iv 
Ti]V (frvcriv ev T6 rat? ijSovais dve\ev6epo<^ 
3 Aral 6\iywpoTaTO$ TOV TrperrovTOS. TOVTM 
fjieipaKia KOS e/ow/ze^o?, bv /cal crrpaTLds 
emjyeTO /cal BieTrwv eVa/?%ta5 el^ev del rrepl 
avTOV. eV ovv TTOTW Tivl OpVTTTOfJLevos irpos TOV 

1 Cf. Morals, p. 197 o (Livy, xxxv. 49). 

TITUS FLAMINIXUS, xvn. 5-xvm. 3 

Achaia, do not be astonished when you hear of the 
Spear-bearers and Lance-bearers and Foot-compan- 
ions in the army of Antiochus ; for they are all 
Syrians and differ only in the way they are armed." 1 

XVIII. After his achievements in Greece and the 
war with Antiochus, Titus was appointed censor. 2 
This is the highest office at Rome, and in a manner 
the culmination of a political career. Titus had as 
colleague in this office a son of the Marcellus 3 who 
had been five times consul, and the two censors 
ejected from the senate four men of lesser note, and 
received into citizenship all who offered themselves 
for enrolment, provided they w r ere born of free 
parents. To this step they were forced by the 
tribune Terentius Culeo, who wanted to spite the 
nobility and so persuaded the people to vote the 

The two men of his time who were most notable 
and had the greatest influence in the city, Scipio 
Africanus and Marcus Cato, were at variance with one 
another. Of these, Titus appointed Scipio to be Dean 
of the Senate, 4 believing him to be its best and fore- 
most man ; but with Cato he came into hostile 
relations, owing to the following unfortunate circum- 
stances. Titus had a brother, Lucius, who was 
unlike him in all other ways, and especially in his 
shameful addiction to pleasure and his utter contempt 
of decency. This brother had as companion a young 
boy whom he loved, and took him about and kept 
him always in his train, whether he was commanding 
an army or administering a province. At some 
drinking party, then, this boy was playing the coquet 

2 In 189 B.C. 3 Cf. chapter i. 3. 

4 Cf. the Tiberius Gracchus, iv. 1 ; Cato the Elder, xvii. 1. 

voi . x. .. 373 


AevKiov ourco? e<pr) o~>68pa <L\IV avrov, 


TTOV (j)ovevofj,vov $eaT?;?, TO rrpbs e/ceivov -}}Bv TOV 
7T/3O? avTov ev TrXeiovi \6jft) 0e/j,evos. o Se AVKIO<$ 
f)(j6e\$ " OvSev," e<pr], " Seivov Idcrofiai <yap eyo> 

4 (TOV T1]V GTT L0 V /JiiaV " KOL K\VGa<$ 6VO, TWV KaTCL- 

ti'iKoiv IK rov &cr/j.(t)T'j]pLov TrpoaxOr/vai, KOL TOV 
vTnjpeTrjv [j,Ta7r6/ji^d/jievos, ev TW avf^Trocnw rrpoa-- 
era^ev cnroKo^rat, TOV di'OpwTrov TOV 
QvaXXepios Be 'Avrta? OVK epa)/j,evy 
epci)jjivrj TOVTO ^apiaraaOaL TOV AVKIOV. 6 oe 

co? Ta\aTi]v avTOfjioXov e\dovTd /^era Trai&wv KOI 

ryvvaiKos 7rl Ta? Bvpas o'e^d/u.evos et? TO avf-irroo'iov 

6 Aeu/ao? drreKTeivev IBia x ei P^ 

5 6/.ivos. TOVTO jjiev ovv el/cos 6t 

fcaTijyopias VTTO TOV KaTco/'o?' OTL Se OVK 
yttoXo? ijVf d\\d 8ecr/zcoT^? o dvaipedels KCU 

K TWV KaTdSiKCOV, a\\Ol T6 7TO\\ol KOI 

6 p/)TO)p V T<y rrepl ^yj/oty? aura) aTam TTI/ 

XIX. Evrl TOVTW KaTd)V TifMrjTTjs ycvo/uevos 
KOI KaOaLpwvT^v crvyK\ijTov d7nj\a<r TT}? (3ov\f]<? 
rov ACVKLOV, VTraTiKov /j,ev di; tctJ^aaTO? OVTCL, avva- 
TifJiov(j0aL Se TOV d$6\<f)ov SOKOVVTOS O.VTW. Sio 
/col 7rpoe\0ovT<; et? TOI^ Sf)jj,ov du<poTpoi Tcnreivol 

1 Cf. Livy, xxxix. 43. 

TITUS FLAMININUS, xvm. 3 -xix. i 

with Lucius, and said he loved him so ardently that 
he had come away from a show of gladiators in order 
to be with him, although he had never in all his life 
seen a man killed ; and he had done so, he said, 
because he cared more for his lover's pleasure than 
for his own. Lucius was delighted at this, and said : 
" Don't worry about that ! I will give thee thy heart's 
desire." Then ordering a man who had been con- 
demned to death to be brought forth from his prison, 
and sending for a lictor, he commanded him to 
strike off the man's head there in the banquet-hall. 
Valerius Antias, however, says it was not a lover, but 
a mistress whom Lucius thus sought to gratify. 1 And 
Livy says that in a speech of Cato himself it is 
written that a Gaulish deserter had come to the door 
with his wife and children, and that Lucius admitted 
him into the banquet-hall and slew him with his own 
hand to gratify his lover. This feature, however, 
was probably introduced by Cato to strengthen the 
force of his denunciation ; for that it was not a 
deserter, but a prisoner, who was put to death, and 
one who had been condemned to die, is the testimony 
of many others, and especially of Cicero the orator in 
his treatise " On Old Age," where he puts the story 
in the mouth of Cato himself. 2 

XIX. In view of this, when Cato became censor 3 
and was purging the senate of its unworthy members, 
he expelled from it Lucius Flamininus, although he 
was a man of consular dignity, and although his 
brother Titus was thought to be involved in his 
disgrace. Therefore the two brothers came before 
the people in lowly garb and bathed in tears, and 

3 Cf. Cato the Elder, xvii. 1-4 ; Livy, xxxix. 42. 
In 184 B.C. 

VOL. x. N 2 375 


TMV Tro\iTO)V 

alrtav elirelv TOV Karwz'a KCU 

\6yov, <w %pr]o-d]LLei>os OLKOV 

2 7repi/3e/3\r]Kev. ovSev ovv v r n oaTeCkd/jievos o K.drayv 
7rpor)\6e, KOI Karaara^ /jiera TOV avvdp^ovro^ 
r]pa)Tij(T rov TLTOV el ytvoba'Kei TO crv/j,7rocriov. 
dpvovfjiivov Se e/ceivov, Sirjyrfa-djjievos et? opLdfJiov 
Trpoe/fa\.iTo TOV AevKiov ei TL(j>r)crt TO>V elprjpevcov 
yur/ aX?7^e? elvai. TOV Se Aevxiov 

6 /Av &fj/jLos eyvo) SiKaLav yeyovevai Trjv 

KCU TOV KaTwva irpoeTre/JL^e Xa/^Trpco? avro TOV 

3 /3i]fj,a.To<;, 6 &e Ttro? Ty crv^opa TOV d&e\(j)ov 
TrepLTcaOwv avvkcrTi] yuera TWV ird\ai [JLHJOVVTWV 
TOV KaTcova teal Trdcras fjiev a? 

TWV Br}fjLO(riajv eV5orei? KOI fALaOuxreis KCU 
rjKvpwae KCU dvi\varev ev TTJ /3ov\f) 
TroXXa? Be teal /ze^aA-a? ^tVa? KCLT avTov Trape- 
OVK otS' OTTW? ev KOI Tco\iTiKws 


olxeiov fjLev, dva^iov Be tcai ra 

oTOS dvij/ceaTOv e%9pav dpd/jievos. ov pr)v 380 
d\\a TOV 'Paj/jidLcov TTOTC o~rjfj,ov 6eav e^ovTOS ev 
TO) OeaTpw Kal T/}? @ov\f)S, wcrirep eicofle, KOCT/JLOS 
, 6<p8els 6 AevKios eV ecr^aTOi? TTOV 

Kal TaTreiva)? OLKTOV 

TO 7r\)}0os OVK r)vear-%<-TO Trjv otyiv, aXX' eftowv 

avTov els eavTovs T>V 



made what seemed a reasonable request of their 
fellow citizens, namely, that Cato should state the 
reasons which had led him to visit a noble house 
with a disgrace so great. Without any hesitation, 
then, Cato came forward, and standing with his 
colleague before Titus, asked him if he knew about 
the banquet. Titus said he did not, whereupon Cato 
related the incident and formally challenged Lucius 
to say whether any part of the story told was not 
true. But Lucius was dumb, and the people there- 
fore saw that he had been justly disgraced, and gave 
Cato a splendid escort away from the rostra. Titus, 
however, was so affected by the misfortune of his 
brother that he leagued himself with those who had 
long hated Cato, and after getting the upper hand in 
the senate, revoked and annulled all the public 
rentals and leases and contracts which Cato had 
made, besides bringing many heavy indictments 
against him. 1 That he acted the part of a good man 
or a good citizen I cannot affirm, in thus cherishing 
an incurable hatred against a lawful magistrate and 
a most excellent citizen on account of a man who, 
though a kinsman, was nevertheless unworthy and 
had suffered only what he deserved. However, as 
the Roman people was once enjoying a spectacle in 
the theatre, and the senate, according to custom, had 
seats of honour in the foremost rows, Lucius was 
seen sitting somewhere in the rear among the poor 
and lowly, and excited men's pity. The multitude 
could not bear the sight, but kept shouting to him 
to change his place, until he did change his place, 
and was received among their own number by the 
men of consular rank. 

1 Cf. Cato the Elder, xix. 2 ; Livy, xxxix. 44. 



XX. To B* ovv (j)vcrei TLTOV (f)i\6rL/j,ov, ci^pi 
i/cavTjv el%ev v\rjv Trepl TOU? elprj/nevovs 
, evBo/ci/jiei' real jap e 

\\f / 

/jLra rr^v vTrareiav, ovevo? 

Be rov ap%eiv KCLI TrpecrfivTepos 
v, ev OVK eovri trdeis eri 

\OLTTU) /3tco (TTrapywvTa TT/JO? S6j;av KOI 
2 TW Trddei Kare%iv eavrov ov Suvdjuevos. 
yap TIVI fcal TO Trepl 'AvvlfSav <f>opa cSorcei 
Tra'%0r)'$ yevevBai rot? TroXAot?. o yap 'Avvi/3a$ 
OLfcoOev fAev e/c Kap^So^o? V7rfc8pas ^ 


TV^OVTOS, av6^ fyevywv KOI 
ir\avr)6el<$ iro\\a reXo? ev rfj T&tOvvia /carecrr?) 
Tlpovacav OepaTrevwv, ov&evo? 'Putfjiaiwv dyvo- 
ovvros, d\\a Trapoptovrwv ajravrcov oY dadeveLav 
KOI 7^pa? axTirep eppi/jL/jtevov UTTO r^5 rvx^S- 
3 Ttro? Be 7T/36cr/9eL'Tr/9 Si erepa? 6^; Ti^a? TTpa^et? 
VTTO r^9 /3ou\rj<? TT/oo? Tov TIpovaiav d(f>iKOfJLevos 
KOI TOV AvvifBav I8u>v avroQi &iaiTa>[JiVOV, rjyavd- 
KTrjcrev el f), teal 7ro\\d rov Tlpova-iov Beofj,evov 
teal \L7rapovvTO<s VTrep dvBpos i/ceTOV Kal (rvvrjOovs 
ov Traprjxe. ^prjafiov Be TWOS, co? eoitce, iraXaiov 
Trepl rfjs ' 'Avviftov reXeyrt)? ourw? e 

1 The battle at Magnesia, in Lydia, 191 B.C. Under the 
terms of peace, Antiochus was to deliver Hannibal to the 

Romans. Cf. Livy, xxxvii. 45. 


XX. Now, the native ambition of Titus, as long 
as it had sufficient material to gratify it in the wars 
which I have mentioned, met with praise, as, for 
instance, when he served a second time as military 
tribune after having been consul, though there 
was no necessity for it ; but after he had ceased to 
hold office and was well on in years, he met the 
rather with censure, because, although the portion of 
life which still remained to him did not admit of 
great activity, he was unable to restrain his passion 
for glory and his youthful ardour. For by some such 
fierce impulse, as it would seem, he was led to his treat- 
ment of Hannibal, which made him odious to most 
people. Hannibal had secretly fled from his native 
Carthage and spent some time at the court of Anti- 
ochus ; but when Antiochus, after the battle in 
Phrygia, 1 had gladly accepted terms of peace, Hanni- 
bal took to flight once more, and after many wander- 
ings, finally settled down at the court of Prusias in 
Bithynia. No one at Rome was ignorant of this, but 
all ignored him on account of his weakness and old age, 
regarding him as a castaway of Fortune. Titus, how- 
ever, who had been sent by the senate as ambassador 
to the court of Prusias on some other business, 2 and 
saw that Hannibal was staying there, was incensed 
that he should be alive, and although Prusias made 
many fervent intercessions in behalf of a man who 
was a suppliant and familiar friend, would not relent. 
There was an ancient oracle, as it would appear, 
concerning Hannibal's death, and it ran as follows : 

Libyssan earth shall cover the form of Hannibal." 


2 According to Livy (xxxix. 51), Hannibal's presence in 
Bithynia was part of Rome's complaint against Prusias. 



o /nev apa AifivTjv v7Ti>oi real ras ev 

ev Se 

T07T09 ecrrl OivcoBt^ eVl 6a\d(Tcn~i<; KGU TT/JO? avrq) 

NlfBvcrcra KaKelrai. irepl rav~ 

T7]v eru^e Siarpificdv 'A^,/5a?. aet Se a 
fj rov Upovcriov /jLoXaKia KOI <f)O/3ovfjievos TOU? 
rr/y oiKiav en Trporepov 
(7vvTTpr)/j.wjv K TT}? eavrou 
, aXXou /car' a\\o TMV inrovo^wv, iroppw Se 
5 TrdvTWV dS?;Xa>? K<fyepovrwv. 609 o^ ij/covce rore 
TO Trpoaray/jia rov TITOV, 


ejva) Si avrov T6\vrav. evioi p,ev ovv \eyovaiv 

o-nicrQev epeicravTa Kara TOV lar^iou TO 
>yovv Kal cr(j5o8yoco9 avaK\a.<javTCL crvvTeivai KOI 
TrepiGTpe-fyai, /J<e%pi av K6\i^rai TO 
Bia(j)0eipeiV avTov cvioi Se fJUfiTjcrdfJiev 
crTOK\ea /cal MtSav alfia TavpeLov Tuel 

p/jiaKOv e^ovra Kepdaai Kal TTJV Ki>\iKa 
eiTrelv " 'AvaTravawjAev 77877 Trore TTJV 
7ro\\rjv (frpovTiSa 'Pw/jLaicov, o'l /jiaKpov r)yr)cravTo 
Kal ftapv fJLidovfJievov yepovros ava^lvai QdvaTOV. 
ov ^]V ovSe Ttro9 d%io)j\a)TOV 
oj)Se TO>V Trpoyovayv d^iav, o'i Tlvppy 
Kal KpaTovvTi Tt]i> fj.e\\ovcrav inTOTreiA-fyavTes Kare- 



Hannibal thought this referred to Libya and a mirial 
at Carthage, and believed that he would end his days 
there ; but there is a sandy tract in Bithynia on the 
sea-shore, and on its border a large village called 
Libyssa. Near this village Hannibal was living. 
But he had always distrusted the weakness of 
Prusias and feared the Romans, and therefore even 
before this time his house had been provided with 
seven underground exits leading from his own 
chamber. These ran in different directions beneath 
the surface of the ground, but all had secret issues 
far away. Accordingly, when he now heard of the 
behest of Titus, he set out to make his escape by 
way of the underground passages, but encountered 
guards of the king, and therefore determined to 
take his own life. Some say that he wound his 
cloak about his neck and then ordered a servant to 
plant his knee in the small of his back, pull the rope 
towards him with all his might until it was twisted 
tight, and so to choke and kill him ; some, too, say 
that he drank bull's blood in imitation of Themis- 
tocles l and Midas ; but Livy says 2 that he had 
poison which he ordered to be mixed, and took the 
cup with these words : " Let us now at last put an 
end to the great anxiety of the Romans, who have 
thought it too long and hard a task to w r ait for the 
death of a hated old man. Nevertheless, Titus will 
riot bear away an enviable victory, nor one worthy 
of his forefathers, who sent secret information to 
Pyrrhus, when he was at war with them and a victor 
over them, of the poisoning that was going to be 
attempted." 3 

1 Of. the Themistocles, xxxi. 5. 

9 Livy, xxxix. 51. 8 Cf. the Pyrrhus, xxi. 1-3. 



XXI. OVTCO /mev TOV 'Avviftav diroOavelv \e- 
yov&iv. a7rayy6\0i>ru)v $e TOVTWV rrpos rrjv 
crvy/cXrjTov, OVK o\iyoLs eVa^j)? eSo^ev 6 Ttro? 

KCll TTplTTO<$ ajCLV KOI WyCtO?, 0)O~7Tep OpVlV VTCO 

ryijpws aTTrfji'a Kal K0\ovpov a 

poi']6ri TOV 'Avvifiav aTTOKTelvas, 

fyovTOS, a\\a Sia B6%ai>, &>? eVco^L'^o? roO Oavdrov 

2 ryevoiro. Kal rrjv 'A(>piKavov ^KrjTTiwvos KTI- 

/ca JL<aorviav eri 

, a)? ar)TTr)Tov ovra Kal ^>oj3epoi> ev 
Aiftvy KaraTToX-e/jbijcra^ 'Avviftav ovre %ij\acrv 381 
ovre e^Ttjaaro Trapa TMV 7ro\irS)v ) a\\a Kal Trpo 

es* oof? eoov eeLuxraro Kal 

rrjv fjid^rfv c77reySoyue^o? ov&ev e 

3 eTreveftij Trj TV^y TOV avSpos. \eyerai, Se av0t<$ 
eV 'E^ecrw o~v/ji/3a\iv avrovf Kal Trpwrov p,ev ev 
TW (rvfJurepiTrarelv TOV' Avviftov Trjv TrpocnJKOvcrav 

to/jLari, TCL^LV eKeivw 1 r jrpo\a(BovTo<s dve^G- 
Kal TrepiTrareiv a<eXw? TOV *A(f)piKavov, 
\6jov Trepl GTpaTrj'ywv efJUTeaovTOs Kal TOV 

oV KpOLTKTTOV a7TO(f)r)VafjLVOV ^fG^Ovkvai TWV 

'A\ej;ai'$pov, elra Hvppov, TpiTov 8e 
xei^LaaavTa TOV 'A<ppt,Kavbv eiTrelv, 

1 ' ?'' ' v f " XX 'A ' n 

L o , i fit] <J6 700 veviKrjKCiv; Kai TOV Avvipav, 

4 " OVK av, w ^Ktjrriayv," dvai, " TpiTov ej 
d\\a Trp&Tov eTTOLOviJirfv T&V o-Tparrj 

Taura 5 TOV ^KTTIWVO^ ol TroXXol 

Coraes and Bekker, after Reiske : eivat. Blass 
corrects to irpor}Kov<Tav %i> d. Ta|tr. 



XXI. Such are the accounts of the death of 
Hannibal. When the story of it was brought to the 
senate, many of them thought the conduct of Titus 
odious, officious, and cruel ; for he had killed Hanni- 
bal when he was like a bird permitted to live a tame 
and harmless life because too old to fly and without 
a tail, and there had been no necessity for his doing 
this, but he did it to win fame, that his name might 
be associated with the death of Hannibal. Men also 
pointed to the clemency and magnanimity of Scipio 
Africanus and admired it all the more, since after 
defeating a Hannibal who had not been conquered 
before and was filling Africa with fear, he neither 
drove him from the country nor demanded his 
surrender by his fellow citizens, nay, he actually 
gave him a kindly greeting when he held conference 
with him before the battle, and after the battle, in 
making terms of peace, he did not insult or trample 
upon the fortunes of his foe. 1 Moreover, we are told 
that the two men met again at Ephesus, and in the 
first place, that when, as they were walking about 
together, Hannibal took the side which more properly 
belonged to Scipio as the superior, Scipio suffered 
it and walked about without paying any heed to it ; 
and again, that when they fell to discussing generals 
and Hannibal declared Alexander to have been the 
mightiest of generals, and next to him Pyrrhus, and 
third himself, Scipio asked with a quiet smile, " And 
what wouldst thou have said if I had not conquered 
thee ? " To which Hannibal replied, " In that case, 
Scipio, I should not have counted myself third, but 
first of generals. " 2 

Such conduct on the part of Scipio most people 

1 Cf. Livy, xxx. 29 ff. 2 Cf. Livy, xxxv. 14. 



TOV TLTOV 009 d\\oTpia> veKp&> Trpoae- 
ra? ^etpa?. evioi $e rjcrav ol TO ireirpa- 
yfjievov eTraivovvres Kal TOV 'Avvi/3av, IX)? 6^77, 
5 Trvp rjyov/Jievoi beo^evov TOV PLTTL^OVTOS' jurjoe yap 

avTov TO cra)/j,a Pw^tatoi? KOI rrjv 

dv, d\\a TTJV BeivoTrjTa KCU Trjv 
piav yeyovevai (JLETO. T^? IJL$>VTOV TriKpias teal 
v ovSev dcfraipeiv TO yrjpas, a\X' 
Tr)V (frvcriv ev T&) ijdei, Trjv Se TV%rjv ov 
6/jLoiav, d~\J\a ^TaTflirTovaav eKKa\el- 
adcn rat? e\7TL,cri TT/JO? ra? eVt^ecrei? TOU? del TO* 
6 fjLKreiv TroXejjLouvTas. teal TO, vo~Tepd TTW? GTL 

/J,d\\OV 6/J,apTVprj(7 Tft) TtTW, TOVTO fieif *Apt(TTO- 

VIKOS o TOV KiOapwSov BLO, TTJV Eu/zeroD? S6av 
/jL7r~\.i](Ta<; aTracrav dTTOGTacrewv Kal TroXe^wz/ Trjv 
'A(riav, TOVTO Be Mt^/atSari;? /zera ^v\\av /cal 
Kal ToaovTov o\e6pov (JTpaTevfjLaTwv 
o-TpaTTjywv avOis eirl Aei>KO\\ov QK yrjs OJJLOV 

Ov firjv ovBe Yatov Mapiov T air CIVOT epos 'Avvi- 
/5a? eKeiTO. TO) /AW yap ySacrtXei/? ^>tX 
Kal /9to5 771^ avvJ}Qr]<s Kal SiaTpiftal Trepl vavs 

17T7TOVS Kal (TTpaTLWTWV 7TlfJL\eiaV Tfl? ^ 

c Pa)/jLaloi yeX&VTes a\wfievov KOI 
ev Aifivrj /jiTa /jiiKpbv eV 'Pco/^rj 
KOL fJLao~Tiyovfjievoi TrpocreKvvovv. OUT&)? 

1 In 131-130 B.C. 2 In 88-84 B.C. 



admired, and they blamed Titus for having laid 
violent hands on one whom another had slain. But 
some there were who praised what he had done and 
thought that Hannibal, as long as he was alive, was 
a consuming fire which needed only to be fanned ; 
for when he was in his prime, they said, it was not 
his body nor his arm that had been formidable to 
the Romans, but his ability and experience coupled 
with his ingrained bitterness and hostility, and from 
these naught is subtracted by old age, but the 
natural characteristics remain unchanged : whereas 
fortune does not remain the same, but changes sides, 
and summons with hope to fresh undertakings those 
whom hatred makes perpetual foes. And sub- 
sequent events were perhaps still more a justification 
of Titus ; for Aristonicus, the son of a harpist's 
daughter, used his reputed connexion with Eumenes 
to fill all Asia with wars and rebellions, 1 and Mithri- 
dates, notwithstanding his defeats by Sulla and 
Fimbria and his great losses in armies and generals, 2 
rose once more to be a formidable antagonist of 
Lucullus by land and sea. 8 

However, not even Hannibal was reduced to a 
lower level than Caius Marius. For Hannibal had a 
king as his friend, and his days as usual were occu- 
pied with ships and horses and the care of soldiers ; 
whereas Marius in his misfortunes was a laughing- 
stock to the Romans as he wandered about and 
begged his way in Africa, though after a little while 
he was in Rome with his axes at their necks and his 
rods at their backs, and they were humbly begging 
his mercy. So true is it that nothing in the present 

3 In 74-67 B.C. The argument is that if so great dangers 
to Rome were latent in Asia, the presence of Hannibal there 
was a menace. 



ovSev ovre futcpbv ovre /ueya rcov rrapovrwv 
TO /ji6\\oi> eariv, aXXa fiia rov 
8 r\evrrj /cal rov elvai. Bib Kai fyaa-iv evioi, Tirov 
OVK dcfS eavrov ravra Trpd^ai, Tre/jL^^ijvaL Se Trpecr- 
ftevrrjv /Aero, AevKiov ^,Kr)7riwvos, ovSev aXXo r/}? 
TTyoecr/^eia? e'^oucr?;? epyov 17 rbv* Avvifiov Odixnov. 
'E?rel & ovbe/Jiiav eri TOVTCOV KCLTOTTIV ovre 
7ro\LTiKrjv rov Ttrof Trpa!*iv OVT6 TroX.e/jLiKrjv laro- 
prjKaiJieVy d\\a KOI reXevrrj^ erv)(ev 
wpa rrjv avyKpicriv 


I. MeyeOei fJLev ovv rcov el? roi)? ^ 
evepyeaicov ovre <&i\07roi/jiva T/TW TrapaBdXXeiv 
ovre rrdvv TroXXou? rwv ^iXoTrot/^et'o? dfjieivovwv 
dvopa)!' afybv eVrt. Tot? pev <ydp "RXXtja-i 77/^09 
01 TroXe/iot, TW Se ov% ( ' E\\r]vi, teal vrrep 
' KOL ore ( &i\07TOLji / r]v dArjavwv rot? 

eavrov TroXtrat? dp,vveiv TroXe/iOf/xe^Oi? els 
drrrjpe, rore viKYjcras Ttro? ev yuecr?; rfj 
<&i~\.i7T7rov r)\ev0epov /cal rd Wvt] /cal 
2 aTracra?. et Se Tf? e^erd^oi ra? /za^a? e/ca- 
repov, TrXeiou? "EXX-^a? 

rj Ma/ce^o^a? T/TO9 r/ 

ia roivvv u/^aprrj/nara rov /j,ev 


is either small or great in view of what may happen 
in the future, but change, like life, can only end 
with death. For this reason some say that Titus 
did not take this step on his own account, but that 
he was sent as ambassador with Lucius Scipio, and 
their embassy had no other object than the death of 

We do not find that Titus was active after this, 
either as statesman or soldier, and his end was a 
peaceful one. It is therefore time to think of our 



I. ACCORDINGLY, in the magnitude of their bene 
factions to the Greeks, neither Philopoemen nor any 
one of the Greeks who were better men than 
Philopoemen is worthy of comparison with Titus. 
For they were Greeks and waged their wars against 
Greeks ; whereas Titus was not a Greek and waged 
war in behalf of Greeks ; and at a time when Philo- 
poemen was unable to defend his own countrymen 
from the attacks of their enemies, and had gone off' 
into Crete, at that very time Titus won a victory 
over Philip in the heart of Greece and set her 
peoples and all her cities free. And if we examine 
into the battles which each fought, we shall find 
that the Greeks slain by Philopoemen as general 
of the Achaeans were more in number than the 
Macedonians slain by Titus as helper of the Greeks. 

And then as to their errors, in the one they were 


TOV Be (f)i\oveiKias yeyove, KOI Trpo? opyrjv o 
evtcivrjTos, 6 Be teal BvcrTrapaiTrjTOS. Ttro? /j,v 382 
yap teal QiK'nnrw TO a^Lw/Jia rrjs 
e(f)v\aj;e teal rrpos AtrcoXou? evyvwfJLOvrjcre, 
Troifi^v &e TT}? Trar/oi'So? St' opyrjv d<pei\ero rrjv 
3 Trepioi/ciSa crvvre\eiav. en Be o /uez' TO!? eu 
TraOovcnv ael /SeySato?, o Se ^u/.tw Xucrai X a P iv 
Aafce&ai/jiovLcov yap evepyerr)? irpoTepov 
vcrrepov teal ra rei^rj tcarecrKa-^e teal rrjv 
pieKo^re teal reXo? avrr/v yuere/SaXe Kal 
TYJV 7ro\iTeiav. eSo/cei Be teal TOV jSiov 
opyf) irpoeaOai Kal $>L\oveiKLa, fxrj Kara tcaipdv, 
a\X' ogvrepov TOV SeovTOs ei? Mecrcrt]vr)v 67re%^6t?, 
ovy wa-rrep Ttro? TrdvTa \oyicr JHM teal TT/JO? acrcpd- 
\eiav a-TpaTrjyijaas. 

II. 'AXXa TC\r)6eL ye rroke/jicav teal Tpoiraiwv 77 
<&i\07roL/jLevos e^Treipia fieftaioTepa. TO> fj,ev yap 
TO, 7T/30? <$>i\nnrov etcpidrj Svoiv dycovoiv, 6 8e 
jjivpias yita^a? /taro/j^oocra? ovBe/^iav dju,(j)i(T/3iJT'r)crLV 

dTTo\e\onrev. ert 

o /xet' T^ 'PfouaLwv dtc^rjv e^ovcrrj 

, 6 Se Tt}9 c E\Xa8o9 ijSrj 
erraK/Jidcras, Bogav ea-^ev, coo-re TOV fiev VSiov, TOV 
Be KOIVOV epyov elvcu TO KaTOpOov^evov o pep 
yap r)px ev dyaOwv, 6 Be apywv dyaOovs errolei. 
2 Kal /JLijV TO ye 7rpos r 'E i \\rjvas TOVTtpyepeaOai 
dycovas OVK 


due to ambition, in the other to a spirit of conten- 
tion. For Titus preserved Philip's royal dignity and 
showed favour to the Aetolians ; whereas the anger 
of Philopoemen led him to rob his native city of its 
supremacy over the surrounding villages. And 
further, the one was always constant towards his 
beneficiaries, while the other, to indulge his wrath, 
was ever ready to cancel a kindness. For instance, 
though he had once been a benefactor of Sparta, he 
afterwards tore down her walls, reduced her terri- 
tory, and finally altered and destroyed her very 
constitution. And it would appear that he threw 
away his life in a fit of anger and contentiousness, 
by hastening to attack Messene before occasion 
offered and more quickly than was feasible ; for he 
did not, like Titus, conduct all his military opera- 
tions with deliberation and a due regard for safety. 

II. But surely the multitude of his wars and 
trophies put the military experience of Philopoemen 
on a firmer basis. For the campaign of Titus 
against Philip was decided by two conflicts, whereas 
Philopoemen was successful in countless battles and 
left no room for the claim that his victories were 
due to fortune rather than to skill. And besides, 
Titus, in his quest of fame, availed himself of the 
culminating power of Rome ; whereas Philopoemen 
flourished when Greece was already in declension. 
Therefore the success of Philopoemen was his own 
work, while that of Titus was the result of a com- 
munity of effort ; for the latter was commander of 
good soldiers, while the former, as commander, had 
to make his soldiers good. And surely the fact that 
Philopoemen's conflicts were with Greeks furnished 
a proof of his valour which was convincing even 



Trapel^ev ol? yap ofwia raXXa, TO> 
aperfj Kparovat. Kal yap Bij TroXe- 
Ei\\i]V(0v Kpijcrl Kal 

7roXeyu,?;cra9, rwv ^ev Travovpyordrcdv B6\(o, 

8* a\Ki/j,ooTdra)i> TO\/^TJ Trepieyevero. 

3 11/30? 8e TOUTO69 TtTO? fJ,l> % VTTOK61 [JiVWV 

evifca, %p(t)/j.i'os 6rr\icrp.oL^ KOL rd^ctrtv al? rrape- 
\a/3e, QiXoTTOi/jMiv Se ai)ro? eTreicreveyKcbi' /cal 
/j.ra/3a\ci)v TOV irepl ravra KOCT^OV, cocrre TO 
v<fi* ov p.v OVK ov evpfjaOai, ra> Be 
/SoijOelv. Kara ^elpa TOIVVV <&i\07roi- 
epya 7roX\a /cal /j,6yd\a, Oarepov 8e 
ov$v, d\\a Kal TWV AITO\&V rt? avrov 'Ap%e- 
STJ/J.OS eTrecrKCOTrTev w?, ore ai^ro? ecrTracryae^o? rrjv 
fj,d%aipav Wei Bpo/^w TT/OO? TOU? yu-a^o/zeVov? KOI 
TOU? o-f^ecrrwra? ra)i> MaxeSovcov, TOV TLTOV ra? 
%ipas et? Toy ovpavov uTrrta? avaTtivavros ecrra)- 
TO? Kal Trpoo-ev^o/jLevov. 

III. Kal firjv Ttrw fjiev ap^ovTi crvve/3^ Kal 
TtpecrfSevovTi irdvra Trpa^ai TCL KaXd, 
Be ov %eipova Trapecr^ev ovBe cnrpaKTOTepov 
ISl&Trjv rj (TTpaTijyov roi9 'A^aioT?. lBtct)TTj<; 
yap <bv Na/3t^ ege/BaXev IK Mecrcr?; 
yiOL9 r)\ev6epwcrev, ^106x779 Be Aio<pdv>]v TOV 
crTpaTtjybv Kal TLTOV eTrep^oju-evovs d7reK\icr 
2 S7rap-n;9 /cat AaKeBaifiioviovs Si 


though unfortunate : for where other things are 
equal, they prevail who surpass in valour. And so 
it was that although he carried on war with the 
most warlike of the Greeks, namely, the Cretans 
and Lacedaemonians, he surpassed the first in wiles, 
though they were most crafty, and the second in 
daring, though they were most brave. 

In addition to this it mav be said that Titus won 


his victories by using what lay ready to his hand, 
since he availed himself of styles of armour and 
formation which had come down to him, whereas 
Philopoemen won his successes by making contribu- 
tions and changes of his own in these matters, so 
that in the one case what was most essential for 
victory did not exist and had to be discovered, 
while in the other it lay ready for service. In 
the way of personal prowess, moreover, Philopoe- 
men performed much that was great, but Titus 
nothing at all ; nay, an Aetolian named Archedemus 
mocked at him because, when he himself had drawn 
his sword and was running at full speed against the 
Macedonians who were holding together and fight- 
ing, Titus was standing with his hands stretched up 
towards heaven and praying for help. 

III. And further, Titus was either a commander 
or an ambassador when he did all his noble deeds, 
whereas Philopoemen showed himself no less active 
and effective for the Achaeans when he was a 
private citizen than when he was their general. 
For it was as a private citizen that he expelled 
Nabis from Messene and set the Messenians free, 
and as a private citizen that he shut the gates of 
Sparta against the coming of Diophanes the general 
and Titus, and so saved the Lacedaemonians. 



jjj6/.toriKtji' cfu'cr/r <.' -\<sr or Kara rov* ro/^n's-, i\\\a 

T&vvofJMw ap%iv vjirtimiTO wpbs TO trvp 

ov $OfAVO$ Trapa rior ap%O/JLvoi>V\a/3lV TO ap\iv, 

, 07TOU A'a/pOs" t'nj, TOI' VTTfp 
tfrpOVOVVTO /.ia\\oi' )} Tor VTT" dVT&V ?;/ 

3 Vtrraiu /.itr ovr Tirov ra irpbs 

) ica\ 

TO. c 

- paov jap \apLta-fiai TOI$ ^to/ic'ro/? ?} 
avrtreivovra TOVS SwaTwrcDOV?. tVei Se 

ias TTO\- 

l ffrparrjyia^ are^avov, Ty > Pa>//.ai$) 
roi' &(Kaioo-i>i'))<; Kal ^J/CTTOT^TO? aTroS/Soj'Tes' oi< 



Having this natural gift of leadership, he not only 
knew how to use it in accordance with the laws, 
but also how to dominate the laws for the common 
good ; he did not think it necessary to be appointed 
commander by the people, but took them under his 
command when occasion required it, considering 
that he who took wise counsel in their behalf, rather 
than he who had been elected by them, was their 
real general. 

Nobly generous, then, was the clemency and 
humanity which Titus showed to the Greeks, but more 
nobly generous was the firmness and love of freedom 
with which Philopoemen opposed the Romans ; 
for it is easier to confer favours on suppliants than 
it is to vex with opposition those who are more 
powerful. But since, after this examination, the 
difference between the two men is hard to define, 
I leave it to my reader to say whether, if we award 
to the Greek the crown for military experience and 
generalship, and to the Roman that for justice and 
goodness of heart, we shall not make a fair decision. 





Acrotatus, 11, elder son of Cleo- 
menes King of the Lacedae- 
monians, died before coming to 
the throne. 

Acrotatus, 11, grandson of above, 
became King of the Lacedae- 
monians ca. 265 B.C. ; defeated 
and slain at Megalopolis, 11. 

Agathocleia, Mistress of Ptolemy 
IV Philopator, her influence, 125. 

Agesilaiis, uncle of King Agis, 
supported him in his reforms, 15 ; 
his motives corrupt, 17 ; ap- 
pointed ephor, 29 ; his deception 
of Agis, 31 ; tampered with the 
calendar, 35 ; driven into exile, 

Agesilaiis, king of the Lacedae- 
monians, his descendants in the 
royal line, 9. 

Agesipolis, 9, king of the Lace- 
daemonians in 395 B.C. 

Agesipolis, 9, king of the Lace- 
daemonians after Cleombrotus. 

Agesistrata, 11, mother of King 
Agis ; supported him in his re- 
forms, 17 ; her death, 47. 

Agiatis, wife of King Agis, married 
Cleomenes, son of King Leoni- 
das, 51 ; his great love for her, 
her death, 99. 

Agis, 9, third in descent from 
Agesilaiis, slain by Antipater at 
Megalopolis in 330 B.C. 

Agis, 9, king of the Lacedae- 
monians, sixth in descent from 

Agis, 9, king of the Lacedaemonians 
from 244 B.C. ; his qualities and 
achievements, passim in his Life. 

Amphares, betrayal of Agis, 41. 


Antigonos Doson, king of Macedon, 
intervened in Peloponnesian 
affairs by invitation of Aratus, 
83 ; captured Argos, 97 ; victory 
over Cleomenes at Sellasia, 113, 
267 ; captured Sparta, 119. 

Antiochus II, king of Syria, made 
war with the Romans in Greece 
in 191 B.C., 303, 349 ; defeated 
by Titus Flamininus, 365. 

Antipater, second son of Cassander, 
regent of Alexander, attempt to 
corrupt Phocion, 5 ; slew Agis 
at Megalopolis in 330 B.C., 9. 

Aratus, general of the Achaean 
League, was assisted by Agis in 
opposing the Aetolian invasion 
of the Peloponnesus, 33 ; attempt 
to bring Sparta into the League, 
55 ; captured Mantineia, 61 ; 
refused the generalship of the 
League after the defeat at Dymae, 
81 ; invited the intervention of 
Antigonus, 83 ; dependence of 
the League upon Macedonian 
help during his life, 275. 

Arcesilaiis, betrayed Agis, 41. 

Archidamia, 11, grandmother of 
King Agis ; supported him in his 
reforms, 17 ; her death, 47. 

Archidamus, son of Agesilaiis king 
of the Lacedaemonians, slain by 
the Messapians at Mandurium in 
Italy in 338 B.C., 9. 

Archidamus, brother of King Agis, 
placed on the throne of Sparta by 
Aratus, but put to death by the 
murderers of Agis, 61. 

Areus, 11, son of Acrotatus, king 
of the Lacedaemonians, 11 ; fell 
in battle at Corinth about 265 

Argos, occupied by Cleomenes, 89 ; 



successfully revolted from Cleo- 

menes and joined Antigonus, 

95, 97. 
Aristomenes, king of the Messen- 

ians, wounded and slew the 

Spartan king Theopompus in 

battle, 49. 
Attalus Pliilometor, king of Per- 

gamum, made the Roman people 

his heir, 177. 


Belbina, precinct of Athena on the 
borders of Arcadia and Lace- 
daemon, 57. 


Cassandra, daughter of Priam, 
supposed to give oracles as Pasi- 
pliae at Thalamae in Laconia, 21. 

Centaurs, begotten by Ixion, who 
embraced a cloud, not Hera, 3. 

Chalcis, saved by Titus Flamininus, 

Chilpnis, daughter of Leonidas and 
wife of King Cleombrotus, her 
loyalty to both father and hus- 
band, 37. 

Claudius, Appius, marries his 
daughter to Tiberius Claudius, 

Cleombrotus, 9, king of the Lace- 
daemonians after his brother 

Cleombrotus, only Spartan king to 
be slain in battle, 49. 

Cleombrotus, son-in-law of Leoni- 
das, became king of the Lace- 
daemonians in his stead ca. 242 
B.C., 29 ; was deposed, 37 ; his 
life spared by the supplications 
of his wife Chilonis, 40. 

Cleomenes, 9, king of the Lace- 
daemonians after his brother 

Cleomenes, son of Leonidas, 
married the wife of Agis, 51 ; 
came to the throne of Sparta in 
235 B.C., 53 ; his character and 
achievements, passim in his Life. 

Cleonymus, 11, son of Cleomenes 
king of the Lacedaemonians, did 
not succeed to the throne. 

Corinth, occupied by Cleomenes, 

Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, 

her demeanour after the death 

of her sons, 241. 
Cratesicleia. mother of Cleomenes, 

61 ; went to Egypt as host.-igc, 

99; executed by Ptolemy, !;>'.). 
Cynoacepbalae, defeat of Philip V 

by Titus Flamininus, 341 11'. 


Daphne, daughter of Amyclas, 
fleeing from Apollo, was meta- 
morphosed into a tree, becoming 
the oracular Pasiphae, 21. 

Pemochares, betrayer of Agis, 41. 

Diophanes, general of the Achaean 
League, opposed to Philopoemen, 

Drusus, I.ivius, popular tribune 
with Cnius (Jracchus, took the 
side of the Senate in the conflict 
with Caius, 215. 

Dymae, battle at, between Cleo- 
menes and the Arcadians, 81. 


Ectrephes, ephor at Sparta, cut 
out two of the ninn strings in the 
harp of Phrynis, 25. 

Epitadeus, ephor at Sparta, changed 
the law regulating inheritance, 

Eudamidas, 9, king of the Lace- 
daemonians after the death of 
A sis in :>IH> B.C. 

Eudamidas, 9, king of the Lace- 
daemonians after Archidamus. 


Flamininus, Titus, defeated Philip 
V of Macedon at Cynoscephalae, 
293 ; became jealous of Philo- 
poemen, 297 ; his character and 
achievements, passim in his Life. 



Fulvius Flaccus, friend and sup- 
porter of Cains Gracchus. 21 ( J ; 
murdered by the agents of Opi- 
ruius, 235 ff. ; his high char- 
acter, 239. 


Gracchus, Cains, character and 
achievements, passim in his Life. 

Gracchus, Tiberius, character and 
achievements, passim in his Life. 


Hannibal, Carthaginian general, 
stirred Antiochus against the 
Romans, 347 : his death through 
the persecution of Titus Flamin- 
inus, 381. 

Hera, loved by Ixion, 3. 

Hippomedon, supported the re- 
forms of King Agis, 17. 

Ixion, embraced a cloud instead of 
Hera and begat the Centaurs, 3. 

Leuctra, rout of the Arcadians by 
Cleomenes there, 61. 

Lycurgus, founder of the Spartan 
institutions, 13 ; his memory 
detested by Spartans in later 
times, 15. 

Lysander, supported the reforms of 
King Agis, 15; became ephor, 
and introduced a bill for the 
abolition of debts, 19 ; indicted 
Leonidas, 25 ; was indicted in 
turn, 29. 


Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta, 
defeated and killed by Philo- 
poemen at Mantineia, 281 ff. 

Mancinus, Caius, campaign against 
Numantia, 153. 

Mandrocleidas, supported the re- 
forms of King Agis, 15 ; indicted 
for this, 29. 

Megalopolis, captured by Cleo- 
menes, 103. 

Megistonoiis, step-father of King 
Cleomenes of Sparta, assisted the 
latter in overthrowing the 
ephors, 65. 

Laelius, Caius, attempted without 
success to remedy the social and 
economic condition of the 
Romans, 161. 

Leonidas. king of the Lacedae- 
monians, eighth in descent from 
the Pausanias who defeated 
Mardonius at Plataea in 488 B.C., 

Leonidas, 11, became king of the 
Lacedaemonians ca. 256 B.C., 
luxury -loving and weak ; assisted 
the rich in opposing the reforms 
of Agis, 19, 24 ; was indicted for 
having children by a foreign 
woman, 27 ; deposed as king 
about 242 B.C., 29 ; was brought 
back to Sparta by his partisans, 
37 ; expelled the ephors from 
office, 41. 

Nabis, tyrant of Sparta, yielded to 
Philopoemen at Messene, 289 ; 
defeated Philopoemen at sea, 
293 ; was defeated at Sparta by 
Philopoemen, 295 ; assassinated, 

Xasica, P. Cornelius Scipio, leader 
of the Senate in the murder of 
Tiberius Gracchus. 193 ; in- 
curred thereby the popular 
hatred, 195. 

Nicanor. Messenian, enemy of King 
Cleomenes of Sparta, plotted 
against him in Egypt, 129. 

Octavius, Marcus, popular tribune., 
opposed the masures of Tiberius 
Gracchus, 167 ; was ejected from 
his office by Tiberius, 173. 



Opimius, Lucius, as consul led in 
the opposition to Caius Gracchus, 
223, 227, 229, 233 ; restored the 
Temple of Concord, 239 ; guilty 
of corruption, 239. 

him asylum after his defeat at 
Sellasia, 123. 

Ptolemy IV, Philopator, his char- 
acter and his attitude toward 
King Cleomenes of Sparta, 125. 

Pasiphae", her temple and oracle at 
Thalamae in Laconia ; she was 
daughter of Atlas and mother by 
Zeus of Hermes, or else was 
another name for Cassandra, 
daughter of Priam, or else 
identical with Daphne, 21. 

Pausanias, 9, king of the Lace- 
daemonians, defeated Mardonius 
at Plataea in 488 B.C. ; his suc- 
cessors on the throne down to 
Agis, 9. 

Pausanias, 9, son of Pleistoanax, 
king of the Lacedaemonians, 
went hi exile to Tegea. 

Pherecydes, though a foreigner, was 
honoured in Sparta, 25. 

Philip V, king of Macedon, opposed 
Philopoemen, 287 ; the campaign 
of Titus Flamininus against him, 
329 ff., 339 ff. ; his defeat at 
Cynoscephalae, 341 ff. 

Philopoemen, successor of Aratus as 
leader of the Achaean League, his 
character and achievements, 
passim in his Life; aroused the 
jealousy of Titus Flamininus, 
361 ; kept Megalopolis faithful to 
the League, 105, 265. 

Phrynis, harpist, was obliged in 
Sparta to modify his harp of nine 
strings, 25. 

Pleistoanax, king of the Lace- 
daemonians after his father 
Pausanias, 9. 

Ptolemy II, Euergetes, aided King 
Cleomenes of Sparta, 99 ; gave 


Sellasia, decisive defeat of King 
Cleomenes there by Antigonus, 
113, 267. 

Sosibius, minister of Ptolemy IV, 
Philopator, hostile to King 
Cleomenes of Sparta, 125. 

Sparta, the two lines of kings in 
descent from Agesilaus and Pau- 
sanias, 9 ff. ; after its overthrow 
of Athens became wealthy and 
corrupt, 11 ; decline in Spartan 
families and concentration of the 
wealth in the hands of a few. 15 ; 
its wealth in the hands of the 
women, 17 ; economic and social 
condition when Cleomenes came 
to the throne in 235 B.C., 54 ; 
defeated by Philopoemen and 
forced into the Achaean League, 

Terpander, though an alien, was 
honoured at Sparta, 25. 

Thalamae, in Laconia, seat of the 
oracle of Pasiphae, 21. 

Thales, though a foreigner, was 
honoured at Sparta, 25. 

Theopompus, king of the Lace- 
daemonians, wounded (or slain) 
by Aristoiuenes in battle, 49. 

Xenares, friend of King Cleomenes 
of Sparta, 55. 





Latin Authors 

AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS. Translated by J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. 

(3rd Imp., revised.) 

ton(1566). Revised by S. Gaselee. (8th Imp.) 
S. AUGUSTINE: CITY OF GOD. 7 Vols. Vol. I. G. E. 

ST. AUGUSTINE. CONFESSIONS OF. W. Watts (1631). 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 1th Imp., Vol. II. 6th Imp.) 

ST. AUGUSTINE, SELECT LETTERS. J. H. Baxter. (2nd Imp.) 
AUSONIUS. H. G. Evelyn White. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
BEDE. J.E.King. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

Rev. H. F. Stewart and E. K. Rand. (th Imp.) 


CAESAR: CIVIL WARS. A. G. Peskett. (6th Imp ) 
CAESAR: GALLIC WAR. H.J.Edwards, (llth Imp.) 

and W. D. Hooper. (3rd Imp.) 
CATULLUS. F. W. Cornish; TIBULLUS. J. B. Postgate; PER- 

VIGILIUM VENERIS. J. W. Mackail. (\3th Imp.) 
CELSUS: DE MEDICINA. W. G. Spencer. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 

3rd Imp. revised, Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
CICERO: BRUTUS, and ORATOR. G. L. Hendrickson and H. M. 

Hubbell. (3rd Imp.) 

ORATORIA. H. Rackhara (With De Oratore. Vol. II.) 

(2nd Imp.) 

CICERO: DE FINIBUS. H. Rackham. (4th Imp. revised.) 
CICERO: DE INVENTIONS, etc. H. M. Hubbell. 

(3rd Imp.) 

CICERO: DE OFFICIIS. Walter Miller. (1th Imp.) 
CICERO: DE ORATORE. 2 Vols. E. W. Sutton and H. Rack- 
ham. (2nd Imp.) 

Clinton W. Keyes. (4th Imp.) 

W. A. Falconer. (6th Imp.) 

Louis E. Lord. (3rd Imp. revised.) 

CICERO: LETTERS TO ATTICUS. E. O. \Vinstedt. 3 Vols. 

(Vol. I. lih Imp., Vols. II. and III. 4th Imp.) 
CICERO: LETTERS TO His FRIENDS. W. Glynn Williams. 3 

Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 4th Imp., Vol. 111. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
CICERO: PHILIPPICS. W. C. A. Ker. (4th Imp. revised.) 


PRO RABIRIO. H. Grose Hodge. (3rd imp.) 

BALBO. R. Gardner. 


REGE DEIOTARO. N. H. Watts. ('3rd Imp.) 

COMOEDO, CONTRA RULLUM. J. H. Freese. ('3rd Imp.) 
CICEBO: VERRINE ORATIONS. L. H. G. Greenwood. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I. '3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
CLAUDIAN. M. Platnauer. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

E. S. Forster and E. Heft'ner. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 

(2nd Imp.) 
FLORUS. E. S. Forster and CORNELIUS NEPOS. J. C. Rolfe. 

(2nd Imp.) 

M. B. McElwain. (2nd Imp.) 
FRONTO: CORRESPONDENCE. C. R. Haines. 2 Vols. (3rd 

GELLIUS, J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vols. II. and 

III. 2nd lmp.\ 
HORACE: ODES and EPODES. C. E. Bennett. (]4th Imp. 


(9th Imp. revised.) 

JEROME: SELECTED LETTERS. F. A. Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
JUVENAL and PERSIUS. G.G.Ramsay. (Sth Imp.) 
LIVY. B. O. Foster, F. G. Moore, Evan T. Sage, and A. C. 

Schlesinger and R. M. Geer (General Index). 14 Vols. (Vol. 

I. 5th Imp., Vol. V. 4th Imp.. Vols. II.-IV., VI. and VII., 

IX.-XII. 3rd Imp., Vol. VIII., 2nd Imp. revised.) 
LUCAN. J. D. Duff. (4th Imp.) 
LUCRETIUS. W. H. D. Rouse. (1th Imp. revised.) 
MARTIAL. W. C. A. Ker. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vol. II. 

4th Imp. revised.) 


NEMESIANUS, AVIANUS, and others with " Aetna " and the 

" Phoenix." J. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Duff. ('3rd 



(4tfi Imp.) 

OVID: FASTI. Sir James G. Frazer. (2nd Imp.) 
OVID: HEROIDES and AMORES. Grant Showerman. (1th Imp.) 
OVID: METAMORPHOSES. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 1 \th 

Imp., Vol. II. 10th Imp.) 

OVID: TRISTIA and Ex PONTO. A. L. Wheeler. (4lh Imp.) 

W. H. D. Rouse. (9th Imp. revised.) 
PLAUTUS. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. (Vol. I. 6th Imp., II. 5th Imp., 

III. th Imp., IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
PLINY: LETTERS. Melmoth's Translation revised by W. M. L. 

Hutchinson. 2 Vols. (1th Imp.) 
PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY. H. Rackham and W. H. S. Jones. 

10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. and IX. H. Rackham. Vols. VI. and 

VII. W. H. S. Jones. (Vol. I. 4A Imp., Vols. II. and III. 

3rd Imp., Vol. IV. 2nd Imp.) 
PROPERTIUS. H. E. Butler. (1th Imp.) 
PRUDENTIUS. H. J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 
QUINTILIAN. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and IV. ith 

Imp., Vols. II. and III. 3rd Imp.) 
REMAINS OF OLD LATIN. E. H. Warmington. 4 vols. Vol. I. 


PACUVIUS, Accius.) Vol. III. (LuciLius and LAWS OF XII 

SALLUST. J. C. Rolfe. (^th Imp. revised.) 
SCRIPTORES HISTORIAE AuousTAE. D. Magio. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 

3rd Imp. revised, Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 

(Vol. I. 4lh Imp., Vols. II. and III. 3rd Imp.) 
SENECA: MORAL ESSAYS. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. (Vol. II. 

<lth Imp., Vols. I. and III. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
SENECA: TRAGEDIES. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. Uh Imp. 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp. revised.) 

(Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
SILIUS ITALICUS. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp. 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 

STATIUS. J. H. Mozley. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
SUETONIUS. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 1th Imp., Vol. II. 

6th Imp. revised.) 

GERMANIA. Maurice Hutton. (1th Imp.) 

4 Vols.. (Vols. I. and II. th Imp. Vols. III. and IV. 3rd Imp.) 
TERENCE. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 8th Imp., Vol. 

II. 1th Imp.) 

MINUCIUS FELIX. G. H. Rendall. (2nd Imp.) 
VALERIUS FLACCUS. J. H. Mozley. (3rd Imp. revised.) 


VARRO: DE LINGUA LATIN A. R. G. Kent. 2 Vola. (3rd Imp. 


Shipley. (2nd Imp.) 
VIRGIL. H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vote. (Vol. I. IQlh Imp., Vol. II. 

I4:th Imp. revised.) 
VITRUVIUS: DE ARCHITECTURA. F. Granger. 2 Vola. (Vol.1. 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 

Greek Authors 

ACHILLES TATIUS. S. Gaselee. (2nd Imp.) 


A. F. Scholfield. 

Illinois Greek Club. (2nd Imp.) 
AESCHINES. C. D. Adams. (3rd Imp.) 
AESCHYLUS. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. llh Imp., Vol. 

II. 6th Imp. revised.) 

and F. H. Fobes. 

APOLLODORUS. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
APOLLONIUS RHODIUS. R. C. Seaton. (5th Imp.) 
THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

8th Imp., Vol. II. Gth Imp.) 
APPIAN: ROMAN HISTORY. Horace White. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 

4th Imp., Vols. 1I.-1V. 3rd Imp.) 
ARISTOPHANES. Benjamin Bickloy Rogers. 3 Vols. Versa 

trans. (5th Imp.} 

ARISTOTLE: ART OF RHETORIC. J. H. Freese. (3rd Imp.) 

VICES AND VIRTUES. H. Rackham. (3rd Imp.) 


ARISTOTLE: METAPHYSICS. H. Trodennick. 2 Vols. (ith Imp.) 
ARISTOTLE: MINOR WORKS. W. S. Hett. On Colours, On 

Things Heard, On Physiognomies, On Plants, On Marvellous 

Things Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 

On Situations and Names of Winds, On Meliasus, Xenophanes, 

and Gorgias. (2wl Imp.) 

revised. ) 

strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). (ith Imp.) 
ARISTOTLE: ON THE HEAVENS. W. K. C. Guthrio. (3rd Imp. 

revised. ) 

W. S. Hett. (2nd Imp. revised.) 

ARISTOTLE: ORGANON Categories, On Interpretation, Prior 

Analytics. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. (3rd Imp.) 
ARISTOTLE: ORGANON Posterior Analytics, Topics. H. Tre- 
dennick and E. S. Forster. 
ARISTOTLE : ORGANON On Sophistical Refutations. 

On Coming to be and Passing Away, On the Cosmos. E. S. 

Forster and D. J. Furley. 

PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS. E. S. Forster. (4</j Imp. revised.) 
ARISTOTLE: PHYSICS. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Cornford. 

2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp., Vol. II. '3rd Imp.) 

DEMETRIUS ON STYLE. W. Rhys Roberts. (5th Imp. revised.) 
ARISTOTLE: POLITICS. H. Rackham. (4th Imp. revised.) 
ARISTOTLE: PROBLEMS. W.S.Hett. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp. revised.) 

Vol. II.). H. Rackham. 

Robson. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 

(Vols. I.-IV., VI. and VII. 2nd Imp., Vol. V. 3rd Imp.) 
ST. BASIL: LETTERS. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
CALLIMACHUS, Hymns and Epigrams, and LYCOPHRON. A. W. 

Mair; ARATUS. G. R. Mair. (2nd. Imp.) 
CLEMENT of ALEXANDRIA. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. (3rd Imp.) 


DAPHNIS AND CHLOE. Thornley's Translation revised by 

J. M. Edmonds; and PARTHENIUS. S. Gaselee. (Uh %mp.) 
TIONS. I.-XVII. AND XX. J. H. Vince. (2nd Imp.) 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (3rd Imp. revised.) 


(2nd Imp.) 

A. T. Murray. (Vol. IV. 3rd Imp., Vols. V. and VI. 2nd 


and LETTERS. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio CASSIUS: ROMAN HISTORY. E. Cary. 9 Vols. (Vols. I. 

and II. 3rd Imp., Vols. Ill .-IX. 2nd Imp.) 
Dio CHRYSOSTOM. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. 6 Vols. 

(Vols. I.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
DIODORUS SICULUS. 12 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 

Vol. XL F.Walton. (Vol. 1. 3rd Imp., Vols. II.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
DIOGENES LAERTIUS. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (5th Imp.). 

man's translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. (Vols. I.-V. 

2nd Imp.) 

EFICTETUS. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
EURIPIDES. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vols. 1. and IV. 1th Imp., Vol. 

II. 8th Imp., Vol. III. 6th Imp.) Verse trans. 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 5th Imp.) 
THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. W. R. Paton. o Vols. (Vols. I .-IV. 

5th Imp., Vol. V. 3rd Imp.) 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 

J. M. Edmonds. (1th Imp. revised.) 
GREEK MATHEMATICAL WORKS. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. (3rd 


HERODOTUS. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vols. 

II. and III. 5th Imp., Vol. IV. 3rd Imp.) 

(7 th Imp. revised and enlarged.) 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., 

Vols. II.-IV. 3rd Imp.) 

HOMER: ILIAD. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (1th Imp.) 
HOMER: ODYSSEY. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (8th Imp.) 
ISAEUS. E. W. Forster. (3rd Imp.) 
ISOCRATES. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 

(2nd Imp.) 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
JOSEPHUS. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VII. (Vol. V. 4th Imp., Vol. VI. 3rd Imp., Vols. I.-IV. 

and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
JULIAN Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 

3rd Imp., Vol. III. 2nd Imp.) 
LUCIAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. (Vols. I. and 

II. 4th Imp., Vol. III. 3rd Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
LYRA GRAECA. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp. 

Vol. II revised and enlarged, and III. 4th Imp.) 
LYSIAS. W. R. M. Lamb. (3rd Imp.) 

Robbins. (3rd Imp.) 

MARCUS AURELIUS. C. R. Eainos. (4th Imp. revised.) 
MENANDER. F. G. Allinson. (3rd Imp. revised.) 


J. O. Burrt, 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Im-p.) 

NONNOS: DIONYSIACA. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

Edgar. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) LITERARY SELECTIONS. 

(Poetry). D. L. Page. (3rd Imp.) 




Vols. and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

(Vols. I. and III. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
PHILO. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. (Vols. I-IL, V.- 

VII., 3rd Imp., Vol. IV. 4th Imp., Vols. III., VIII., and IX. 

2nd Imp.) 
PHILO: two supplementary Vols. (Translation only.) Ralph 


Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 

A. Fairbanks. (2nd Imp.) 


\\ilmer Cave Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
PINDAR. Sir J. E. Sandys. (Sth Imp. revised.) 

THEAGES, MINOS and EPINOMIS. W. R. M. Lamb. (2nd 


HIPPIAS. H. N. Fowler. (4th Imp.) 

H. N. Fowler, (llth Imp.) 

Lamb. (3rd Imp. revised.) 

PLATO: LAWS. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 

Imp. revised.) 
PLATO: REPUBLIC. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., 

Vol. II. 4th Imp.) 

Lamb. (4th Imp.) 

PLATO: THEAETETUS and SOPHIST. H. N. Fowler. (4th Imp.) 

Rev. R. G. Bury. (3rd Imp.) 
PLUTARCH: MORALIA. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt. 

Vol. VI. W. C. Holmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 

B. Einarson. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XII. H. 
Cherniss and W. C Helmbold. (Vols. I .-VI. and X. 2nd Imp.) 


(Vols. I., II., VI., VII., and XI. 3rd Imp., Vols. III.-V. and 

VIII.-X. 2nd Imp.) 

POLYBIUS. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

(Vol. 1. 3rd Imp., Vols. II.-VII. 2nd Imp.) 

QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS. A. S. Way. Verse trans. (3rd Imp.) 
SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th 

Imp., Vols. II. and III. 2nd Imp.) 
SOPHOCLES. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. KM Imp. Vol. II. 

Imp.) Verse trans. 

STBABO: GEOGRAPHY. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. L, V., 

and VIII. 3rd Imp., Vola. II., III., IV., VI., and VII. 2nd Imp.) 

etc. A. D. Knox. (3rd Imp.\ 

Bart. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
THUCYDIDES. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vols. 

II. and IV. 4th Imp., Vol. III., 3rd Imp. revised.) 
XENOPHON: CYROPAEDIA. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 

4th Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. ( Vols. I. and III 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 4th Imp.) 

(3rd Imp.) 
XENOPHON: SCRIPTA MINORA. E. C. Marchanfc. (3rd Imp.) 


Greek Authors 

PLOTINUS: A. H. Armstrong. 

Latin Authors 





















CLAUDIAN. 2 vols. 











LIVY. 14 vols. 



MARTIAL. 2 vols. 

MINOR LATIN POETS: from Publilius Syrus to Rutilius 

Namatianus, including Grattius Calpurnius, Nemesianus, 

Avianus, and others 





PLAUTUS. 5 vols. 

PLINY: LETTERS. 2 vols. 

PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY. 10 vols. Vols. I- VII and IX 


PRUDENTIUS. 2 vols. 

QUINTILIAN. 4 vols. 









STATIUS. 2 vols. 

SUETONIUS. 2 vols. 



TERENCE. 2 vols. 




VIRGIL. 2 vols. 
VITRUVIUS. 2 vols. 



LYRA GRAECA. 3 vols. 










PHILO. 10 vols. Vols. I-IX. AND 2 supplementary vols. (translation only 










PLATO: LAWS. 2 vols. 


PLATO : REPUBLIC. 2 vols. 




PLUTARCH: MOR ALIA. 15 vols. Vols. I-VII, X and XII 

POLYBIUS. 6 vols. 

PROCOPIUS. 7 vols. 




SOPHOCLES. 2 vols. 





THUCYDIDES. 4 vols. 



AUSONIUS. 2 vols. 



The New York Public Library 

455 Fifth Avenue 
NewYork NY !0016 



Descriptive pamphlet on application